Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-5bz6h Total loading time: 0.483 Render date: 2022-06-28T21:37:55.432Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

The development of forms and functions of aggression during early childhood: A temperament-based approach

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 March 2022

Jamie M. Ostrov*
Affiliation:
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA
Dianna Murray-Close
Affiliation:
University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
Kristin J. Perry
Affiliation:
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA
Sarah J. Blakely-McClure
Affiliation:
Canisius College, Buffalo, NY, USA
Gretchen R. Perhamus
Affiliation:
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA
Lauren M. Mutignani
Affiliation:
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Samantha Kesselring
Affiliation:
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA
Gabriela V. Memba
Affiliation:
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA
Sarah Probst
Affiliation:
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
*
Corresponding author: Jamie M. Ostrov, email: jostrov@buffalo.edu

Abstract

This study used a short-term longitudinal design with theoretically derived preregistered hypotheses and analyses to examine the role of temperament in the development of forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior in early childhood (N = 300, M age = 44.70 months, SD = 4.38, 44% girls). Temperament was measured via behavioral reports of emotional dysregulation, fearlessness/daring, and rule internalization/empathy and, in a subsample that completed a physiological assessment, via skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Emotion dysregulation generally served as a risk factor for all subtypes of aggression, with evidence of stronger associations with reactive as compared to proactive functions of relational aggression for girls. Daring predicted increases in physical aggression, especially among boys, and rule internalization predicted decreases in relational aggression, especially among girls. Rule internalization mediated longitudinal associations between daring and proactive relational aggression for girls. Some evidence also emerged supporting associations between adaptive functioning (i.e., high empathy, high respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and proactive functions of aggression. Findings highlight distinct temperamental risk factors for physical versus relational aggression and provide partial support for gender-linked theories of the development of aggression.

Type
Regular Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aimé, C., Paquette, D., Déry, M., & Verlaan, P. (2018). Predictors of childhood trajectories of overt and indirect aggression: An interdisciplinary approach. Aggressive Behavior, 44(4), 382393. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21759 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Armstrong, T., Wells, J., Boisvert, D. L., Lewis, R., Cooke, E. M., Woeckener, M., & Kavish, N. (2019). Skin conductance, heart rate and aggressive behavior type. Biological Psychology, 141, 4451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2018.12.012 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baker, E., Shelton, K. H., Baibazarova, E., Hay, D. F., van, Goozen, & Stephanie, H. M. (2013). Low skin conductance activity in infancy predicts aggression in toddlers 2 years later. Psychological Science, 24(6), 10511056. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612465198 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Batanova, M., & Loukas, A. (2016). Empathy and effortful control effects on early adolescents’ aggression: When do students’ perceptions of their school climate matter? Applied Developmental Science, 20(2), 7993. https://doi-org/10.1080/10888691.2015.1067145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beauchaine, T. P. (2015). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: A transdiagnostic biomarker of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. Current Opinion in Psychology, 3, 4347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.01.017 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beauchaine, T. P., Katkin, E. S., Strassberg, Z., & Snarr, J. (2001). Disinhibitory psychopathology in male adolescents: Discriminating conduct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through concurrent assessment of multiple autonomic states. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(4), 610624.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Is it tie to pull the plug on the hostile versus instrumental aggression dichotomy? Psychological Review, 108, 273279. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.108.1.273 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calkins, S. D., & Keane, S. P. (2004). Cardiac vagal regulation across the preschool period: Stability, continuity, and implications for childhood adjustment. Developmental Psychobiology, 45(3), 101112. https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.20020 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Card, N. A., & Little, T. D. (2006). Proactive and reactive aggression in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analysis of differential relations with psychosocial adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 466480. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025406071904 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, A., McCarthy, M., Houghton, S., O’Connor, E. S., & Zadlow, C. (2018). Reactive and proactive aggression as meaningful distinctions at the variable and person level in primary school-aged children. Aggressive Behavior, 44, 431441. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21763 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coplan, R. J., Bullock, A., Archbell, K. A., & Bosacki, S. (2015). Preschool teachersʼ attitudes, beliefs, and emotional reactions to young children’s peer group behaviors. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30, 117127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crick, N. R., Bigbee, M. A., & Howes, C. (1996). Gender differences in children’s normative beliefs about aggression: How do I hurt thee? Let me count the ways. Child Development, 67(3), 10031014. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131876 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66(3), 710722. https://doi-org/10.2307/1131945 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crick, N. R., Ostrov, J. M., Burr, J. E., Cullerton-Sen, C., Jansen-Yeh, E., & Ralston, P. (2006). A longitudinal study of relational and physical aggression in preschool. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27(3), 254268. https://doi-org/10.1016/j.appdev.2006.02.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(6), 11461158. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.53.6.1146 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisner, M. P., & Malti, T. (2015). Aggressive and violent behavior. In Lamb, M. E., & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Socioemotional processes (Vol. 3, 7th ed., pp. 794841). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi-org/10.1002/9781118963418.childpsy319 Google Scholar
El-Sheikh, M., & Hinnant, J. B. (2011). Marital conflict, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and allostatic load: Interrelations and associations with the development of children’s externalizing behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 23(3), 815829. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579411000320 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ettekal, I., & Ladd, G. W. (2017). Developmental continuity and change in physical, verbal, and relational aggression and peer victimization from childhood to adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 53, 1709–1172. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000357 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, S. C., Diaz, K. I., Callahan, K. P., Wolock, E. R., & Fite, P. J. (2020). Parallel trajectories of proactive and reactive aggression in middle childhood and their outcomes in early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00709-5 Google ScholarPubMed
Evans, S. C., Frazer, A. L., Blossom, J. B., & Fite, P. J. (2019). Forms and functions of aggression in early childhood. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 48(5), 790798. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2018.1485104 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fite, P. J., Cushing, C., & Odell, C. (2021). Examination of the links between functions of aggression and risk for e-cigarette use among middle school-age youth: A comparison with risk for alcohol use. Journal of Substance Use, 26(2), 138143. https://doi.org/10/1080/14659891.2020.1784302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fite, P. J., Poquiz, J., Cooley, J. L., Stoppelbein, L., Becker, S. P., Luebbe, A. M., & Greening, L. (2016). Risk factors associated with proactive and reactive aggression in a child psychiatric inpatient sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 38(1), 5665. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-015-9503-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fite, P. J., Poquiz, J., Frazer, A. L., & Reiter, N. (2017). Further evaluation of associations between reactive and proactive aggression and suicidal behavior in a treatment seeking sample of youth. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 48(6), 903910. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-017-0713-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fite, P. J., Stoppelbein, L., Gaertner, A. E., Greening, L., & Elledge, C. (2011). Further evaluation of the forms and functions of aggression measure with a child inpatient population. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 28(1), 116. https://doi.org/10.1080/0886571X.2011.541840 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frey, K. S., & Strong, Z. H. (2018). Aggression predicts changes in peer victimization that vary by form and function. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(2), 305318. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0306-5 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Barry, C. T., Bodin, S. D., & Dane, H. E. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in the prediction of conduct problem severity, aggression, and self-report of delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(4), 457470. https://doi-org/10.1023/A:1023899703866 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frick, P. J., & Morris, A. S. (2004). Temperament and developmental pathways to conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(1), 5468. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374434JCCP3301_6 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frick, P. J., & Viding, E. (2009). Antisocial behavior from a developmental psychopathology perspective. Development and Psychopathology, 21(4), 11111131. https://doi-org/10.1017/S0954579409990071 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gomez-Garibello, C., & Talwar, V. (2015). Can you read my mind? Age as a moderator in the relationship between theory of mind and relational aggression. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 39(6), 552559. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025415580805 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gower, A. L., & Crick, N. R. (2011). Baseline autonomic nervous system arousal and physical and relational aggression in preschool: The moderating role of effortful control. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 81(3), 142151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.06.001 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graziano, P. A., Reavis, R. D., Keane, S. P., & Calkins, S. D. (2007). The role of emotion regulation and children’s early academic success. Journal of School Psychology, 45(1), 319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2006.09.002 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hart, E. J., & Ostrov, J. M. (2013). Functions of aggressive behavior and future impairment. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(4), 683691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.05.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawley, P. H., & Geldhof, J. G. (2012). Preschoolers’ social dominance, moral cognition, and moral behavior: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 112(1), 1835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2011.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hay, D. F., Waters, C. S., Perra, O., Swift, N., Kairis, V., Phillips, R., Jones, R., Goodyer, I., Harold, G., Thapar, A., & van Goozen, S. (2014). Precursors to aggression are evident by 6 months of age. Developmental Science, 17,3, 471480. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hollingshead, A. A. (1975). Four-factor index of social status. Unpublished manuscript. Yale University.Google Scholar
