Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-nmvwc Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-17T07:35:38.916Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Can reactivity and regulation in infancy predict inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior in 3-year-olds?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 April 2018

Matilda A. Frick*
Affiliation:
Uppsala University
Tommie Forslund
Affiliation:
Uppsala University
Karin C. Brocki
Affiliation:
Uppsala University
*
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Matilda Frick, Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Box 1225, 751 42 Uppsala, Sweden; E-mail: matilda.frick@psyk.uu.se.

Abstract

A need to identify early infant markers of later occurring inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors has come to the fore in the current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder literature. The purpose of such studies is to identify driving mechanisms that could enable early detection of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder liability and thus facilitate early intervention. Here we study independent and interactive effects of cognitive regulation (inhibition and sustained attention), temperament (reactive and regulatory aspects), and maternal sensitivity (as external regulation) in a sample of 112 typically developing 10-month-old infants (59 boys, 52.7%), in relation to inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior at 3 years. The results showed that infant temperamental regulation and maternal sensitivity made independent contributions to both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, in that higher levels of temperamental regulation and maternal sensitivity were related to less inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior. In addition, the temperamental factor positive affectivity/surgency made a significant contribution to later hyperactivity/impulsivity, in that higher levels of positive affectivity/surgency were related to more hyperactive/impulsive behavior. No interaction effects were found. Our findings suggest temperament and parental regulation as potential and independent markers of later inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

This research was supported by Grant 421-2012-1222 from Vetenskapsrådet. Thanks to Kim Creswell and Karin Sandelin, research assistants, for data collection and coding.

References

Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1969). Maternal sensitivity scales. Power, 6, 13791388.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
Auerbach, J. G., Atzaba-Poria, N., Berger, A., & Landau, R. (2004). Emerging developmental pathways to ADHD: Possible path markers in early infancy. Neural Plasticity, 11, 2943. doi:10.1155/NP.2004.29.Google Scholar
Baer, J., Schreck, M., Althoff, R. R., Rettew, D., Harder, V., Ayer, L., … Hudziak, J. J. (2014). Child temperament, maternal parenting behavior, and child social functioning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 11521162. doi:10.1007/s10826-014-9924-5.Google Scholar
Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 6594. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.121.1.65.Google Scholar
Belsky, J. (2005). Differential susceptibility to rearing influence: An evolutionary hypothesis and some evidence. In Ellis, B. J. & Bjorklund, D. F. (Eds.), Origins of the social mind: Evolutionary psychology and child development. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007). For better and for worse differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 300304. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00525.x.Google Scholar
Belsky, J., Fearon, P. R., & Bell, B. (2007). Parenting, attention and externalizing problems: Testing mediation longitudinally, repeatedly and reciprocally. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 12331242. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01807.x.Google Scholar
Bernier, A., Carlson, S. M., & Whipple, N. (2010). From external regulation to self-regulation: Early parenting precursors of young children's executive functioning. Child Development, 81, 326339. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01397.x.Google Scholar
Berry, D., Deater-Deckard, K., McCartney, K., Wang, Z., & Petrill, S. A. (2013). Gene–environment interaction between dopamine receptor D4 7-repeat polymorphism and early maternal sensitivity predicts inattention trajectories across middle childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 291306. doi:10.1017/S095457941200106X.Google Scholar
Berwid, O. G., Curko Kera, E. A., Marks, D. J., Santra, A., Bender, H. A., & Halperin, J. M. (2005). Sustained attention and response inhibition in young children at risk for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 12191229. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.00417.x.Google Scholar
Bridgett, D. J., Burt, N. M., Edwards, E. S., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2015). Intergenerational transmission of self-regulation: A multidisciplinary review and integrative conceptual framework. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 602654. doi:10.1037/a0038662.Google Scholar
Bridgett, D. J., Kanya, M. J., Rutherford, H. J. V., & Mayes, L. C. (2017). Maternal executive functioning as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of parenting: Preliminary evidence. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 1929. doi:10.1037/fam0000264.Google Scholar
Brocki, K. C., Forslund, T., Frick, M., & Bohlin, G. (2017). Do individual differences in early affective and cognitive self-regulation predict developmental change in ADHD symptoms from preschool to adolescence? Journal of Attention Disorders. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/1087054717693372.Google Scholar
Brocki, K. C., Nyberg, L., Thorell, L. B., & Bohlin, G. (2007). Early concurrent and longitudinal symptoms of ADHD and ODD: Relations to different types of inhibitory control and working memory. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 10331041. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01811.x.Google Scholar
Busch, B., Biederman, J., Cohen, L. G., Sayer, J. M., Monuteaux, M. C., Mick, E., … Faraone, S. V. (2002). Correlates of ADHD among children in pediatric and psychiatric clinics. Psychiatric Services, 53, 11031111. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.53.9.1103.Google Scholar
Crockenberg, S. C., & Leerkes, E. M. (2004). Infant and maternal behaviors regulate infant reactivity to novelty at 6 months. Developmental Psychology, 40, 11231132. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1123.Google Scholar
Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135168. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750.Google Scholar
DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., & Reid, R. (2016). ADHD Rating Scale—5 for Children and Adolescents: Checklists, norms, and clinical interpretation. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., & Zhou, Q. (2016). Conceptions of executive function and regulation: When and to what degree do they overlap? In Griffin, J. A.. McCardle, P., & Freund, L. S. (Eds.), Executive function in preschool-age children: Integrating measurement, neurodevelopment, and translational research (pp. 115136). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Ellis, B., & Nigg, J. (2009). Parenting practices and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: New findings suggest partial specificity of effects. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 146154. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819176d0.Google Scholar
Evans, D. E., & Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Developing a model for adult temperament. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 868888. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2006.11.002.Google Scholar
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Forslund, T., Brocki, K. C., Bohlin, G., Granqvist, P., & Eninger, L. (2016). The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 34, 371387. doi:10.1111/bjdp.12136.Google Scholar
Frick, M. A., Forslund, T., Fransson, M., Johansson, M., Bohlin, G., & Brocki, K. C. (2017). The role of sustained attention, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament in the development of early self-regulation. British Journal of Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/bjop.12266.Google Scholar
Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2017). Unity and diversity of executive functions: Individual differences as a window on cognitive structure. Cortex, 86(Suppl. C), 186204. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2016.04.023.Google Scholar
Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Robinson, J. L., & Hewitt, J. K. (2011). Developmental trajectories in toddlers’ self-restraint predict individual differences in executive functions 14 years later: A behavioral genetic analysis. Developmental Psychology, 47, 14101430. doi:10.1037/a0023750.Google Scholar
Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 3160. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.134.1.31.Google Scholar
Goforth, A. N., Pham, A. V., & Carlson, J. S. (2011). Diathesis-stress model. In Goldstein, S. & Naglieri, J. A. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of child behavior and development (pp. 502503). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Goldsmith, H. H., & Rothbart, M. K. (1999). Laboratory temperament assessment battery, Lab-TAB, prelocomotor version 3.1. Unpublished manuscript, University of Wisconsin–Madison.Google Scholar
Johnston, C., & Mash, E. J. (2001). Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Review and recommendations for future research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4, 183207. doi:10.1023/A:1017592030434.Google Scholar
Johnson, M. H., Gliga, T., Jones, E., & Charman, T. (2015). Annual research review: Infant development, autism, and ADHD—Early pathways to emerging disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 228247. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12328.Google Scholar
Keown, L. J. (2012). Predictors of boys’ ADHD symptoms from early to middle childhood: The role of father–child and mother–child interactions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 569581. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9586-3.Google Scholar
Kieling, C., Kieling, R. R., Rohde, L. A., Frick, P. J., Moffitt, T., Nigg, J. T., … Castellanos, F. X. (2010). The age at onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 1416. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09060796.Google Scholar
Kiff, C. J., Lengua, L. J., & Zalewski, M. (2011). Nature and nurturing: Parenting in the context of child temperament. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 251. doi:10.1007/s10567-011-0093-4.Google Scholar
Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C., & Murray, K. T. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 10911111. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00336.Google Scholar
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology, 36, 220232. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.36.2.220.Google Scholar
Larsson, H., Chang, Z., Onofrio, B. M., & Lichtenstein, P. (2014). The heritability of clinically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Psychological Medicine, 44, 22232229. doi:10.1017/S0033291713002493.Google Scholar
Lifford, K. J., Harold, G. T., & Thapar, A. (2007). Parent–child relationships and ADHD symptoms: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 285296. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9177-5.Google Scholar
Middeldorp, C. M., Hammerschlag, A. R., Ouwens, K. G., Groen-Blokhuis, M. M., St. Pourcain, B., Greven, C. U., … Boomsma, D. I. (2016). A genome-wide association meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in population-based pediatric cohorts. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55, 896905. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.05.025.Google Scholar
Miller, M., Iosif, A.-M., Young, G. S., Hill, M. M., & Ozonoff, S. (2016). Early detection of ADHD: Insights from fnfant siblings of children with autism. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/15374416.2016.1220314.Google Scholar
Miller, S. E., & Marcovitch, S. (2015). Examining executive function in the second year of life: Coherence, stability, and relations to joint attention and language. Developmental Psychology, 51, 101114. doi:10.1037/a0038359.Google Scholar
Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (2012). The nature and organization of individual differences in executive functions four general conclusions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 814. doi:10.1177/0963721411429458.Google Scholar
Nigg, J. T. (2005). Neuropsychologic theory and findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The state of the field and salient challenges for the coming decade. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 14241435. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.11.011.Google Scholar
Nigg, J. T. (2006). Temperament and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 395422. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01612.x.Google Scholar
Nigg, J. T. (2017). Annual research review: On the relations among self-regulation, self-control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk-taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58, 361383. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12675.Google Scholar
Nigg, J. T., Goldsmith, H. H., & Sachek, J. (2004). Temperament and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The development of a multiple pathway model. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 33, 4253. doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3301_5.Google Scholar
Oosterlaan, J., Logan, G. D., & Sergeant, J. A. (1998). Response inhibition in AD/HD, CD, comorbid AD/HD+CD, anxious, and control children: A meta-analysis of studies with the stop task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 39, 411425.Google Scholar
Pederson, D. R., Moran, G., & Bento, S. (2013). The Maternal Behaviour Q-Sort (MBQS): Assessing maternal sensitivity and the quality of mother-infant interactions. Unpublished manual, University of Western Ontario.Google Scholar
Price, T. S., Simonoff, E., Asherson, P., Curran, S., Kuntsi, J., Waldman, I., & Plomin, R. (2005). Continuity and change in preschool ADHD symptoms: Longitudinal genetic analysis with contrast effects. Behavior Genetics, 35, 121132. doi:10.1007/s10519-004-1013-x.Google Scholar
Putnam, S. P., Helbig, A. L., Gartstein, M. A., Rothbart, M. K., & Leerkes, E. (2014). Development and assessment of short and very short forms of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire—Revised. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 445458. doi:10.1080/00223891.2013.841171.Google Scholar
Putnam, S. P., Rothbart, M. K., & Gartstein, M. A. (2008). Homotypic and heterotypic continuity of fine-grained temperament during infancy, toddlerhood, and early childhood. Infant and Child Development, 17, 387405. doi:10.1002/icd.582.Google Scholar
Rochette, É., & Bernier, A. (2016). Parenting and preschoolers’ executive functioning: A case of differential susceptibility? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 40, 151161. doi:10.1177/0165025414557370.Google Scholar
Roisman, G. I., Newman, D. A., Fraley, R. C., Haltigan, J. D., Groh, A. M., & Haydon, K. C. (2012). Distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis–stress: Recommendations for evaluating interaction effects. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 389409. doi:10.1017/S0954579412000065.Google Scholar
Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Temperament, development, and personality. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 207212. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00505.x.Google Scholar
Rothbart, M. K., Ellis, L. K., & Posner, M. I. (2013). Temperament and self-regulation. In Vohs, K. D. & Baumeiste, R. F. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Rothbart, M. K., Posner, M. I., & Kieras, J. (2006). Temperament, attention, and the development of self-regulation. In McCartney, K. & Phillips, D. (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of early childhood development (pp. 338357). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Ruff, H. A., Lawson, K. R., Parrinello, R., & Weissberg, R. (1990). Long-term stability of individual differences in sustained attention in the early years. Child Development, 61, 6075. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb02760.x.Google Scholar
Shaw, P., Stringaris, A., Nigg, J., & Leibenluft, E. (2016). Emotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Focus, 14, 127144. doi:10.1176/appi.focus.140102.Google Scholar
Sobanski, E., Banaschewski, T., Asherson, P., Buitelaar, J., Chen, W., Franke, B., … Faraone, S. V. (2010). Emotional lability in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Clinical correlates and familial prevalence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 915923. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02217.x.Google Scholar
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate analysis. Northridge, CA: Harper Collins College.Google Scholar
Tully, L. A., Arseneault, L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Morgan, J. (2004). Does maternal warmth moderate the effects of birth weight on twins’ attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 218226. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.72.2.218.Google Scholar
Turygin, N., Matson, J. L., & Tureck, K. (2013). ADHD symptom prevalence and risk factors in a sample of toddlers with ASD or who are at risk for developmental delay. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 42034209. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.07.020.Google Scholar
Ullsperger, J. M., Nigg, J. T., & Nikolas, M. A. (2016). Does child temperament play a role in the association between parenting practices and child attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 167178. doi:10.1007/s10802-015-9982-1.Google Scholar
Visser, S. N., Danielson, M. L., Bitsko, R. H., Holbrook, J. R., Kogan, M. D., Ghandour, R. M., … Blumberg, S. J. (2014). Trends in the parent-report of health care provider-diagnosed and medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: United States, 2003–2011. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 3446. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2013.09.001.Google Scholar
Weiss, M., Hechtman, L., & Weiss, G. (2000). ADHD in parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 10591061. doi:10.1097/00004583-200008000-00023.Google Scholar
Wiebe, S. A., Lukowski, A. F., & Bauer, P. J. (2010). Sequence imitation and reaching measures of executive control: A longitudinal examination in the second year of life. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35, 522538. doi:10.1080/87565641.2010.494751.Google Scholar
Willcutt, E. G., Doyle, A. E., Nigg, J. T., Faraone, S. V., & Pennington, B. F. (2005). Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 13361346. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.02.006.Google Scholar
Willcutt, E. G., Nigg, J. T., Pennington, B. F., Solanto, M. V., Rohde, L. A., Tannock, R., … Lahey, B. B. (2012). Validity of DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 9911010. doi:10.1037/a0027347.Google Scholar
Yong-Liang, G., Robaey, P., Karayanidis, F., Bourassa, M., Pelletier, G., & Geoffroy, G. (2000). ERPs and behavioral inhibition in a Go/No-go task in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Brain and Cognition, 43, 215220.Google Scholar
Zhou, Q., Chen, S. H., & Main, A. (2012). Commonalities and differences in the research on children's effortful control and executive function: A call for an integrated model of self-regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 112121. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00176.x.Google Scholar