Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-m9kch Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-20T16:38:09.442Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress-biology research join forces

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 December 2013

Terrie E. Moffitt*
Affiliation:
Duke University King's College London
*
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Terrie Moffitt, Department of Psychology, Duke University, Box 104410, 2020 West Main Street, Suite 201, Durham, NC 27708; E-mail: terrie.moffitt@duke.edu.

Abstract

Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child's body, alterations that may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Andersen, S., & Tomada, L.A. (2008). Preliminary evidence for sensitive periods in the effect of childhood sexual abuse on regional brain development. Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 20, 292301.Google Scholar
Appleyard, K., Egeland, B., van Dulmen, M. H. M., & Sroufe, L.A. (2005). When more is not better: The role of cumulative risk in child behavior outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 46, 235245.Google Scholar
Arseneault, L., Bowes, L., & Shakoor, S., (2010). Bullying victimization in youths and mental health problems: “Much ado about nothing”? Psychological Medicine, 40, 717729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Fisher, H. L., Polanczyk, G., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2011). Childhood trauma and children's emerging psychotic symptoms: A genetically sensitive longitudinal cohort study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 6572.Google Scholar
Aviv, A., Chen, W., Gardner, J. P., Kimura, M., Brimacombe, M., Cao, X, et al. (2009). Leukocyte telomere dynamics: Longitudinal findings among young adults in the Bogalusa Heart Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169, 323329.Google Scholar
Barker, D. J. (Ed.). (1992). Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Beach, S. R., Brody, G. H., Todorov, A. A., Gunter, T. D., & Philibert, R. A. (2010). Methylation at SLC6A4 is linked to family history of child abuse: An examination of the Iowa Adoptee sample. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 153B, 710713.Google Scholar
Bjornsson, H. T., Sigurdsson, M. I., Fallin, M. D., Irizarry, R. A., Aspelund, T., Cui, H., et al. (2008). Intra-individual change over time in DNA methylation with familial clustering. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299, 28772883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bocklandt, S., Lin, W., Sehl, M. E., Sanchez, F. J., Sinsheimer, J. S., Horvath, S., et al. (2011). Epigenetic predictors of age. PLoS ONE, 6, e14821.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bodenmann, G. (2004). Verhaltenstherapie mit Paaren [Behavior therapy with couples]. Bern, Switzerland: Huber.Google Scholar
Boks, M. P., de Jong, N. M., Kas, M. J., Vinkers, C. H., Fernandes, C., Kahn, R. S., et al. (2012). Current status and future prospects for epigenetic psychopharmacology. Epigenetics, 7, 2028.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boyce, W. T., Sokolowski, M. T., & Robinson, G. E. (2012). Toward a new biology of social adversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 1714317148. doi:10.1073/pnas.1121264109Google Scholar
Brenhouse, H. C., & Andersen, S. L. (2011). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory treatment prevents delayed effects of early life stress in rats. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 434440.Google Scholar
Buehler, C., Anthony, C.Krishnakumar, A., Stone, G., Gerard, J., & Pemberton, S. (1997). Interparental conflict and youth problem behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 6, 233247.Google Scholar
Buxton, J. L., Walters, R. G., Visvikis-Siest, S., Meyre, D., Froguel, P., & Blakemore, A. I. (2011). Childhood obesity is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabalomics, 96, 15001505.Google Scholar
Carrion, V. G., & Kletter, H. (2102). Treatment of traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: Assessment and treatment strategies. Psychiatric Times, 29. Advance online publication.Google Scholar
Cawthon, R. M., Smith, K. R., O' Brien, E., Sivatchenko, A., & Kerber, R. A. (2003). Association between telomere length in blood and mortality in people aged 60 years or older. Lancet, 361, 393395.Google Scholar
Chaffin, M., Funderburk, B., Bard, D., Valle, L. A, & Gurwitch, R. (2011). A combined motivation and parent–child interaction therapy package reduces child welfare recidivism in a randomized dismantling field trial. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 79, 8495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaffin, M., Silovsky, J. F., Funderburk, B., Valle, L. A., Brestan, E. V., & Balachova, T. (2004). Parent–child interaction therapy with physically abusive parents: Efficacy for reducing future abuse reports. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 72, 500510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Champagne, F. A., & Curley, J. P. (2005). How social experiences influence the brain. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15, 704709.Google Scholar
Champagne, F. A., & Curley, J. P. (2009). Epigenetic mechanisms mediating the long-term effects of maternal care on development. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 33, 593600.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, E., Miller, G. E., Kobor, M. S., & Cole, S. W. (2011). Maternal warmth buffers the effects of low early-life socioeconomic status on pro-inflammatory signaling in adulthood. Molecular Psychiatry, 16, 729737.Google Scholar