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 155. https://doi-org/10.1080/10705519909540118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hubbard, J., Parker, E., Ramsden, S., Flanagan, K., Relyea, N., Dearing, K., Smithmyer, C., Simons, R., & Hyde, C. (2004). The relations among observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children’s anger. Social Development, 13(1), 1439. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2004.00255.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Izard, C. E., Youngstrom, E. A., Fine, S. E., Mostow, A. J., & Trentacosta, C. J. (2006). Emotions and developmental psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology, Vol 1: Theory and method (2nd ed., pp. 244292). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
Jambon, M., Colasante, T., Peplak, J., & Malti, T. (2019). Anger, sympathy, and children’s reactive and proactive aggression: Testing a differential correlate hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47, 10131024. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-018-0498-3 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kibler, J. L., Prosser, V. L., & Ma, M. (2004). Cardiovascular correlates of misconduct in children and adolescents. Journal of Psychophysiology, 18(4), 184189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Kochanska, G. (1991). Socialization and temperament in the development of guilt and conscience. Child Development, 62(6), 13791392. https://doi.org/10.2307/1130813 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kochanska, G. (1993). Toward a synthesis of parental socialization and child temperament in early development of conscience. Child Development, 64(2), 325347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kochanska, G., Barry, R. A., Aksan, N., & Boldt, L. J. (2008). A developmental model of maternal and child contributions to disruptive conduct: The first six years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(11), 12201227.Google ScholarPubMed
Kochanska, G., Forman, D. R., Aksan, N., & Dunbar, S. B. (2005). Pathways to conscience: Early mother-child mutually responsive orientation and children’s moral emotion, conduct, and cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(1), 1934. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00348.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kochanska, G., & Kim, S. (2013). Difficult temperament moderates links between maternal responsiveness and children’s compliance and behavior problems in low-income families. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(3), 323332. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12002 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kochanska, G., Kim, S., & Boldt, L. J. (2013). Origins of children’s externalizing behavior problems in low-income families: Toddlers’ willing stance toward their mothers as the missing link. Development and Psychopathology, 25(4), 891901. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579413000254 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lahey, B. B., Applegate, B., Chronis, A. M., Jones, H. A., Williams, S. H., Loney, J., & Waldman, I. D. (2008). Psychometric characteristics of a measure of emotional dispositions developed to test a developmental propensity model of conduct disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37(4), 794807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lahey, B. B., & Waldman, I. D. (2003). A developmental propensity model of the origins of conduct problems during childhood and adolescence. In Lahey, B. B., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 76117). The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Leff, S. S., Gullan, R. L., Paskewich, B. S., Abdul-Kabir, S., Jawad, A. F., Grossman, M., Munrol, M. A., & Power, T. J. (2009). An initial evaluation of a culturally adapted social-problem solving and relational aggression prevention program for urban African-American relationally aggressive girls. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 37, 260274. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852350903196274 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. Guilford.Google Scholar
Lorber, M. F. (2004). Psychophysiology of aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130(4), 531552. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.130.4.531 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mann, F. D., Tackett, J. L., Tucker-Drob, K., & Harden, P. (2018). Callous-unemotional traits moderate genetic and environmental influences on rule-breaking and aggression: Evidence for gene x trait interaction. Clinical Psychological Science, 6(1), 123133. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702617730889 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsee, M. A., & Frick, P. J. (2007). Exploring the cognitive and emotional correlates to proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of detained girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(6), 969981. https://doi-org/10.1007/s10802-007-9147-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matlasz, T. M., Frick, P. J., Robertson, E. L., Ray, J. V., Thornton, L. C., Wall Myers, T. D., Steinberg, L., & Cauffman, E. (2020). Does self-report of aggression after first arrest predict future offending and do the forms and functions of aggression matter? Psychological Assessment, 32(3), 265276. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000783 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, C. C., Hubbard, J. A., & Bookhout, M. K. (2018). Temperament and aggression. In Malti, T., & Rubin, K. (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent aggression: Emergence, development, and intervention (pp. 107126). Guilford.Google Scholar
Murray-Close, D., Breslend, N. L., & Holterman, L. A. (2018). Psychophysiology indicators of relational aggression. In Coyne, S. M., & Ostrov, J. M. (Eds.), The development of relational aggression (pp. 127151). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Murray-Close, D., Crick, N. R., & Galotti, K. M. (2006). Children’s moral reasoning regarding physical and relational aggression. Social Development, 15(3), 345372. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2006.00346.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray-Close, D., Nelson, D. A., Ostrov, J. M., Casas, J. F., & Crick, N. R. (2016). Relational aggression: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In Cicchetti, D. (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology (3rd ed., pp. 660722). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119125556.devpsy413 Google Scholar
Murray-Close, D., & Ostrov, J. M. (2009). A longitudinal study of forms and functions of aggressive behavior in early childhood. Child Development, 80, 828842. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01300.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muthén, L. K. (1999, October 29). It is really not the size of the intraclass correlation that is the issue [Comment on the online forum post My intraclass correlations are very small. Do I really need to use multilevel modeling with my data?]. Statmodel. http://www.statmodel.com/discussion/messages/12/18.html Google Scholar
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2020). Mplus user’s guide (8th ed.). Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2004). Trajectories of physical aggression from toddlerhood to middle childhood. In Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development (Vol. 69, Serial No. 278). Wiley.Google Scholar
Nwadinobi, O. K., & Gagne, J. R. (2020). Preschool anger, activity level, inhibitory control, and behavior problems: A family study approach. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 66. https://doi.org/10.13110/merrpalmquart1982.66.4.03339 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrov, J. M., & Crick, N. R. (2007). Forms and functions of aggression during early childhood: A short-term longitudinal study. School Psychology Review, 36(1), 2243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrov, J. M., & Godleski, S. A. (2010). Toward an integrated gender-linked model of aggression subtypes in early and middle childhood. Psychological Review, 117(1), 233242. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018070 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ostrov, J. M., Kamper, K. E., Godleski, S. A., Hart, E. J., & Blakely-McClure, S. J. (2014). A gender-balanced approach to the study of peer victimization and aggression subtypes in early childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 575587. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414000248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrov, J. M., & Keating, C. F. (2004). Gender differences in preschool aggression during free play and structured interactions: An observational study. Social Development, 13(2), 255277. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2004.000266.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrov, J. M., Murray-Close, D., Godleski, S. A., & Hart, E. J. (2013). Prospective associations between forms and functions of aggression and social and affective processes during early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(1), 1936. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2012.12.009 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ostrov, J. M., Perry, K. J., & Blakely-McClure, S. J. (2018). Developmental trajectories of aggression subtypes: From early to late childhood. In Malti, T., & Rubin, K. H. (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent aggression (pp. 4161). The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Pellegrini, A. D. (2004). Observing children in their natural worlds: A methodological primer (2nd ed.). Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Peplak, J., & Malti, T. (2017). That really hurt, Charlie!’ investigating the role of sympathy and moral respect in children’s aggressive behavior. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 178(2), 89101. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2016.1245178 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patriquin, M. A., Lorenzi, J., Scarpa, A., Calkins, S. D., & Bell, M. A. (2015). Broad implications for respiratory sinus arrhythmia development: Associations with childhood symptoms of psychopathology in a community sample. Developmental Psychobiology, 57(1), 120130. https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.21269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perhamus, G. R., & Ostrov, J. M. (2021). Emotions and cognitions in early childhood aggression: The role of irritability and hostile attribution biases. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 49(1), 6375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00707-7 Google ScholarPubMed
Peterson, E. R., Dando, E., D’Souza, S., Waldie, K. E., Carr, A. E., Mohal, J., & Morton, S. M. B. (2018). Can infant temperament be used to predict which toddlers are likely to have increased emotional and behavioral problems? Early Education and Development, 29(4), 435449, https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2018.1457391,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poland, S. E., Monks, C. P., & Tsermentseli, S. (2016). Cool and hot executive function as predictors of aggression in early childhood: Differentiating between the function and form of aggression. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 34, 181197. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjdp.12122 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Porges, S. W. (1985). Method and apparatus for evaluating rhythmic oscillations in aperiodic physiological response systems. Patent Number: 4,510,944. U.S. Patent Office.Google Scholar
Porges, S. W. (2007). The polyvagal perspective. Biological Psychology, 74(2), 116143. https://doi-org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.009 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Posthumus, J. A., Böcker, K. B. E., Raaijmakers, M. A. J., Van Engeland, H., & Matthys, W. (2009). Heart rate and skin conductance in four-year-old children with aggressive behavior. Biological Psychology, 82(2), 164168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.07.003 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poulin, F., & Boivin, M. (2000). Reactive and proactive aggression: Evidence of a two-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 12, 115122. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.12.2.115 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prinstein, M. J., & Cillessen, A. H. N. (2003). Forms and functions of adolescent peer aggression associated with high levels of peer status. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49(3), 310342. https://doi-org/10.1353/mpq.2003.0015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putallaz, M., Grimes, C. L., Foster, K. J., Kupersmidt, J. B., Coie, J. D., & Dearing, K. (2007). Overt and relational aggression and victimization: Multiple perspectives within the school setting. Journal of School Psychology, 45(5), 523547. https://doi-org.proxy.lib.umich.edu/10.1016/j.jsp.2007.05.003 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Putnam, S. P., & Rothbart, M. K. (2006). Development of short and very short forms of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87(1), 103113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quiñones-Camacho, L. E., & Davis, E. L. (2018). Discrete emotion regulation strategy repertoires and parasympathetic physiology characterize psychopathology symptoms in childhood. Developmental Psychology, 54(4), 718730. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000464 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raaijmakers, M. A. J., Smidts, D. P., Sergeant, J. A., Maassen, G. H., Posthumus, J. A., van Engeland, H., & Matthys, W. (2008). Executive functions in preschool children with aggressive behavior: Impairments in inhibitory control. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(7), 10971107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9235-7 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raine, A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(4), 311326. https://doi-org/10.1023/A:1015754122318 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., Hershey, K. L., & Fisher, P. (2001). Investigations of temperament at 3-7 years: The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire. Child Development, 72, 13941408. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00355 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scarpa, A., Haden, S. C., & Tanaka, A. (2010). Being hot-tempered: Autonomic, emotional, and behavioral distinctions between childhood reactive and proactive aggression. Biological Psychology, 84(3), 488496.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion regulation checklist. Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
Sijtsema, J. J., Shoulberg, E. K., & Murray-Close, D. (2011). Physiological reactivity and different forms of aggression in girls: Moderating roles of rejection sensitivity and peer rejection. Biological Psychology, 86, 181192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.11.007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Song, J., Colasante, T., & Malti, T. (2020). Taming anger and trusting others: Roles of skin conductance, anger regulation, and trust in children’s aggression. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 38, 4258. https://doi.org/10.1111/djdp.12304 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swit, C. S., McMaugh, A. L., & Warburton, W. A. (2018). Teacher and parent perceptions of relational and physical aggression during early childhood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27, 118130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0861-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tampke, E. C., Fite, P. J., & Cooley, J. L. (2020). Bidirectional associations between affective empathy and proactive and reactive aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 46(4), 317326. https://doi.org/10/1002/ab.21891 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ungvary, S., McDonald, K. L., Gibson, C. E., Glenn, A. L., & Reijntjes, A. (2018). Victimized by peers and aggressive: The moderating role of physiological arousal and reactivity. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 64(1), 70100. http://dx.d/10.13110/merrpalmquar1982.64.1.0070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vitaro, F., Gendreau, P. L., Tremblay, R. E., & Oligny, P. (1998). Reactive and proactive aggression differentially predict later conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(3), 377385. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021963097002102 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Werner, N. E., Eaton, A. D., Lyle, K., Tseng, H., & Holst, B. (2014). Maternal social coaching quality interrupts the development of relational aggression during early childhood. Social Development, 23(3), 470486. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12048 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Werner, N. E., Senich, S., & Przepyszny, K. A. (2006). Mothers’ responses to preschoolers’ relational and physical aggression. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27(3), 193208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2006.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, Y., Raine, A., Yu, L., & Krieg, A. (2014). