Skip to main content

Open-design: A state of the art review

  • Étienne Boisseau (a1), Jean-François Omhover (a1) and Carole Bouchard (a1)

The ‘open approach’ is rooted in the open-source and free-software movements. Its application has spread to more fields than computer engineering. Product design is impacted as well: we observe new stakeholders and practices challenging current structured design processes and leading to industrial successes. Open-design appears to be promising yet disruptive. Moreover, its distinctive features remain unclear.

This paper aims to popularize this new concept, as well as to give both researchers and practitioners an overview of current research on open-design, and its consequences on design. For this, we conducted a systematic quantitative bibliometric analysis of 624 entries corresponding to the keyword ‘open-design’ in the Scopus database. This supports a qualitative synthesis of scientific literature, enabling us to summarize practices falling under the umbrella term ‘open-design’. As such, this paper traces the evolution of product design and the open approach. It also analyzes the impact of open-design on the design process as presented in the scientific literature. Finally, this paper develops a typology of open-design of tangible artifacts that distinguishes among three currently reported varieties of practice: do-it-yourself, meta-design, and industrial ecosystems. As the major contribution of this paper, this typology is developed as a final discussion.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Open-design: A state of the art review
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Open-design: A state of the art review
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Open-design: A state of the art review
      Available formats
Distributed as Open Access under a CC-BY 4.0 license (
Corresponding author
Email address for correspondence:
Hide All
Abdelkafi, N., Blecker, T. & Raasch, C. 2009 From open source in the digital to the physical world: A smooth transfer? Management Decision 14 (10), 16101632.
Abras, C., Maloney-Krichmar, D. & Preece, J. 2004 User-centered design. In Encyclopedia of Human–Computer Interaction (ed. Bainbridge, W.), vol. 37.4, pp. 445456. Sage Publications.
Affonso, C. A. C. & Amaral, D. C. 2015 Boundary objects in open source design: Experiences from OSE community. In Proceedings of ICED 2015 (July 27–30, 2015) (ed. Weber, C. et al. ), vol. 3, pp. 447456. ITA.
Agrawal, R. & Srikant, R. et al. 1994 Fast algorithms for mining association rules. In Proceedings 20th International Conference Very Large Data Bases, VLDB, vol. 1215, pp. 487499. Morgan Kaufmann.
Aitamurto, T., Holland, D. & Hussain, S. 2013 Three layers of openness in design: Examining the open paradigm in design research. In Proceedings of ICED 2013 (August 19–22, 2013) (ed. Lindemann, U. et al. ), vol. 1, pp. 179190. KOR.
Allen, R. C. 1983 Collective invention. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 4 (1), 124.
Anderson, C. 2014 Makers: The New Industrial Revolution, 1st ed. Crown Business.
Atkinson, P. 2011 Orchestral manoeuvres in design. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 2431. BIS Publishers.
Atzori, L., Iera, A. & Morabito, G. 2010 The internet of things: A survey. Computer Networks 54 (15), 27872805.
Avital, M. 2011 The generative bedrock of open design. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 4858. BIS Publishers.
Balka, K., Raasch, C. & Herstatt, C. 2009 Open source enters the world of atoms: A statistical analysis of open design. First Monday 14 (11), doi:10.5210/fm.v14i11.2670.
Balka, K., Raasch, C. & Herstatt, C. 2010 How open is open source? – software and beyond. Creativity and Innovation Management 19 (3), 248256.
Barrett, T. & Suzek, T. O. et al. 2005 NCBI GEO: Mining millions of expression profiles – database and tools. Nucleic acids research 33 (Suppl 1), D562D566.
Benkler, Y. & Nissenbaum, H. 2006 Commons-based peer production and virtue. Journal of Political Philosophy 14 (4), 394419.
Benyayer, L.-D. 2014 Les open-models sont en train de tout changer, êtes-vous prêt? In Open Models (Ed. by Without Model), pp. 1227.
Berry, G. 2008 Pourquoi et comment le monde devient numéique. Fayard.
Bertrand, P., Juliot, E., Fermigier, S., Soroko, M. & Viné, O. 2014 Modèles économiques. Les livrets bleus du logiciel libre.
Bilbija, D. B. & Biezad, D. J. 1998 Dynamic analysis of aircraft designs using archangel 98. In ASEE 1998 Annual Conference (June 28–July 1, 1998), vol. 3 ASEE, pp. 3.226.1–3.226.5.
Blanc, M. F. H.2011 Open source innovation in physical products: Advantages and disadvantages, a corporate perspective. MA thesis, QUT.
Bogers, M. & West, J.2010 Contrasting Innovation Creation and Commercialization within Open, User and Cumulative Innovation. Working Paper (Working paper, to be presented at the Academy of Management conference, Technology and Innovation Management division, Montréal, August 10, 2010).
Bonnet, C. & Lalanne, R. 2014 Open Data: De la killer-app à l’ économie des plates-formes. In Open Models (Ed. by Without Model), pp. 6873.
Bonvoisin, J. & Boujut, J.-F. 2015 Open design platform for open source product development: Current state and requirements. In Proceedings ICED 2015 (July 27–30, 2015) (ed. Weber, C. et al. ), vol. 8, pp. 1120. ITA.
Boothroyd, G. 1994 Product design for manufacture and assembly. Computer-Aided Design 26 (7), 505520.
Bouchard, C., Kim, J. E., Omhover, J. F. & Aoussat, A. 2010 Cognitive designers activity study, formalization, modelling, and computation in the inspirational phase. CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology 3 (3), 218226.
Bouchard, C., Omhover, J.-F., Mougenot, C., Aoussat, A. & Westerman, S. J. 2008 TRENDS: A content-based information retrieval system for designers. In Design Computing and Cognition ’08, pp. 593611. Springer.
Bouchez, H. 2012 Pimp your home: Or why design caperspective exclusive – from a consumer perspective. The Design Journal 15 (4), 461477.
Brabham, D. C. 2008 Crowdsourcing as a model for problem solving. An introduction and cases. Convergence 14 (1), 7590.
Buchanan, R. 1992 Wicked problems in design thinking. Design Issues 8 (2), 521.
Buitenhuis, A. J. & Pearce, J. M. 2012 Open-source development of solar photovoltaic technology. Energy for Sustainable Development 16, 379388.
Bull, G. & Groves, J. 2009 The democratization of production. Learning & Leading with Technology 37 (3), 3637.
Business Wire2016. Red Hat Reports Fourth Quarter and Fiscal Year 2016 Results,
Carballo, J.-A. 2005 Open HW, open design SW, and the VC ecosystem dilemma. In Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on System-on-Chip for Real-Time Applications (July 20–24, 2005), pp. 36. IEEE.
Carlile, P. R. 2002 A pragmatic view of knowledge and boundaries: Boundary objects in new product development. Organization Science 13 (4), 442455.
Cavalcanti, G. 2013 Is it a hackerspace, makerspace, techshop, or fablab? Make 22,
Chesbrough, H. W. 2003 Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Harvard Business Press.
Chesbrough, H. W. & Appleyard, M. M. 2007 Open innovation and strategy. California Management Review 50 (1), 5776.
Cowan, R. & Jonard, N. 2003 The dynamics of collective invention. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 52 (4), 513532.
Cross, N. 2001 Designerly ways of knowing: Design discipline versus design science. Design Issues 17 (3), 4955.
Cross, N. 2007 Forty years of design research. Design Studies 28 (1), 14.
Dasgupta, P. & David, P. A. 1994 Toward a new economics of science. Research Policy 23 (5), 487521, Special Issue in Honor of Nathan Rosenberg.
De Couvreur, L., Dejonghe, W., Detand, J. & Goossens, R. 2013 The role of subjective well-being in co-designing open-design assistive devices. International Journal of Design 7 (3), 5770.
De Couvreur, L. & Goossens, R. 2011 Design for (every)one: Co-creation as a bridge between universal design and rehabilitation engineering. CoDesign 7 (2), 107121.
Eckert, C. & Boujut, J.-F. 2003 The role of objects in design co-operation: Communication through physical or virtual objects. Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12, 145151.
Ehn, P. 1993 Scandinavian design: On participation and skills. In Participatory Design (ed. Schuler, D. & Namioka, A.), pp. 4178. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ergonomics of human–system interaction – Part 210Human-centred design for interactive systems 2010. Standard. Version 2010. Geneva, CHE: International Organization for Standardization.
European Commision2016 Guidelines on open access to scientific publications and research data in Horizon 2020. Tech. Rep. DG for Research & Innovation.
Feller, J. & Fitzgerald, B. 2002 Understanding Open Source Software Development. Addison-Wesley.
Filson, A. & Rohrbacher, G. 2011 Design offered up: Control and open outcomes in a digitally enabled design process. In Proceedings of CDVE 2011 (ed. Luo, Y.), pp. 713. HKG.
Fischer, G. & Giaccardi, E. 2006 Meta-design: A framework for the future of end-user development. In End User Development (ed. Lieberman, H. et al. ), chap. 19, pp. 427457. Springer.
Fitzgerald, B. 2006 The transformation of open source software. In Mis Quarterly, pp. 587598. JSTOR.
Foray, D. & Perez, L. H. 2006 The economics of open technology: Collective organization and individual claims in the ‘Fabrique Lyonnaise’ during the old regime. In New Frontiers in the Economics of Innovation and New Technology: Essays in Honour of Paul A. David, pp. 239254. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Free Software Foundationed 2014. What is free software? The Free Software Definition. (visited on 01/12/2015).
Free Software Foundation, Inc.ed 2007 GNU General Public License. Version 3. (visited on 07/03/2015).
Füller, J., Jawecki, G. & Mühlbacher, H. 2007 Innovation creation by online basketball communities. Journal of Business Research 60, 6071.
Gershenfeld, N. 2005 Fab: The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop – from Personal Computers to Personal Fabrication. Basic Books.
Gibson, I., Rosen, D. & Stucker, B. 2015a Design for additive manufacturing. In Additive Manufacturing Technologies, 2nd ed. chap. 17, pp. 399435. Springer.
Gibson, I., Rosen, D. & Stucker, B. 2015b The impact of low-cost AM systems. In Additive Manufacturing Technologies, 2nd ed. chap. 12, pp. 293302. Springer.
Gilloz, E.2014 RepRap Family Tree.
Gläser, J. 2007 The social order of open source software production. In Handbook of Research on Open Source Software: Technological, Economic, and Social Perspectives (ed. St. Amant, K. & Still, B.), pp. 168182. Information Science Reference.
Gruson-Daniel, C. 2014 Une cartographie de l’open science. In Open Models (Ed. by Without Model), pp. 182186.
Gürtler, M. R., Kain, A. & Lindemann, U. 2013 Bridging the gap: From open innovation to an open product-life-cycle by using open-x methodologies. In ICoRD’13: Global Product Development (ed. Chakrabarti, A. & Raghu Prakash, V.), pp. 13311343. Springer.
Hahsler, M., Gruen, B. & Hornik, K. 2005 Arules – a computational environment for mining association rules and frequent item sets. Journal of Statistical Software 14 (15), 125.
Hardin, G. 1968 The tragedy of the commons. Science 162 (3859), 12431248.
Hatchuel, A. 2012 Quel horizon pour les science de gestion? Vers une théorie de l’action collective. In Les Nouvelles Fondations des sciences de gestion, 3rd ed (ed. David, A. et al. ), pp. 2143, coll. Economie et Gestion. Presses des MINES.
Herstatt, C. & Ehls, D.(Eds) 2015 Open Source Innovation. The Phenomenon, Participant’s Behavior, Business Implications, Routledge.
Heyer, S. & Seliger, G. 2012 Open manufacturing for value creation cycles. In Design for Innovative Value Towards a Sustainable Society, pp. 110115. Springer.
von Hippel, E. 2005 Democratizing Innovation. The MIT Press.
von Hippel, E. 2007 Horizontal innovation networks – by and for users. Industrial and Corporate Change 16 (2), 293315.
von Hippel, E. 2014 Open user innovation. In The Encyclopedia of Human–Computer Interaction, 2nd ed. (ed. Soegaard, M. & Friis Dam, R.). The Interaction Design Foundation.
von Hippel, E. 2017 Free Innovation. MIT Press.
Horváth, I. 2004 A treatise on order in engineering design research. Research in Engineering Design 15 (3), 155181.
Howe, J. 2006 Crowdsourcing: A Definition (ed. Howe, J.), Crowdsourcing: Tracking the Rise of the Amateur. (visited on 07/03/2015).
Huizingh, E. K. R. E. 2011 Open innovation: State of the art and future perspectives. Technovation 31 (1), 29.