Christensen, B. C., Houseman, E. A., Marsit, C. J., Zheng, S., Wrensch, M. R., Wiemels, J. L., et al. (2009). Aging and environmental exposures alter tissue-specific DNA methylation dependent upon CpG island context. PLoS Genetics. 5, e1000602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D. (2013). Annual research review: Resilient functioning in maltreated children—Past, present, and future perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, doi:10.1111/j.1469–7610.2012.02608.x_2012Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Curtis, W. J. (2005). An event-related potential study of the processing of affective facial expressions in young children who experienced maltreatment during the first year of life. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 641–77.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Gunnar, M. R. (2008). Integrating biological measures into the design and evaluation of preventive interventions. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 737743.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2009). Adaptive coping under conditions of extreme stress: Multilevel influences on the determinants of resilience in maltreated children. New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development, 124, 4759.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Toth, S. L. (2006). Fostering secure attachment in infants in maltreating families through preventive interventions. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 623649.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., Toth, S. L., & Sturge-Apple, M. (2011). Normalizing the development of cortisol regulation in maltreated infants through preventive intervention. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 789800.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2005). Child maltreatment. Annual review of clinical psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 409438). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.Google Scholar
Cohen, J. A., Berliner, L., & Mannarino, A. (2010). Trauma focused CBT for children with co-occuring trauma and behavior problems. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 215224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, R., & Grieve, A. S. (2006). Early life stress and morphometry of the adult anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nuclei. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 975982.Google Scholar
Cole, S. W., Conti, G., Arevalo, J. M. G., Ruggiero, A. M., Heckman, J. J., & Suomi, S. J. (2012). Transcriptional modulation of the developing immune system by early life adversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 2057820583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (2010). Marital conflict and children. An emotional security perspective, New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Danese, A., Caspi, A., Williams, B., Ambler, A., Sugden, K., & Mika, J., et al. (2011). Biological embedding of stress through inflammation processes in childhood. Molecular Psychiatry, 16, 244246.Google Scholar
Danese, A., & McEwen, B. S. (2012). Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease. Physiology & Behavior, 106, 2939.Google Scholar
Danese, A., Moffitt, T. E., Pariante, C. M., Ambler, A., Poulton, R., & Caspi, A. (2008). Elevated inflammation levels in depressed adults with a history of childhood maltreatment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 409415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Danese, A., Pariante, C. M., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., & Poulton, R. (2007). Childhood maltreatment predicts adult inflammation in a life-course study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 13191324.Google Scholar
Danesh, J., Collins, R., Appleby, P., & Peto, R. (1998). Association of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, albumin, or leukocyte count with coronary heart disease: Meta-analyses of prospective studies. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 14771482.Google Scholar
Dannlowski, U., & Stuhrmann, A. (2012). Limbic scars: Long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment revealed by functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry, 71, 286293.Google Scholar
Dantzer, R., O'Connor, J. C., Freund, G. G., Johnson, R. W., & Kelley, K. W. (2008). From inflammation to sickness and depression: When the immune system subjugates the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 9, 4656.Google Scholar
Daubenmier, J., Lin, J., Blackburn, E., Hecht, F. M., Kristeller, J., Maninger, N., et al. (2012). Changes in stress, eating, and metabolic factors are related to changes in telomerase activity in a randomized mindfulness intervention pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 917928.Google Scholar
Davidson, R. J., & McEwen, B. S. (2012). Social influences on neuroplasticity: Stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nature Neuroscience, 15, 689695.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davies, M. N., Volta, M., Pidsley, R., Lunnon, K., Dixit, A., Lovestone, S., et al. (2012). Functional annotation of the human brain methylome identifies tissue-specific epigenetic variation across brain and blood. Genome Biology, 13, R43. doi: 10.1186/gb–2012–13–6-r43Google Scholar
Deary, I. J., Whiteman, M C., Starr, J. M., Whalley, L. J., & Fox, H. C. (2004). The impact of childhood intelligence on later life: Following up the Scottish mental surveys of 1932 and 1947. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 86, 130147.Google Scholar
De Bellis, M. D., & Keshavan, M. S. (2002). Brain structures in pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A sociodemographically matched study. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 10661078.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Bellis, M. D., & Kuchibhatla, M. (2006). Cerebellar volumes in pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 697703.Google Scholar
Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., Cohen, J. A., Runyon, M K., & Steer, R. A. (2011). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children: Impact of the trauma narrative and treatment length. Depression & Anxiety, 28, 6775.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diaz, V. A., & Samani, N. J. (2010). Effect of healthy lifestyle behaviors on the association between leukocyte telomere length and coronary artery calcium. American Journal of Cardiology, 106, 659663.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Lewis, E., Laurenceau, J. P., & Levine, S. (2008). Effects of an attachment-based intervention on the cortisol production of infants and toddlers in foster care. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 845859.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Drury, S. S., Theall, K., Gleason, M. M., Smyke, A. T., De Vivo, I., Wong, J. Y., et al. (2011). Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: Linking early adversity and cellular aging. Molecular Psychiatry, 17, 719727.Google Scholar
Edmiston, E. E., Wang, F., Mazure, C. M., Guiney, J., Sinha, R., Mayes, L. C., et al. (2011). Corticostriatal-limbic gray matter morphology in adolescents with self-reported exposure to childhood maltreatment. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 165, 10691077.Google Scholar
Ehrlenbach, S., Willeit, P., Kiechl, S., Willeit, J., Reindl, M., Schanda, K., et al. (2009). Influences on the reduction of relative telomere length over 10 years in the population-based Bruneck Study: Introduction of a well-controlled high-throughput assay. International Journal of Epidemiology 38, 17251734.Google Scholar
Epel, E. S., Blackburn, E. H., Lin, J., Dhabhar, F. S., Adler, N. E., Morrow, J. D., et al. (2004). Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 1731217315.Google Scholar
Epel, E. S., Merkin, S. S., Cawthon, R., Blackburn, E. H., Adler, N. E., Pletcher, M. J., et al. (2009). The rate of leukocyte telomere shortening predicts mortality from cardiovascular disease in elderly men. Aging, 1, 8188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feinberg, A. P. (2010). Epigenomics reveals a functional genome anatomy and a new approach to common disease. Nature Biotechnology, 28, 10491052.Google Scholar
Felmingham, K., Kemp, A., Williams, L., Das, P., Hughes, G., & Peduto, A. (2007). Changes in anterior cingulate and amygdala after cognitive behavior therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Science, 18, 127129.Google Scholar
Finkelhor, D. (1997). Zur internationalen Epidemiologie von sexuellem Mißbrauch an Kindern. In Amann, G. & Wipplinger, R. (Hrsg.), Sexueller Missbrauch. Überblick zu Forschung, Beratung und Therapie. Ein Handbuch (pp. 7285) [Sexual abuse. Review on research, counseling and therapy. A compendium]. Tübingen: Dgvt-Verlag.Google Scholar
Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2007). Re-victimization patterns in a national longitudinal sample of children and youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 479502.Google Scholar
Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2009). Lifetime assessment of poly-victimization in a national sample of children and youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 403411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., & Hamby, S. L., (2009). Violence, abuse, and crime exposure in a national sample of children and youth. Pediatrics, 124, 14111423.Google Scholar
Fisher, H. L., Moffitt, T. E., Houts, R., Belsky, D. W., Arseneault, L., & Caspi, A. (2012). Bullying victimisation and risk of self harm in early adolescence: Longitudinal cohort study. British Medical Journal, 344, e2683.Google Scholar
Fisher, H. L., Schreier, A., Zammit, S., Maughan, B., Munafò, M. R., Lewis, G., & Wolke, D. (2013). Pathways between childhood victimization and psychosis-like symptoms in the ALSPAC birth cohort. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 39, 10451055.Google Scholar
Fisher, P. A., Gunnar, M. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (2000). Preventive intervention for maltreated preschool children: Impact on children's behavior, neuroendocrine activity, and foster parent functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 13561364.Google Scholar
Flanagan, J. M., Popendikyte, V., Pozdniakovaite, N., Sobolev, M., Assadzadeh, A., Schumacher, A., et al. (2006). Intra- and interindividual epigenetic variation in human germ cells. American Journal of Human Genetics, 79, 6784.Google Scholar
Fraga, M. F., Ballestar, E., Paz, M. F., Ropero, S., Setien, F., Ballestar, M. L., et al. (2005). Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, 1060410609.Google Scholar
Gilbert, R., Kemp, A., Thoburn, J., Sidebotham, P., Radford, L., & Glaser, D., et al. (2009). Recognising and responding to child maltreatment. Lancet, 373, 167180.Google Scholar
Gilbert, R., Widom, C. S., Browne, K., Fergusson, D., Webb, E., & Janson, S. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. Lancet, 373, 6881.Google Scholar
Gilbertson, M. W., Paulus, L. A., Williston, S. K., Gurvits, T. V., Lasko, N. B., Pitman, R. K., et al. (2006). Neurocognitive function in monozygotic twins discordant for combat exposure: Relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 484495.Google Scholar
