Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-r5zm4 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-25T04:52:27.939Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Attention bias to reward predicts behavioral problems and moderates early risk to externalizing and attention problems

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 March 2019

Santiago Morales*
Affiliation:
Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
Natalie V. Miller
Affiliation:
Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
Sonya V. Troller-Renfree
Affiliation:
Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
Lauren K. White
Affiliation:
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Kathryn A. Degnan
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, USA
Heather A. Henderson
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
Nathan A. Fox
Affiliation:
Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
*
Author for correspondence: Santiago Morales, 3942 Benjamin Building, Campus Dr., College Park, MD20742; Email: moraless@umd.edu.

Abstract

The current study had three goals. First, we replicated recent evidence that suggests a concurrent relation between attention bias to reward and externalizing and attention problems at age 7. Second, we extended these findings by examining the relations between attention and behavioral measures of early exuberance (3 years), early effortful control (4 years), and concurrent effortful control (7 years), as well as later behavioral problems (9 years). Third, we evaluated the role of attention to reward in the longitudinal pathways between early exuberance and early effortful control to predict externalizing and attention problems. Results revealed that attention bias to reward was associated concurrently and longitudinally with behavioral problems. Moreover, greater reward bias was concurrently associated with lower levels of parent-reported effortful control. Finally, attention bias to reward moderated the longitudinal relations between early risk factors for behavioral problems (gender, exuberance, and effortful control) and later externalizing and attention problems, such that these early risk factors were most predictive of behavioral problems for males with a large attention bias to reward. These findings suggest that attention bias to reward may act as a moderator of early risk, aiding the identification of children at the highest risk for later behavioral problems.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles: An integrated system of multi-informant assessment. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
Aiken, L. S., West, S. G., & Reno, R. R. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Armstrong, J. M., Goldstein, L. H., & MacArthur Working Group on Outcome Assessment. (2003). The MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire (HBQ 1.0). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh, MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Psychopathology and Development.Google Scholar
Bar-Haim, Y., Lamy, D., Pergamin, L., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 124. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bongers, I. L., Koot, H. M., Van der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2003). The normative development of child and adolescent problem behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Britton, J. C., Bar-Haim, Y., Clementi, M. A., Sankin, L. S., Chen, G., Shechner, T., … Pine, D. S. (2013). Training-associated changes and stability of attention bias in youth: Implications for attention bias modification treatment for pediatric anxiety. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, 5264. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2012.11.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buss, K. A., Kiel, E. J., Morales, S., & Robinson, E. (2014). Toddler inhibitory control, bold response to novelty, and positive affect predict externalizing symptoms in kindergarten: Inhibitory control, positive affect, and externalizing. Social Development, 23, 232249. doi:10.1111/sode.12058CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Campbell, S. B., Spieker, S., Burchinal, M., Poe, M. D., & NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2006). Trajectories of aggression from toddlerhood to age 9 predict academic and social functioning through age 12. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 791800.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carlson, S. M., & Moses, L. J. (2001). Individual differences in inhibitory control and children's theory of mind. Child Development, 72, 10321053.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cole, C. E., Zapp, D. J., Fettig, N. B., & Pérez-Edgar, K. E. (2016). Impact of attention biases to threat and effortful control on individual variations in negative affect and social withdrawal in very young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 141, 210221. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2015.09.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cremers, H. R., Veer, I. M., Spinhoven, P., Rombouts, S. A. R. B., & Roelofs, K. (2015). Neural sensitivity to social reward and punishment anticipation in social anxiety disorder. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00439CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cremone, A., Lugo-Candelas, C. I., Harvey, E. A., McDermott, J. M., & Spencer, R. M. C. (2018). Positive emotional attention bias in young children with symptoms of ADHD. Child Neuropsychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/09297049.2018.1426743CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74101. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Degnan, K. A., Hane, A. A., Henderson, H. A., Moas, O. L., Reeb-Sutherland, B. C., & Fox, N. A. (2011). Longitudinal stability of temperamental exuberance and social–emotional outcomes in early childhood. Developmental Psychology, 47, 765780. doi:10.1037/a0021316CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Derryberry, D., & Reed, M. A. (1994). Temperament and attention: Orienting toward and away from positive and negative signals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 11281139. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.66.6.1128CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Derryberry, D., & Reed, M. A. (1996). Regulatory processes and the development of cognitive representations. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 215234. doi:10.1017/S0954579400007057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Derryberry, D., & Reed, M. A. (2002). Anxiety-related attentional biases and their regulation by attentional control. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 225236. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.111.2.225CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duncan, G. J., Engel, M., Claessens, A., & Dowsett, C. J. (2014). Replication and robustness in developmental research. Developmental Psychology, 50, 24172425. doi:10.1037/a0037996CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DuPaul, G. J., Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., & Maczuga, S. (2016). Academic and social functioning associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Latent class analyses of trajectories from kindergarten to fifth grade. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 14251438.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durston, S., Thomas, K. M., Yang, Y., Ulug, A. M., Zimmerman, R. D., & Casey, B. J. (2002). A neural basis for the development of inhibitory control. Developmental Science, 5, F9F16. doi:10.1111/1467-7687.00235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Spinrad, T. L., Cumberland, A., Liew, J., Reiser, M., … Losoya, S. H. (2009). Longitudinal relations of children's effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality to their externalizing, internalizing, and co-occurring behavior problems. Developmental Psychology, 45, 9881008. doi:10.1037/a0016213CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eldar, S., Ricon, T., & Bar-Haim, Y. (2008). Plasticity in attention: Implications for stress response in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 450461. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2008.01.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., Goldsmith, H. H., & Van Hulle, C. A. (2006). Gender differences in temperament: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 3372. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.33CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Enders, C., & Bandalos, D. (2001). The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling, 8, 430457. doi:10.1207/S15328007SEM0803_5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Essex, M. J., Boyce, W. T., Goldstein, L. H., Armstrong, J. M., Kraemer, H. C., Kupfer, D. J., & Group, M. A. B. W. (2002). The confluence of mental, physical, social, and academic difficulties in middle childhood: II. Developing the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 588603.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Faraone, S. V., Rostain, A. L., Blader, J., Busch, B., Childress, A. C., Connor, D. F., & Newcorn, J. H. (2018). Practitioner Review: Emotional dysregulation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder–implications for clinical recognition and intervention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Advance online publication.Google Scholar
Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K. H., Calkins, S. D., & Schmidt, L. A. (2001). Continuity and discontinuity of behavioral inhibition and exuberance: Psychophysiological and behavioral influences across the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 121. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00262CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frewen, P., Dozois, D., Joanisse, M., & Neufeld, R. (2008). Selective attention to threat versus reward: Meta-analysis and neural-network modeling of the dot-probe task. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 307337. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2007.05.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Bodin, S. D., Dane, H. E., Barry, C. T., & Loney, B. R. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and developmental pathways to severe conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 39, 246.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., Beauchaine, T. P., Shannon, K. E., Chipman, J., Fleming, A. P., Crowell, S. E., … Johnson, L. C. (2009). Neurological correlates of reward responding in adolescents with and without externalizing behavior disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 203. doi:10.1037/a0014378CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerstadt, C. L., Hong, Y. J., & Diamond, A. (1994). The relationship between cognition and action: Performance of children 3 1/2–7 years old on a Stroop-like day-night test. Cognition, 53, 129153. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(94)90068-XCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grafton, B., Ang, C., & MacLeod, C. (2012). Always look on the bright side of life: The attentional basis of positive affectivity: Attentional basis of positive affectivity. European Journal of Personality, 26, 133144. doi:10.1002/per.1842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hane, A. A., Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., & Marshall, P. J. (2008). Behavioral reactivity and approach-withdrawal bias in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1491. doi:10.1037/a0012855CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hay, D. F., van Goozen, S. H., Mundy, L., Phillips, R., Roberts, S., Meeuwsen, M., … Perra, O. (2017). If you go down to the woods today: Infants’ distress during a teddy bear's picnic in relation to peer relations and later emotional problems. Infancy, 22, 552570.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
He, J., Degnan, K. A., McDermott, J. M., Henderson, H. A., Hane, A. A., Xu, Q., & Fox, N. A. (2010). Anger and approach motivation in infancy: Relations to early childhood inhibitory control and behavior problems. Infancy, 15, 246269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
He, J., Li, P., Wu, W., & Zhai, S. (2017). Exuberance, attention bias, and externalizing behaviors in Chinese preschoolers: A longitudinal study. Social Development, 26, 520529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heeren, A., Reese, H. E., McNally, R. J., & Philippot, P. (2012). Attention training toward and away from threat in social phobia: Effects on subjective, behavioral, and physiological measures of anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 3039. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2011.10.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kagan, J., & Fox, N. A. (2006). Biology, culture, and temperamental biases. In Damon, W. & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 167225). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Kochanska, G., & Knaack, A. (2003). Effortful control as a personality characteristic of young children: Antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Personality, 71, 10871112. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.7106008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lemerise, E. A., & Arsenio, W. F. (2000). An integrated model of emotion processes and cognition in social information processing. Child Development, 71, 107118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lemery, K. S., Essex, M. J., & Smider, N. A. (2002). Revealing the relation between temperament and behavior problem symptoms by eliminating measurement confounding: Expert ratings and factor analyses. Child Development, 73, 867882. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00444CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luking, K. R., Pagliaccio, D., Luby, J. L., & Barch, D. M. (2016). Reward processing and risk for depression across development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20, 456468. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2016.04.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luman, M., Oosterlaan, J., & Sergeant, J. A. (2005). The impact of reinforcement contingencies on AD/HD: A review and theoretical appraisal. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 183213. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2004.11.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luman, M., van Meel, C. S., Oosterlaan, J., & Geurts, H. M. (2012). Reward and punishment sensitivity in children with ADHD: Validating the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for Children (SPSRQ-C). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 145157. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9547-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacLeod, C., Mathews, A., & Tata, P. (1986). Attentional bias in emotional disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 1520. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.95.1.15CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, N. V., Degnan, K. A., Hane, A. A., Fox, N. A., & Chronis-Tuscano, A. (2018). Infant temperament reactivity and early maternal caregiving: Independent and interactive links to later childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Advance online publication.Google ScholarPubMed
Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., … Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 108, 26932698. doi:10.1073/pnas.1010076108CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Monk, C. S., Klein, R. G., Telzer, E. H., Schroth, E. A., Mannuzza, S., Moulton, J. L., … Ernst, M. (2008). Amygdala and nucleus accumbens activation to emotional facial expressions in children and adolescents at risk for major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 9098. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.06111917CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morales, S., Beekman, C., Blandon, A. Y., Stifter, C. A., & Buss, K. A. (2015). Longitudinal associations between temperament and socioemotional outcomes in young children: The moderating role of RSA and gender. Developmental Psychobiology, 57, 105119. doi:10.1002/dev.21267CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morales, S., Fu, X., & Pérez-Edgar, K. E. (2016). A developmental neuroscience perspective on affect-biased attention. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 2641. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2016.08.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morales, S., Pérez-Edgar, K. E., & Buss, K. A. (2015). Attention biases towards and away from threat mark the relation between early dysregulated fear and the later emergence of social withdrawal. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 10671078. doi:10.1007/s10802-014-9963-9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morales, S., Pérez-Edgar, K., & Buss, K. (2016). Longitudinal relations among exuberance, externalizing behaviors, and attentional bias to reward: The mediating role of effortful control. Developmental Science, 19, 853862. doi:10.1111/desc.12320CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murray, K. T., & Kochanska, G. (2002). Effortful control: Factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 503514.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nigg, J. T., Goldsmith, H. H., & Sachek, J. (2004). Temperament and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The development of a multiple pathway model. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 4253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nozadi, S., Troller-Renfree, S., White, L., Frenkel, T., Degnan, K., Bar-Haim, Y., … Fox, N. (2016). The moderating role of attention biases to threat on the link between behavioral inhibition and anxiety in children. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 7, 451465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O'Brien, B. S., & Frick, P. J. (1996). Reward dominance: Associations with anxiety, conduct problems, and psychopathy in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 223240. doi:10.1007/BF01441486CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Doherty, J., Winston, J., Critchley, H., Perrett, D., Burt, D., & Dolan, R. (2003). Beauty in a smile: The role of medial orbitofrontal cortex in facial attractiveness. Neuropsychologia, 41, 147155. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(02)00145-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Offord, D. R., Boyle, M. H., Szatmari, P., Rae-Grant, N. I., Links, P. S., Cadman, D. T., … Woodward, C. A. (1987). Ontario Child Health Study: II. Six-month prevalence of disorder and rates of service utilization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 832836. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800210084013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Open Science Collaboration. (2015). Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science, 349, aac4716. doi:10.1126/science.aac4716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pérez-Edgar, K. E., Bar-Haim, Y., McDermott, J. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Pine, D. S., & Fox, N. A. (2010). Attention biases to threat and behavioral inhibition in early childhood shape adolescent social withdrawal. Emotion, 10, 349357. doi:10.1037/a0018486CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pérez-Edgar, K. E., Reeb-Sutherland, B. C., McDermott, J. M., White, L. K., Henderson, H. A., Degnan, K. A., … Fox, N. A. (2011). Attention biases to threat link behavioral inhibition to social withdrawal over time in very young children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 885895. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9495-5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pfeifer, M., Goldsmith, H. H., Davidson, R. J., & Rickman, M. (2002). Continuity and change in inhibited and uninhibited children. Child Development, 73, 14741485. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00484CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polak-Toste, C. P., & Gunnar, M. R. (2006). Temperamental exuberance: Correlates and consequences. In Marshall, P. J. & Fox, N. A. (Eds.), The development of social engagement: Neurobiological perspectives (pp. 1945). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putnam, S. P., & Rothbart, M. K. (2006). Development of short and very short forms of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 102112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putnam, S. P., & Stifter, C. A. (2005). Behavioral approach–inhibition in toddlers: Prediction from infancy, positive and negative affective components, and relations with behavior problems. Child Development, 76, 212226. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00840.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
R Development Core Team. (2008). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Retrieved from http://www.R-project.orgGoogle Scholar
Revelle, W. R. (2017). psych: Procedures for personality and psychological research [Software] Retrieved from https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=psychGoogle Scholar
Rhoades, B. L., Greenberg, M. T., & Domitrovich, C. E. (2009). The contribution of inhibitory control to preschoolers’ social–emotional competence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 310320. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosseel, Y. (2012). Lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling and more. Version 0.5–12 (BETA). Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In Damon, W. & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B., Dwyer, K. M., & Hastings, P. D. (2003). Predicting preschoolers’ externalizing behaviors from toddler temperament, conflict, and maternal negativity. Developmental Psychology, 39, 164176. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.39.1.164CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2001). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66, 507514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, W., Eschman, A., & Zuccolotto, A. (2002). E-Prime: User's guide. New York: Psychology Software.Google Scholar
Shechner, T., Britton, J. C., Pérez-Edgar, K., Bar-Haim, Y., Ernst, M., Fox, N. A., … Pine, D. S. (2012). Attention biases, anxiety, and development: Toward or away from threats or rewards? Depression and Anxiety, 29, 282294. doi:10.1002/da.20914CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stifter, C. A., Putnam, S., & Jahromi, L. (2008). Exuberant and inhibited toddlers: Stability of temperament and risk for problem behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 401421. doi:10.1017/S0954579408000199CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tackett, J. L. (2010). Toward an externalizing spectrum in DSM-V: Incorporating developmental concerns: Developmental externalizing spectrum. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 161167. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2010.00138.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamir, M., & Robinson, M. D. (2007). The happy spotlight: Positive mood and selective attention to rewarding information. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 11241136. doi:10.1177/0146167207301030CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, C. T., Bomyea, J., & Amir, N. (2011). Malleability of attentional bias for positive emotional information and anxiety vulnerability. Emotion, 11, 127138. doi:10.1037/a0021301CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Todd, R. M., Cunningham, W. A., Anderson, A. K., & Thompson, E. (2012). Affect-biased attention as emotion regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 365372. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2012.06.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tottenham, N., Tanaka, J. W., Leon, A. C., McCarry, T., Nurse, M., Hare, T. A., … Nelson, C. (2009). The NimStim set of facial expressions: Judgments from untrained research participants. Psychiatry Research, 168, 242249. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2008.05.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Troller-Renfree, S., McDermott, J. M., Nelson, C. A., Zeanah, C. H., & Fox, N. A. (2015). The effects of early foster care intervention on attention biases in previously institutionalized children in Romania. Developmental Science, 18, 713722. doi:10.1111/desc.12261CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Troller-Renfree, S., McLaughlin, K. A., Sheridan, M. A., Nelson, C. A., Zeanah, C. H., & Fox, N. A. (2017). The beneficial effects of a positive attention bias amongst children with a history of psychosocial deprivation. Biological Psychology, 122, 110120. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.04.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vidal-Ribas, P., Pickles, A., Tibu, F., Sharp, H., & Hill, J. (2017). Sex differences in the associations between vagal reactivity and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58, 988997.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waters, A. M., Pittaway, M., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., & Pine, D. S. (2013). Attention training towards positive stimuli in clinically anxious children. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, 7784. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2012.09.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
White, L. K., Degnan, K. A., Henderson, H. A., Pérez-Edgar, K., Walker, O. L., Shechner, T., … Fox, N. A. (2017). Developmental relations among behavioral inhibition, anxiety, and attention biases to threat and positive information. Child Development, 88, 141155. doi:10.1111/cdev.12696CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
White, L. K., McDermott, J. M., Degnan, K. A., Henderson, H. A., & Fox, N. A. (2011). Behavioral inhibition and anxiety: The moderating roles of inhibitory control and attention shifting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 735747. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9490-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wickham, H. (2016). ggplot2: Elegant graphics for data analysis. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar