Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-x5gtn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-19T15:40:34.969Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Changing parental depression and sensitivity: Randomized clinical trial of ABC's effectiveness in the community

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 July 2020

Laura Perrone
Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA
Steven D. Imrisek
Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Power of Two, Brooklyn, NY, USA
Allison Dash
Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Power of Two, Brooklyn, NY, USA
Melanie Rodriguez
Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Power of Two, Brooklyn, NY, USA
Erasma Monticciolo
Power of Two, Brooklyn, NY, USA
Kristin Bernard*
Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA
Author for Correspondence: Dr. Kristin Bernard, Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY11794-2500; E-mail:


Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) demonstrates efficacy in improving parent and child outcomes, with preliminary evidence for effectiveness in community settings. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based ABC implementation in improving parent outcomes as well as to examine potential mediators and moderators of intervention effectiveness. Two hundred parents and their 5- to 21-month-old infants recruited from an urban community were randomly assigned to receive ABC or be placed on a waitlist. The majority of participants had a minority racial or ethnic background. Before intervention, parents completed questionnaires about sociodemographic risk and adverse childhood experiences. At both baseline and follow-up, parents reported depression symptoms and were video-recorded interacting with their infant, which was coded for sensitivity. The ABC intervention predicted significant increases in parental sensitivity and, among parents who completed the intervention, significant decreases in depression symptoms. Changes in parental depression symptoms did not significantly mediate the intervention effects on sensitivity. Risk variables did not moderate the intervention effects. The results indicate that ABC shows promise for improving parent outcomes in community settings, supporting dissemination.

Regular Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ainsworth, M. D. S., Bell, S. M., & Stayton, D. J. (1974) Infant–mother attachment and social development: Socialization as a product of reciprocal responsiveness to signals. In Richard, M. P. M. (Ed.), The integration of a child into a social world (pp. 99135). London, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Albers, E. M., Riksen-Walraven, J. M., Sweep, F. C., & de Weerth, C. D. (2008). Maternal behavior predicts infant cortisol recovery from a mild everyday stressor. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 97103. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01818.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Azak, S. (2012). Maternal depression and sex differences shape the infants’ trajectories of cognitive development. Infant Behavior and Development, 35, 803814. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.07.017CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bagner, D. M., & Graziano, P. A. (2013). Barriers to success in parent training for young children with developmental delay: The role of cumulative risk. Behavior Modification, 37, 356377. doi:10.1177/0145445512465307CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bailey, H. N., DeOliveira, C. A., Wolfe, V. V., Evans, E. M., & Hartwick, C. (2012). The impact of childhood maltreatment history on parenting: A comparison of maltreatment types and assessment methods. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36, 236246. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.11.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Juffer, F. (2003). Less is more: Meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 195215. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.129.2.195CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnett, M. A., Gustafsson, H., Deng, M., Mills-Koonce, W. R., & Cox, M. (2012). Bidirectional associations among sensitive parenting, language development, and social competence. Infant and Child Development, 21, 374393. doi:10.1002/icd.1750CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berlin, L. J., Martoccio, T. L., Bryce, C. I., & Harden, B. J. (2019). Improving infants’ stress-induced cortisol regulation through attachment-based intervention: A randomized controlled trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 103, 225232. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.01.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berlin, L. J., Martoccio, T. L., & Jones Harden, B. (2018). Improving Early Head Start's impacts on parenting through attachment-based intervention: A randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology, 54, 23162327. doi:10.1037/dev0000592CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berlin, L. J., Shanahan, M., & Appleyard Carmody, K. (2014). Promoting supportive parenting in new mothers with substance-use problems: A pilot randomized trial of residential treatment plus an attachment-based parenting program. Infant Mental Health Journal, 35, 8185. doi:10.1002/imhj.21427CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernard, K., Dozier, M., Bick, J., & Gordon, M. K. (2015). Intervening to enhance cortisol regulation among children at risk for neglect: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 829841. doi:10.1017/s095457941400073xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernard, K., Dozier, M., Bick, J., Lewis-Morrarty, E., Lindhiem, O., & Carlson, E. (2012). Enhancing attachment organization among maltreated children: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Child Development, 83, 623636. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01712.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernard, K., Hostinar, C. E., & Dozier, M. (2015). Intervention effects on diurnal cortisol rhythms of Child Protective Services–referred infants in early childhood: Preschool follow-up results of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 169, 112119. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.2369CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernard, K., Lee, A. H., & Dozier, M. (2017). Effects of the ABC intervention on foster children's receptive vocabulary: Follow-up results from a randomized clinical trial. Child Maltreatment, 22, 174179. doi:10.1177/1077559517691126CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernard, K., Nissim, G., Vaccaro, S., Harris, J. L., & Lindhiem, O. (2018). Association between maternal depression and maternal sensitivity from birth to 12 months: A meta-analysis. Attachment & Human Development, 20, 578599. doi:10.1080/14616734.2018.1430839CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bert, S. C., Guner, B. M., Lanzi, R. G., & Centers for Prevention of Child Neglect (2009). The influence of maternal history of abuse on parenting knowledge and behavior. Family Relations, 58, 176187. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00545.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bick, J., & Dozier, M. (2013). The effectiveness of an attachment-based intervention in promoting foster mothers’ sensitivity toward foster infants. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34, 95103. doi:10.1002/imhj.21373CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bick, J., Palmwood, E. N., Zajac, L., Simons, R., & Dozier, M. (2019). Early parenting intervention and adverse family environments affect neural function in middle childhood. Biological Psychiatry, 85, 326335. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.09.020CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biggs, J., Sprague-Jones, J., Garstka, T., & Richardson, D. (2018). Brief motivational interviewing training for home visitors: Results for caregiver retention and referral engagement. Children and Youth Services Review, 94, 5664. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.09.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bost, K. K., Cox, M. J., Burchinal, M. R., & Payne, C. (2002). Structural and supportive changes in couples’ family and friendship networks across the transition to parenthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 517531. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00517.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caron, E. B., Bernard, K., & Dozier, M. (2018). In vivo feedback predicts parent behavior change in the attachment and biobehavioral catch-up intervention. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47, S35S46. doi:10.1080/15374416.2016.1141359CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caron, E. B., & Dozier, M. (2019). Effects of fidelity-focused consultation on clinicians’ implementation: An exploratory multiple baseline design. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 46, 445457. doi:10.1007/s10488-019-00924-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caron, E. B., Roben, C. K., Yarger, H. A., & Dozier, M. (2018). Novel methods for screening: Contributions from attachment and biobehavioral catch-up. Prevention Science, 19, 894903. doi:10.1007/s11121-018-0894-5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caron, E. B., Weston-Lee, P., Haggerty, D., & Dozier, M. (2016). Community implementation outcomes of attachment and biobehavioral catch-up. Child Abuse & Neglect, 53, 128137. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.11.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caserta, A., Fabiano, G. A., Hulme, K., Pyle, K., Isaacs, L., & Jerome, S. (2018). A waitlist-controlled trial of behavioral parent training for fathers of preschool children. Evidence-Based Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 3, 106116. doi:10.1080/23794925.2018.1446768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapman, D. P., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Edwards, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82, 217225. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2003.12.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuijpers, P., Weitz, E., Karyotaki, E., Garber, J., & Andersson, G. (2015). The effects of psychological treatment of maternal depression on children and parental functioning: A meta-analysis. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24, 237245. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0660-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Wolff, M. S., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1997). Sensitivity and attachment: A meta-analysis on parental antecedents of infant attachment. Child Development, 68, 571591. doi:10.2307/1132107CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doyle, O., Harmon, C. P., Heckman, J. J., & Tremblay, R. E. (2009). Investing in early human development: Timing and economic efficiency. Economics & Human Biology, 7, 16. doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2009.01.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dozier, M., & Bernard, K. (2017). Attachment and biobehavioral catch-up: Addressing the needs of infants and toddlers exposed to inadequate or problematic caregiving. Current Opinion in Psychology, 15, 111117. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.03.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dozier, M., & Bernard, K. (2019). Coaching parents of vulnerable infants: The attachment and biobehavioral catch-up approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Dozier, M., Lindhiem, O., Lewis, E., Bick, J., Bernard, K., & Peloso, E. (2009). Effects of a foster parent training program on young children's attachment behaviors: Preliminary evidence from a randomized clinical trial. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26, 321332. doi:10.1007/s10560-009-0165-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Lindhiem, O., Gordon, M. K., Manni, M., Sepulveda, S., . . . Levine, S. (2006). Developing evidence-based interventions for foster children: An example of a randomized clinical trial with infants and toddlers. Journal of Social Issues, 62, 767785. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00486.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dozier, M., Roben, C. K., Caron, E. B., Hoye, J., & Bernard, K. (2018). Attachment and biobehavioral catch-up: An evidence-based intervention for vulnerable infants and their families. Psychotherapy Research, 28, 1829. doi:10.1080/10503307.2016.1229873CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dube, S. R., Williamson, D. F., Thompson, T., Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Assessing the reliability of retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences among adult HMO members attending a primary care clinic. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 729737. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.08.009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eckenrode, J., Campa, M. I., Morris, P. A., Henderson, C. R. Jr., Bolger, K. E., Kitzman, H., & Olds, D. L. (2017). The prevention of child maltreatment through the Nurse Family Partnership Program: Mediating effects in a long-term follow-up study. Child Maltreatment, 22, 9299. doi:10.1177/1077559516685185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, G. W., Li, D., & Whipple, S. S. (2013). Cumulative risk and child development. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 13421396. doi:10.1037/a0031808CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feldman, R., Granat, A., Pariente, C., Kanety, H., Kuint, J., & Gilboa-Schechtman, E. (2009). Maternal depression and anxiety across the postpartum year and infant social engagement, fear regulation, and stress reactivity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 919927. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e3181b21651CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., . . . Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245258. doi:10.1016/s0749-3797(98)00017-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feng, X., Shaw, D. S., Kovacs, M., Lane, T., O'Rourke, F. E., & Alarcon, J. H. (2008). Emotion regulation in preschoolers: The roles of behavioral inhibition, maternal affective behavior, and maternal depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 132141. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01828.xGoogle ScholarPubMed
Field, T. (2010). Postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, and safety practices: A review. Infant Behavior and Development, 33, 16. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Folger, A. T., Brentley, A. L., Goyal, N. K., Hall, E. S., Sa, T., Peugh, J. L., . . . Ammerman, R. T. (2016). Evaluation of a community-based approach to strengthen retention in early childhood home visiting. Prevention Science, 17, 5261. doi:10.1007/s11121-015-0600-9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glasgow, R. E., Lichtenstein, E., & Marcus, A. C. (2003). Why don't we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 12611267. doi:10.2105/ajph.93.8.1261CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gomby, D. S. (1999). Understanding evaluations of home visitation programs. Future of Children, 9, 2743. doi:10.2307/1602720CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodman, S. H., Rouse, M. H., Connell, A. M., Broth, M. R., Hall, C. M., & Heyward, D. (2011). Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 127. doi:10.1007/s10567-010-0080-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guild, D. J., Toth, S. L., Handley, E. D., Rogosch, F. A., & Cicchetti, D. (2017). Attachment security mediates the longitudinal association between child–parent psychotherapy and peer relations for toddlers of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 587600. doi:10.1017/s0954579417000207CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haltigan, J. D., Roisman, G. I., & Fraley, R. C. (2013). The predictive significance of early caregiving experiences for symptoms of psychopathology through midadolescence: Enduring or transient effects? Development and Psychopathology, 25, 209221. doi:10.1017/s0954579412000260CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haroz, E. E., Ingalls, A., Kee, C., Goklish, N., Neault, N., Begay, M., & Barlow, A. (2019). Informing precision home visiting: Identifying meaningful subgroups of families who benefit most from Family Spirit. Prevention Science, 20, 12441254. doi:10.1007/s11121-019-01039-9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, A. F. (2014). The PROCESS macro for SPSS (Version 2.13) [Software]. Retrieved from http://www.afhayes.comGoogle Scholar
Hoagwood, K., & Olin, S. S. (2002). The NIMH blueprint for change report: Research priorities in child and adolescent mental health. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 760767. doi:10.1097/00004583-200207000-00006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 155. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, T. L., & Prinz, R. J. (2005). Potential roles of parental self-efficacy in parent and child adjustment: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 341363. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2004.12.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kersten-Alvarez, L. E., Hosman, C. M. H., Riksen-Walraven, J. M., van Doesum, K. T. M., & Hoefnagels, C. (2011). Which preventive interventions effectively enhance depressed mothers’ sensitivity? A meta-analysis. Infant Mental Health Journal, 32, 362376. doi:10.1002/imhj.20301CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kersten-Alvarez, L. E., Hosman, C. M., Riksen-Walraven, J. M., van Doesum, K. T., Smeekens, S., & Hoefnagels, C. (2012). Early school outcomes for children of postpartum depressed mothers: Comparison with a community sample. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 43, 201218. doi:10.1007/s10578-011-0257-yCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Khoury, J. E., Gonzalez, A., Levitan, R., Masellis, M., Basile, V., & Atkinson, L. (2016). Maternal self-reported depressive symptoms and maternal cortisol levels interact to predict infant cortisol levels. Infant Mental Health Journal, 37, 125139. doi:10.1002/imhj.21554CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
La Greca, A. M., Silverman, W. K., & Lochman, J. E. (2009). Moving beyond efficacy and effectiveness in child and adolescent intervention research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 373382. doi:10.1037/a0015954CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leahy-Warren, P., McCarthy, G., & Corcoran, P. (2012). First-time mothers: Social support, maternal parental self-efficacy and postnatal depression. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21, 388397. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03701.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leerkes, E. M., Blankson, A. N., & O'Brien, M. (2009). Differential effects of maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress on social-emotional functioning. Child Development, 80, 762775. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01296.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lengua, L. J., Honorado, E., & Bush, N. R. (2007). Contextual risk and parenting as predictors of effortful control and social competence in preschool children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 4055. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2006.10.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis-Morrarty, E., Dozier, M., Bernard, K., Terracciano, S. M., & Moore, S. V. (2012). Cognitive flexibility and theory of mind outcomes among foster children: Preschool follow-up results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51, S17S22. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.05.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lieberman, A. F., Ippen, C. G., & Van Horn, P. (2006). Child-parent psychotherapy: 6-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 913918. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000222784.03735.92CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lieberman, A. F., Van Horn, P., & Ippen, C. G. (2005). Toward evidence-based treatment: Child-parent psychotherapy with preschoolers exposed to marital violence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 12411248. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000181047.59702.58CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lind, T., Bernard, K., Ross, E., & Dozier, M. (2014). Intervention effects on negative affect of CPS-referred children: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 14591467. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.04.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lind, T., Bernard, K., Yarger, H. A., & Dozier, M. (2019). Promoting compliance in children referred to child protective services: A randomized clinical trial. Child Development. doi:10.1111/cdev.13207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lind, T., Raby, K. L., Caron, E. B., Roben, C. K., & Dozier, M. (2017). Enhancing executive functioning among toddlers in foster care with an attachment-based intervention. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 575586. doi:10.1017/s0954579417000190CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lovejoy, M. C., Graczyk, P. A., O'Hare, E., & Neuman, G. (2000). Maternal depression and parenting behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 561592. doi:10.1016/s0272-7358(98)00100-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luthar, S. S., & Eisenberg, N. (2017). Resilient adaptation among at-risk children: Harnessing science toward maximizing salutary environments. Child Development, 88, 337349. doi:10.1111/cdev.12737CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martins, C., & Gaffan, E. A. (2000). Effects of early maternal depression on patterns of infant–mother attachment: A meta-analytic investigation. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 41, 737746. doi:10.1017/s0021963099005958CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mesman, J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2012). Unequal in opportunity, equal in process: Parental sensitivity promotes positive child development in ethnic minority families. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 239250. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00223.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012–2017). Mplus8 Version 1.5 [Software]. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Early Child Care Research Network. (1999) Child care and mother-child interaction in the first three years of life. Developmental Psychology, 35, 13991413. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.35.6.1399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Early Child Care Research Network. (2003). Early child care and mother–child interaction from 36 months through first grade. Infant Behavior and Development, 26, 345370. doi:10.1016/s0163-6383(03)00035-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pereira, J., Vickers, K., Atkinson, L., Gonzalez, A., Wekerle, C., & Levitan, R. (2012). Parenting stress mediates between maternal maltreatment history and maternal sensitivity in a community sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36, 433437. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.01.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petersen, A. C., Joseph, J., & Feit, M. (Eds.). (2014). New directions in child abuse and neglect research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
Poobalan, A. S., Aucott, L. S., Ross, L., Smith, W. C. S., Helms, P. J., & Williams, J. H. (2007). Effects of treating postnatal depression on mother-infant interaction and child development: Systematic review. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 378386. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.106.032789CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., Shapiro, C. J., Whitaker, D. J., & Lutzker, J. R. (2009). Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: The US Triple P system population trial. Prevention Science, 10, 112. doi:10.1007/s11121-009-0123-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raby, K. L., Freedman, E., Yarger, H. A., Lind, T., & Dozier, M. (2019). Enhancing the language development of toddlers in foster care by promoting foster parents’ sensitivity: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Developmental Science, 22. doi:10.1111/desc.12753CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401. doi:10.1177/014662167700100306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roben, C. K., Dozier, M., Caron, E. B., & Bernard, K. (2017). Moving an evidence-based parenting program into the community. Child Development, 88, 14471452. doi:10.1111/cdev.12898CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, R. E. (1980). Reliability of the CES-D scale in different ethnic contexts. Psychiatry Research, 2, 125134. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(80)90069-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schickedanz, A., Halfon, N., Sastry, N., & Chung, P. J. (2018). Parents’ adverse childhood experiences and their children's behavioral health problems. Pediatrics, 142. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-0023CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sethna, V., Murray, L., Netsi, E., Psychogiou, L., & Ramchandani, P. G. (2015). Paternal depression in the postnatal period and early father–infant interactions. Parenting, 15, 18. doi:10.1080/15295192.2015.992732CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singla, D. R., Kumbakumba, E., & Aboud, F. E. (2015). Effects of a parenting intervention to address maternal psychological wellbeing and child development and growth in rural Uganda: A community-based, cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet Global Health, 3, e458e469. doi:10.1016/s2214-109x(15)00099-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spoth, R., Redmond, C., Shin, C., Lepper, H., Haggerty, K., & Wall, M. (1998). Risk moderation of parent and child outcomes in a preventive intervention: A test and replication. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 565579. doi:10.1037/h0080365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stepleton, K., Bosk, E. A., Duron, J. F., Greenfield, B., Ocasio, K., & MacKenzie, M. J. (2018). Exploring associations between maternal adverse childhood experiences and child behavior. Children and Youth Services Review, 95, 8087. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.10.027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stolk, M. N., Mesman, J., van Zeijl, J., Alink, L. R., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., . . . Koot, H. M. (2008). Early parenting intervention: Family risk and first-time parenting related to intervention effectiveness. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 17, 5583. doi:10.1007/s10826-007-9136-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tabachnick, A. R., Raby, K. L., Goldstein, A., Zajac, L., & Dozier, M. (2019). Effects of an attachment-based intervention in infancy on children's autonomic regulation during middle childhood. Biological Psychology, 143, 2231. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2019.01.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomas, R., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2011). Accumulating evidence for parent–child interaction therapy in the prevention of child maltreatment. Child Development, 82, 177192. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01548.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tømmerås, T., & Kjøbli, J. (2017). Family resources and effects on child behavior problem interventions: A cumulative risk approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 29362947. doi:10.1007/s10826-017-0777-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trentacosta, C. J., Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. (2008). The relations among cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems during early childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 12111219. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01941.xGoogle ScholarPubMed
Valcan, D. S., Davis, H., & Pino-Pasternak, D. (2018). Parental behaviours predicting early childhood executive functions: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 30, 607649. doi:10.1007/s10648-017-9411-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van der Waerden, J., Galéra, C., Larroque, B., Saurel-Cubizolles, M. J., Sutter-Dallay, A. L., Melchior, M., & EDEN Mother–Child Cohort Study Group. (2015). Maternal depression trajectories and children's behavior at age 5 years. The Journal of Pediatrics, 166, 14401448. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.03.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weisz, J. R., Weiss, B., & Donenberg, G. R. (1992). The lab versus the clinic: Effects of child and adolescent psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 47, 15781585. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.47.12.1578CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yarger, H. A., Bernard, K., Caron, E. B., Wallin, A., & Dozier, M. (2019). Enhancing parenting quality for young children adopted internationally: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. doi:10.1080/15374416.2018.1547972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yarger, H. A., Hoye, J. R., & Dozier, M. (2016). Trajectories of change in attachment and biobehavioral catch-up among high-risk mothers: A randomized clinical trial. Infant Mental Health Journal, 37, 525536. doi:10.1002/imhj.21585CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zeegers, M. A., Colonnesi, C., Stams, G. J. J., & Meins, E. (2017). Mind matters: A meta-analysis on parental mentalization and sensitivity as predictors of infant–parent attachment. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 12451272. doi:10.1037/bul0000114CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Perrone et al. supplementary material

Tables S1-S3

Download Perrone et al. supplementary material(File)
File 30.9 KB