Glass, D., Parts, L., Knowles, D., Aviv, A., & Spector, T. D. (2010). No correlation between childhood maltreatment and telomere length. Biological Psychiatry, 68, e21e22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gluckman, P. D., Hanson, M. A., & Beedle, A. S. (2007). Early life events and their consequences for later disease: A life history and evolutionary perspective. American Journal of Human Biology, 19, 119.Google Scholar
Gottfredson, L. S. (2004). Intelligence: Is it the epidemiologists' elusive “fundamental cause” of social class inequalities in health? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 86, 174199.Google Scholar
Green, J. G., McLaughlin, K. A., Berglund, P. A., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication I: Associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 113123.Google Scholar
Gunnar, M., & Quevedo, K. (2007). The neurobiology of stress and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 145–73.Google Scholar
Hahlweg, K., Baucom, D. H., Grawe-Gerber, M., & Snyder, D. K. (2010). Strengthening couples and families: Dissemination of interventions for the treatment and prevention of couple distress. In Hahlweg, K., Grawe-Gerber, M., & Baucom, D. H. (Eds.), Enhancing couples: The shape of couple therapy to come (pp. 330). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
Hahlweg, K., Markman, H. J., Thurmaier, F., Engl, J., & Eckert, V. (1998). Prevention of marital distress: Results of a German prospective-longitudinal study. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 543556.Google Scholar
Handschin, C., & Spiegelman, B. M. (2008). The role of exercise and PGC1α in inflammation and chronic disease. Nature, 454, 463469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanson, J. L., Chung, M. K., Avants, B. B., Shirtcliff, E. A., Gee, J. C., & Davidson, R. J. (2010). Early stress is associated with alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex: A tensor-based morphometry investigation of brain structure and behavioral risk. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 74667472.Google Scholar
Hart, H., & Rubia, K. (2012). Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 124.Google Scholar
Heidinger, B. J., Blount, J. D., Boner, W., Griffiths, K., Metcalfe, N. B., & Monaghan, P. (2012). Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 17431748.Google Scholar
Heim, C., Newport, D. J., Heit, S., Graham, Y. P., Wilcox, M., Bonsall, R., et al. (2000). Pituitary–adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 592597.Google Scholar
Heijmans, B. T., & Mill, J. (2012). Commentary: The seven plagues of epigenetic epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology, 41, 7478.Google Scholar
Heijmans, B. T., Tobi, E. W., Lumey, L. H., & Slagboom, P. E. (2009). The epigenome: Archive of the prenatal environment. Epigenetics, 4, 526531.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hotamisligil, G. S. (2006). Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature, 444, 860867.Google Scholar
Howren, M. B., Lamkin, D. M., & Suls, J. (2009). Associations of depression with C-reactive protein, IL-1, and IL-6: A meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 171186.Google Scholar
Jacobs, T. L., Epel, E. S., Lin, J., Blackburn, E. H., Wolkowitz, O. M., Bridwell, D. A., et al. (2011). Intensive meditation training, immune cell telomerase activity, and psychological mediators. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 664681.Google Scholar
Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Polo-Tomás, M., & Taylor, A. (2007). Individual, family, and neighborhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: A cumulative stressors model. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 231253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaffee, S. R., & Maikovich-Fong, A. K. (2011). Effects of chronic maltreatment and maltreatment timing on children's behavior and cognitive abilities. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 52, 184194.Google Scholar
Jaffee, S. R., & Price, T. S. (2007). Gene–environment correlations: A review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 432442.Google Scholar
Jansson, E. T. (2005). Alzheimers disease is substantially preventable in the United States—Review of risk factors, therapy, and the prospects for an expert software system. Medical Hypotheses, 64, 960967.Google Scholar
Jaskelioff, M., Muller, F. L., Paik, J. H., Thomas, E., Jiang, S., Adams, A. C., et al. (2011). Telomerase reactivation reverses tissue degeneration in aged telomerase-deficient mice. Nature, 469, 102106.Google Scholar
Jouriles, E. N., McDonald, R., Rosenfield, D., Norwood, W. D., Spiller, L., & Stephens, N. (2010). Improving parenting in families referred for child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial examining effects of project support. Journal of Family Psychology, 24, 328338.Google Scholar
Kaiser, J. (2010). Epigenetic drugs take on cancer. Science, 330, 576578.Google Scholar
Kananen, L., Surakka, I., Pirkola, S., Suvisaari, J., Lonnqvist, J., Peltonen, L., et al. (2010). Childhood adversities are associated with shorter telomere length at adult age both in individuals with an anxiety disorder and controls. PLoS ONE, 5, e10826.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, K. S., Bulik, C. M., Silberg, J., Hettema, J. M., Myers, J., & Prescott, C. A. (2000). Childhood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric and substance use disorders in women—An epidemiological and cotwin control analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 953959.Google Scholar
Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, et al. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 378385.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Christian, L., Preston, H., Houts, C. R., Malarkey, W. B., & Emery, C. F., et al. (2010). Stress, inflammation, and yoga practice. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, 113121.Google Scholar
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Gouin, J. P., Weng, N. P., Malarkey, W. B., Beversdorf, D. Q., & Glaser, R. (2011). Childhood adversity heightens the impact of later-life caregiving stress on telomere length and inflammation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73, 1622.Google Scholar
Koenen, K. C., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., & Purcell, S. (2003). Domestic violence is associated with environmental suppression of IQ in young children. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 297315.Google Scholar
Koenen, K. C., Roberts, A., Stone, D., & Dunn, E. (2010). The epidemiology of early childhood trauma. In Lanius, R. & Vermetten, E. (Eds.), The hidden epidemic: The impact of early life trauma on health and disease (pp. 1324). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Kowalik, J., Weller, J., Venter, J., & Drachman, D. (2011). Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of pediatric posttramatic stress disorder: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 42, 405413.Google Scholar
Krug, E. G. (2002). World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2002/9241545615_eng.pdfGoogle Scholar
Labonté, B., Suderman, M., Maussion, G., Navaro, L., Yerko, V., Mahar, I., et al. (2012). Genome-wide epigenetic regulation by early-life trauma. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 722731.Google Scholar
Leeb, R. T., Paulozzzi, L., Melanson, C., Simon, T., & Arias, I. (2008). Child maltreatment surveillance. Uniform definitions for public health and recommended data elements. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
Lupien, S. J., Paulozzzi, L., Melanson, C., Simon, T., & Arias, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 434445.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacMillan, H., Wathen, C. N., Barolw, J., Fergussin, D. M., Leventhal, J. M., & Taussig, H. N. (2009). Interventions to prevent child maltreatment and associated impairment. Lancet, 373, 250266.Google Scholar
Markman, H. J., Floyd, F., Stanley, S., & Stoorasli, R. (1988). Prevention of marital distress: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 56, 210217.Google Scholar
Markman, H. J., Renick, M. J., Floyd, F., Stanley, S., & Clements, M. (1993). Preventing marital distress through communication and conflict management training: A 4- and 5-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 61, 7077.Google Scholar
McCrory, E., De Brito, S. A., & Viding, E. (2010). Research review: The neurobiology and genetics of maltreatment and adversity. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 51, 10791095.Google Scholar
McEwen, B. S. (2012) Brain on stress: How the social environment gets under the skin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(Suppl. 2), 1718017185.Google Scholar
McGill, H. C., & McMahon, C. A. (2003). Starting earlier to prevent heart disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 23202321.Google Scholar
McGowan, P. O., Sasaki, A., D'Alessio, A. C., Dymov, S., Labonte, B., Szyf, M., et al. (2009). Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 342348.Google Scholar
Medzhitov, R. (2008). Origin and physiological roles of inflammation. Nature, 24, 428435.Google Scholar
Mihalopoulos, C., Vos, T., Pirkis, J., & Carter, R. (2011). The economic analysis of prevention in mental health programs. Annual Review Clinical Psychology, 7, 169201CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mikton, C., & Butchart, A. (2009). Child maltreatment prevention: A systematic review of reviews. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87, 353361.Google Scholar
Millan, M. J., Agid, Y., Brüne, M., Bullmore, E. T., Carter, C. S., & Clayton, N. S. (2012). Cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric disorders: Characteristics, causes and the quest for improved therapy. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 11, 141168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, A. H., Maletic, V., & Raison, C. L. (2009). Inflammation and its discontents: The role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 732741.Google Scholar
Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Cole, S. W. (2009): Health psychology: Developing biologically plausible models linking the social world and physical health. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 501524.Google Scholar
Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Parker, K. J. (2011). Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: Moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 959997.Google Scholar
Miller, G. E., Chen, E., Sze, J., Marin, T., Arevalo, J. M., Doll, R., et al. (2008). A functional genomic fingerprint of chronic stress in humans: Blunted glucocorticoid and increased NF-κB signaling. Biological Psychiatry, 64, 266272.Google Scholar
Miller, G. E., & Cohen, S. (2001). Psychological interventions and the immune system: A meta-analytic review and critique. Health Psychology, 20, 4763.Google Scholar
Miller, G. E., Rohleder, N., & Cole, S. W. (2009). Chronic interpersonal stress predicts activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways 6 months later. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 5762.Google Scholar
Mondelli, V., Cattaneo, A., Belvederi Murri, M., Di Forti, M., Handley, R., Hepgul, N., et al. (2011). Stress and inflammation reduce brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in first-episode psychosis: A pathway to smaller hippocampal volume. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72, 16771684.Google Scholar
Nanni, V., Uher, R., & Danese, A. (2012). Childhood maltreatment predicts unfavorable course of illness and treatment outcome in depression: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 141151.Google Scholar
National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2009). Family, school, and community interventions. In O'Connell, M. E., Boat, T., & Warner, K. E. (Eds.), Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities (pp. 157–90). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
Nelson, E. C., Heath, A. C., Madden, P. A. F., Cooper, M. L., Dinwiddie, S. H., & Bucholz, K. K., et al. (2002). Association between self-reported childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychosocial outcomes—Results from a twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 139145.Google Scholar
Nguyen, M. D., Julien, J. P., & Rivest, S. (2002). Innate immunity: The missing link in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 216227.Google Scholar
Nixon, R. D., Sterk, J., & Pearce, A. (2012). A randomized trial of cognitive behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy for children with posttraumatic stress disorder following single-incident trauma. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 327337.Google Scholar
Nordfjall, K., Eliasson, M., Stegmayr, B., Melander, O., Nilsson, P., & Roos, G. (2008). Telomere length is associated with obesity parameters but with a gender difference. Obesity, 16, 26822689.Google Scholar
O'Donovan, A., Epel, E., Lin, J., Wolkowitz, O., Cohen, B., Maguen, S., et al. (2011). Childhood trauma associated with short leukocyte telomere length in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry 70, 465471.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Donovan, A., Sun, B., Cole, S., Rempel, H., Lenoci, M., Pulliam, L., & Neylan, T., (2011). Transcriptional control of monocyte gene expression in post-traumatic stress disorder. Disease Markers, 30, 123132.Google Scholar
Oke, S. L., & Tracey, K. J. (2009). The inflammatory reflex and the role of complementary and alternative medical therapies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1172, 172180.Google Scholar
Osofsky, J. D. (2003). Prevalence of children's exposure to domestic violence and child maltreatment: Implications for prevention and intervention. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 6, 161170.Google Scholar
Øverlien, C. (2010). Children exposed to domestic violence: Conclusions from the literature and challenges ahead. Journal of Social Work, 10, 8097.Google Scholar
Pace, T. W., Negi, L. T., Dodson-Lavelle, B., Ozawa-de Silva, B., Reddy, S. D., Cole, S. P., et al. (2012). Engagement with cognitively-based compassion training is associated with reduced salivary C-reactive protein from before to after training in foster care program adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 294299.Google Scholar
Perez, C., & Widom, C. (1994). Childhood victimization and long-term intellectual and academic outcomes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18, 617633.Google Scholar
Perrin, S., Smith, P., & Yule, W. (2000). Practitioner review: The assessment and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 41, 277289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petronis, A. (2010). Epigenetics as a unifying principle in the aetiology of complex traits and diseases. Nature, 465, 721727.Google Scholar
Pollak, S. D. (2005). Early adversity and mechanisms of plasticity: Integrating affective neuroscience with developmental approaches to psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 735752.Google Scholar
Pollitt, R. A., Rose, K. M., & Kaufman, J. S. (2005). Evaluating the evidence for models of life course socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular outcomes: A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 5, 7.Google Scholar
Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., Shapiro, C. J., Whitaker, D. J., & Lutzker, J. R. (2009). Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P system population trial. Prevention Science, 10, 112.Google Scholar
Radford, L., Corral, S., Bradley, C., & Fisher, H. L. (2013). The prevalence and impact of child maltreatment and other types of victimization in the UK: Findings from a population suvey of caregivers, children and young people and young adults. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 801813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robjant, K., & Fazel, M. (2010). The emerging evidence for narrative exposure therapy: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 10301039.Google Scholar
Rockhill, B., Newman, B., & Weinberg, C. (1998). Use and misuse of population attributable fractions. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1519.Google Scholar
Rodenburg, R., Benjamin, A., de Roos, C., Meijer, A. M., & Stams, G. J. (2009). Efficacy of EMDR in children: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 599606.Google Scholar
Rolfsnes, E. S., & Idsoe, T. (2011). School-based intervention programs for PTSD symptoms: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 155165.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ross, R. (1999). Atherosclerosis—An inflammatory disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 340, 115126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutten, B. P., & Mill, J. (2009). Epigenetic mediation of environmental influences in major psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35, 10451056.Google Scholar
Salloum, A., & Overstreet, S. (2012). Grief and trauma intervention for children after disaster: Exploring coping skills versus trauma narration. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 50, 169179.Google Scholar
Sapolsky, R. (1996). Stress, glucocorticoids, and damage to the nervous system: The current state of confusion. Stress, 1, 119.Google Scholar
Sarapas, C., Cai, G., Bierer, L. M., Golier, J. A., Galea, S., Ising, M., et al. (2011). Genetic markers for PTSD risk and resilience among survivors of the World Trade Center attacks. Disease Markers, 30, 101110.Google Scholar
Scheeringa, M. S., Zeanah, C. H., Drell, M. J., & Larrieu, J. (1995). Two approaches to the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder in infancy and early childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 191200.Google Scholar
Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. (2004). General mental ability in the world of work: Occupational attainment and job performance. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 86, 162173.Google Scholar
Scott, K. M., McLaughlin, K. A., Smith, D. A. R., & Ellis, P. (2012). Childhood maltreatment and adult DSM-IV mental disorders: Comparison of prospective and retrospective findings. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200, 469475.Google Scholar
Segman, R. H., Shefi, N., Goltser-Dubner, T., Friedman, N., Kaminski, N., & Shalev, A. Y. (2005). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles identify emergent post-traumatic stress disorder among trauma survivors. Molecular Psychiatry, 10, 500513.Google Scholar
Shalev, I., Moffitt, T. E., Sugden, K., Williams, B., Houts, R. M., Danese, A., et al. (2012). Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: A longitudinal study. Molecular Psychiatry. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1038/mp.2012.32Google Scholar
Shirtcliff, E. A., Coe, C. L., & Pollak, S. D. (2009). Early childhood stress is associated with elevated antibody levels to herpes simplex virus type 1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106, 29632967.Google Scholar
Shonkoff, J. P. (2012). Leveraging the biology of adversity to address the roots of disparities in health and development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(Suppl. 2), 1730217307.Google Scholar
Shonkoff, J. P., Garner, A. S., & the Committee on Psychosocial, Developmental, and Behavioral Pediatrics. (2012). The lifelong effects of childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129, 20112663.Google Scholar
Shors, T. J. (2006). Stressful experience and learning across the lifespan. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 5585.Google Scholar
Simon, N. M., Smoller, J. W., McNamara, K. L., Maser, R. S., Zalta, A. K., Pollack, M. H., et al. (2006). Telomere shortening and mood disorders: Preliminary support for a chronic stress model of accelerated aging. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 432435.Google Scholar
Slopen, N., Lewis, T. T., Gruenewald, T. L., Mujahid, M. S., Ryff, C. D., & Albert, M. A. (2010). Early life adversity and inflammation in African Americans and Whites in midlife in the United States survey. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, 694701.Google Scholar
Smith, A. K., Conneely, K. N., Kilaru, V., Mercer, K. B., Weiss, T. E., Bradley, B., et al. (2011). Differential immune system DNA methylation and cytokine regulation in post-traumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 156B, 700708.Google Scholar
Soczynska, J. K., Zhang, L., Kennedy, S. H., & McIntyre, R. S. (2012), Are psychiatric disorders inflammatory-based conditions? Psychiatric Times. Advance online publication.Google Scholar
Stallard, P. (2006). Psychological inteventions for posttraumatic reactions in children and young people: A review of randomised controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 895911.Google Scholar
Sunde, R. A. (2010). mRNA transcripts as molecular biomarkers in medicine and nutrition. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 21, 665670.Google Scholar
Surtees, P., Wainwright, N., Day, N., Brayne, C., Luben, R., & Khaw, K. T. (2003). Adverse experience in childhood as a developmental risk factor for altered immune status in adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10, 251268.Google Scholar
Susser, E., & Widom, C. S. (2012). Still searching for the lost truths about the bitter sorrows of childhood. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 672675.Google Scholar
Taylor, C. A., Guterman, N. B., Lee, S. H., & Rathouz, P. J. (2009). Intimate partner violence, maternal stress, nativity, and risk for maternal maltreatment of young children. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 175183.Google Scholar
Taylor, S. E., Way, B. M., & Seeman, T. E. (2011). Early adversity and adult health outcomes. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 939954.Google Scholar
Teicher, M. H., Tomoda, A., & Andersen, S. L. (2006). Neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment: Are results from human and animal studies comparable? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071, 313323.Google Scholar
Thomaes, K., & Dorrepaal, E. (2012). Treatment effects on insular and anterior cingulate cortex activation during classic and emotional Stroop interference in child abuse-related complex post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine, 22, 113.Google Scholar
Thurmaier, F., Engl, J., & Hahlweg, K. (1999). Eheglück auf Dauer? Methodik, Inhalte und Effektivität eines präventiven Paarkommunikationstrainings. Ergebnisse nach 5 Jahren [Marital satisfaction forever? Method, content, and effectiveness of a prevention intervention. 5-year results]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie, 28, 64–62.Google Scholar
Toth, S. L., Pickreign Stronach, E., Rogosch, F. A., Caplan, R., & Cicchetti, D. (2011). Illogical thinking and thought disorder in maltreated children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 659668.Google Scholar
Tough, P. (2011, March 21) The poverty clinic: Can a stressful childhood make you sick? New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/03/21/110321fa_fact_toughGoogle Scholar
Turner, H. A., Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2010). Poly-victimization in a national sample of children and youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 323330.Google Scholar
Tyrka, A. R., Price, L. H., Kao, H. T., Porton, B., Marsella, S. A., & Carpenter, L. L. (2010). Childhood maltreatment and telomere shortening: Preliminary support for an effect of early stress on cellular aging. Biological Psychiatry, 67, 531534.Google Scholar
Tyrka, A. R., Price, L. H., Marsit, C., Walters, O. C., & Carpenter, L. L. (2012). Childhood adversity and epigenetic modulation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor: Preliminary findings in healthy adults. PLoS ONE, 7, e30148.Google Scholar
Uddin, M., Aiello, A. E., Wildman, D. E., Koenen, K. C., Pawelec, G., de Los Santos, R., et al. (2010). Epigenetic and immune function profiles associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 94709475.Google Scholar
Valdes, A. M., Andrew, T., Gardner, J. P., Kimura, M., Oelsner, E., Cherkas, L. F., et al. (2005). Obesity, cigarette smoking, and telomere length in women. Lancet, 366, 662664.Google Scholar
Varese, F., Smeets, F., Drukker, M., Lieverse, R., Lataster, T., Viechtbauer, W., et al. (2012). Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: A meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective- and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 661671.Google Scholar
Vaupel, J. W. (2010). Biodemography of human aging. Nature, 464, 536542.Google Scholar
Vythilingam, M., Heim, C., Newport, J., Miller, A. H., Anderson, E., Bronen, R., et al. (2002). Childhood trauma associated with smaller hippocampal volume in women with major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 20722080.Google Scholar
Weaver, I. C., Cervoni, N., Champagne, F. A., D'Alessio, A. C., Sharma, S., Seckl, J. R., et al. (2004). Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 847854.Google Scholar
Wellcome Trust (2006). Ageing: Can we stop the clock? London: Author.Google Scholar
Weniger, G., & Lange, C. (2008). Amygdala and hippocampal volumes and cognition in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118, 281290.Google Scholar
Wethington, H. R., Hahn, R. A., Fuqua-Whitley, D. S., Sipe, T. A., Crosby, A. E., Johnson, R. L., et al. (2008). The effectiveness of interventions to reduce psychological harm from tramatic events among children and adolescents: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35, 287313.Google Scholar
Widom, C. S., Czaja, S. J., Bentley, T., & Johnson, M. S. (2012). A prospective investigation of physical health outcomes in abused and neglected children: New findings from a 30-year follow-up. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 11351144.Google Scholar
Widom, C. S., Czaja, S. J., & Dutton, M. A. (2008). Childhood victimization and lifetime revictimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 785796.Google Scholar
Wiggins, T. L., Sofronoff, K., & Sanders, M. R. (2009). Pathways Triple P-positive parenting program: Effects on parent–child relationships and child behavior problems. Family Process, 48, 517530.Google Scholar
Wilson, K. R., Hansen, D. J., & Li, M. (2011). The traumatic stress response in child maltreatment and resultant neuropsychological effects. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 16, 8797.Google Scholar
Winsper, C., Lereya, T., Zanarini, M., & Wolke, D. (2012). Involvement in bullying and suicide-related behavior at 11 years: A prospective birth cohort study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 271282.Google Scholar
Wolinsky, H. (2011). Testing time for telomeres. Telomere length can tell us something about disease susceptibility and ageing, but are commercial tests ready for prime time? EMBO Reports, 12, 897900.Google Scholar
Wong, C. C., Caspi, A., Williams, B., Craig, I. W., Houts, R., Ambler, A., et al. (2010). A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins. Epigenetics, 5, 516526.Google Scholar
Woon, F. L., & Hedges, D. W. (2008). Hippocampal and amygdala volumes in children and adults with childhood maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis. Hippocampus, 18, 729736.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. (2001). The World Health Report 2001—Mental health: New understanding, new hope. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
Yehuda, R., Cai, G., Golier, J. A., Sarapas, C., Galea, S., Ising, M., et al. (2009). Gene expression patterns associated with posttraumatic stress disorder following exposure to the World Trade Center attacks. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 708711.Google Scholar
Yu, W. Y., Chang, H. W., Lin, C. H., & Cho, C. L. (2008). Short telomeres in patients with chronic schizophrenia who show a poor response to treatment. Journal of Psychiatry Neuroscience, 33, 244247.Google Scholar
Zhang, M. J., & Spite, M. (2012). Resolvins: Anti-inflammatory and proresolving mediators derived from omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Annual Review of Nutrition, 32, 203227.Google Scholar