Hummels, C. 2011 Teaching attitudes, skills, approaches, structure and tools. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 162167. BIS Publishers.
Hunter, L. C. 1949 Steamboats on the Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History. Harvard University Press.
Jansen, P.1990 Aide à la conception: Une approche basée sur la satisfaction de contraintes. PhD thesis, Université de Montpellier.
Jelinski, L. W., Graedel, T. E., Laudise, R. A., McCall, D. W. & Patel, C. K. 1992 Industrial ecology: Concepts and approaches. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89 (3), 793797.
Jones, R. & Haufe, P. et al. 2011 RepRap – the replicating rapid prototyper. Robotica 29 (1), 177191.
Katz, A. 2011 Authors and owners. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 6272. BIS Publishers.
Kensing, F. & Blomberg, J. 1998 Participatory design: Issues and concerns. Computer Supported Cooperative Work 7, 167185.
Khalid, H. M. & Helander, M. G. 2003 Web-based do-it-yourself product design. In The Customer Centric Enterprise: Advances in Mass Customization and Personalization (ed. Tseng, M. M. & Piller, F. T.), pp. 247266. Springer.
Kim, J., Bouchard, C., Omhover, J.-F. & Aoussat, A. 2012 Designing a graphical interface for creativity support tools for designers: A case study. International Journal of Web Engineering and Technology 7 (2), 173199.
Korhonen, J. 2001 Four ecosystem principles for an industrial ecosystem. Journal of Cleaner Production 9, 253259.
Kostakis, V. & Papachristou, M. 2014 Commons-based peer production and digital fabrication: The case of a RepRap-based, Lego-built 3d printing–milling machine. Telematics and Informatics 31 (3), 434443.
Krishnan, V. & Ulrich, K. T. 2001 Product development decisions: A review of the literature. Management Science 47 (1), 121.
Laitio, T. 2011 From best design, to just design. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 190198. BIS Publishers.
Lakhani, K. R. & von Hippel, E. 2003 How open source software works: ‘Free’ user-to-user assistance. Research Policy 32 (6), 923943.
Lapeyre, M.2014 Poppy: Open source 3d printed nd modular humanoid robot for Science, Art and Education. PhD thesis, Inria.
Lee, K. 1999 Principles of CAD/CAM/CAE Systems. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc.
Lerner, J. & Tirole, J. 2002 Some simple economics of open source. The Journal of Industrial Economics 50 (2), 197234.
Ligonnière, R. 1987 Préhistoire et histoire des ordinateurs. R. Laffont.
Macul, V. & Rozenfeld, H. 2015 How an open source design community works: The case of Open Source Ecology. In Proceedings of ICED 2015 ICED15 (July 27–30, 2015) (ed. Weber, C. et al. ), vol. 3, pp. 359368. ITA.
Marais, S. J. & Schutte, C. S. L. 2009 The development of open innovation models to assist the innovation process. In SAIIE 2009 (October 28–30, 2009), pp. 96116.
Matthews, P. C., Blessing, L. T. M. & Wallace, K. M. 2002 The introduction of a design heuristics extraction method. Advanced Engineering Informatics 16 (1), 319.
Matthias, H.2005 Kunst und Wissenschaft in der Technik des 20. Jahrhunderts: Zur Geschichte der Konstruktionswissenschaft. Chronos.
Maurel, L. 2014 7 modèles économiques pour l’open dans l’art et la culture. In Open Models (Ed. by Without Model), pp. 106114.
Mellis, D. A. & Buechley, L. 2012 Collaboration in open-source hardware: Third-party variations on the arduino duemilanove. In Proceedings of CSCW’12 (February 11–15, 2012), pp. 11751178. ACM.
Meroni, A. & Sangiorgi, D. 2011 Design for Services. Design for Social Responsabilities. Gower Publishing, Ltd.
Merton, R. K. 1973 The normative structure of science. In The Sociology of Science (ed. Storer, N. W.), pp. 267278. University of Chicago Press.
Mikhak, B. & Lyon, C. et al. 2002 Fab Lab: an alternate model of ICT for development. In 2nd International Conference on Open Collaborative Design for Sustainable Innovation, ThinkCycle.
MIT – Center for Bits and Atoms(Ed.) 2012. The Fab Charter.
Monedero, J. 2000 Parametric design: A review and some experiences. Automation in Construction 9 (4), 369377.
de Mul, J. 2011 Redesigning design. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, Bas et al. ), pp. 3439. BIS Publishers.
Nickerson, J. V., Sakamoto, Y. & Yu, L. 2011 Structures for Creativity: The crowdsourcing of design. Workshop on Crowdsourcing and Human Computation: Systems, Studies, and Platforms. CHI 2011 (May 8, 2011). Vancouver.
Nishikawa, H., Schreier, M. & Ogawa, S. 2013 User-generated versus designer-generated products: A performance assessment at Muji. International Journal of Research in Marketing 30 (2), 160167.
Norman, D. A. & Draper, S. W. 1986 User Centered System Design. New Perspectives on Human–Computer Interaction. CRC Press.
Nuvolari, A. 2004 Collective invention during the British Industrial Revolution: The case of the Cornish pumping engine. Cambridge Journal of Economics 28 (3), 347363.
Nuvolari, A. & Rullani, F. 2007 Curious exceptions? Open source software and ‘open’ technology. In Technological, Economic, and Social Perspective (ed. St. Amant, K. & Still, B.), pp. 227239. Information Science Reference.
OECD Internet Economy Outlook2012. OECD Publishing,
Omhover, J.-F.2015 Open Source Innovation – Origine et expansion de l’Open-X.
Omhover, J.-F., Bouchard, C., Kim, J. & Aoussat, A. 2010 Computational methods for shape manipulation in generation: A literature review. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research 2010 KEER2010 (March 2–4, 2010). FRA.
Ong, C.-A.2004 (Re-)Integration Dynamics of the PC Platform. MA thesis, MIT.
Open Source Initiativeed 2006 Frequently Asked Questions. How is ‘open source’ related to ‘free software’? (visited on 01/19/2015).
Open Source Initiativeed 2015 Open Source Definition. Version 1.9. (visited on 01/19/2015).
Ostrom, E. 2008 Tragedy of the commons. In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd ed (ed. Durlauf, S. N. & Blume, L. E.). Palgrave.
Pettis, B. 2011 Made in my backyard. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 7483. BIS Publishers.
Phillips, R., Baurley, S. & Silve, S. 2014 Citizen science and open design: Workshop findings. Design Issues 30 (4), 5266.
Phillips, R., Ford, Y., Sadler, K., Silve, S. & Baurley, S. 2013 Open design: Non-professional user-designers creating products for citizen science: A case study of beekeepers. In Design, User Experience, and Usability. Web, Mobile, and Product Design, vol. 8015.3, pp. 424431. Springer.
R Core Team2015 R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Raasch, C. 2011 Product development in open design communities: A process perspective. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management 8 (4), 557575.
Raasch, C., Herstatt, C. & Balka, K. 2009 On the open design of tangible goods. R&D Management 39 (4), 382393.
Raasch, C., Herstatt, C., Blecker, T. & Abdelkafi, N. 2008 Open source innovation – out of software? Proceedings of the EIASM IPDM Conference. Hamburg, GER.
Ratto, M. 2011 Critical making. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 202209. BIS Publishers.
Raymond, E. S.2001 The Cathedral & the Bazaar. Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary. O’Reilly Media.
Resnick, M. & Silverman, B. 2005 Some reflections on designing construction kits for kids. In Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Interaction Design and Children. IDC’05, pp. 117122. ACM.
Rijken, D. 2011 Design literacy: Organizing self-organization. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 152158. BIS Publishers.
Rittel, H. J. W. & Webber, M. M. 1973 Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences 4, 155169.
Roberts, J. A., Hann, I.-H. & Slaughter, S. A. 2006 Understanding the motivations, participation, and performance of open source software developers: A longitudinal study of the Apache projects. Management Science 52 (7), 984999.
Rullani, F.2006 Dragging developers towards the core: How the Free/Libre/Open Source Software Community enhance developers’ contribution. Version 6. In: Working paper.
Rumpala, Y. 2014 « Fab labs », « makerspaces »: entre innovation et émancipation ? Revue internationale de l’économie sociale : Recma 334, 8597.
Sanders, E. B.-N. & Stappers, P. J. 2008 Co-creation and the new landscapes of design. CoDesign 4 (1), 518.
Schuler, D. & Namioka, A.(Eds) 1993 Participatory Design: Principles and Practices, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Send, H., Friesike, S. & Zuch, A. N.2014 Participation in on-line co-creation: Assessment and review of motivations. HIIG Discussion Paper Series Discussion Paper 2014-01.
Shah, S. K. 2005 Open beyond software. In Open Sources 2 (ed. Cooper, D. et al. ). O’Reilly Media.
Simon, H. A. 1996 The Sciences of the Artificial, 3rd ed. MIT Press.
Simpson, T. W. 2004 Product platform design and customization: Status and promise. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 18, 320.
Smiers, J. 2011 No more bestsellers. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 98105. BIS Publishers.
Stallman, R. M. 1985 The GNU Manifesto. Dr. Dobb’s Journal of Software Tools 10 (3), p. 30 sqq.
Stallman, R. M.2008 Re: MAINTAINERS file. Ed. by emacs-devel mailing list. (visited on 01/13/2015).
Stallman, R. M. 2010 Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman, 2nd ed (ed. Gay, J.). GNU Press.
Stallman, R. M. & Sam, W. 2010 Free as in Freedom (2.0): Richard Stallman and the Free Software Revolution. Free Software Foundation.
Stappers, P. J., Visser, F. S. & Kistemaker, S. 2011 Creation & Co: User participation in design. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 140148. BIS Publishers.
Stevens, M. & Watson, M.2008 Dashboard User Guide. Ed. by Institute Without Boundaries.
Stikker, M. et al. 2011 Introduction. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B.), pp. 1419. BIS Publishers.
Subrahmanian, E., Reich, Y. & Krishnan, S. 2013 Context, collaboration and complexity in designing: The pivotal role of cognitive artifacts. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design 2013 (August 19–22, 2013), Seoul, South Korea, vol. 7, pp. 99108. Design Society.
Thackara, J. et al. 2011 Into the open. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B.), pp. 4245. BIS Publishers.
The Open Knowledge Foundation(Ed.) 2015. The Open Definition. Version 2.0. (visited on 01/29/2015).
Tincq, B. & Benichou, L. 2014 Modèles économiques de l’open hardware. Open Models (Ed. by Without Model) 124134.
Tomiyama, T. & Gu, P. et al. 2009 Design methodologies: Industrial and educational applications. CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology 58 (2), 543565.
Tooze, J. & Baurley, S. et al. 2014 Open design: Contributions, solutions, processes and projects. The Design Journal 17 (4), 538559.
Troxler, P. 2011 Libraries of the peer production era. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 8695. BIS Publishers.
Ullman, D. G. 2010 Designers and design teams. In The Mechanical Design Process, 4th ed. pp. 4780. McGraw-Hill.
Ulrich, K. T. 2011 Design: Creation of Artifacts in Society, 1st ed. University of Pennsylvania.
Van Abel, B., Evers, L. & Klaassen, R. 2011 Preface. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 1013. BIS Publishers.
Van Abel, B., Evers, L., Klaassen, R. & Troxler, P.(Eds) 2011 Open Design Now.
W3Techs 2017Usage of operating systems for websites. Ed. by Q-Success.
Warger, T.2002 The Open-Source Movement. The Edutech Rep. 18.2.
Weber, S. 2004 The Success of Open Source. Harvard University Press.
Without Model(Ed.) 2014. Open Models. Louis-David Benyayer.
Wulfsberg, J. P., Redlich, T. & Bruhns, F.-L. 2011 Open production: Scientific foundation for co-creative product realization. Production Engineering 5 (2), 127139.
Wynn, D. & Clarkson, J. 2005 Models of designing. A review of current practice. In Design Process Improvement (ed. Clarkson, J. & Eckert, C.), pp. 3459. Springer.
Yip, A. L. K., Jagadeesan, A. P., Corney, J., Qin, Y. & Rauschecker, U. 2011 A front-end system to support cloud-based manufacturing of customized products. In Proceedings of the 9th ICMR (September 6–8, 2011) (ed. Harrison, D. K. et al. ). Glasgow Caledonian University.
Zer-Aviv, M. 2011 Learning by doing. In Open Design Now (ed. Van Abel, B. et al. ), pp. 170175. BIS Publishers.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Design Science
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2053-4701
  • URL: /core/journals/design-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed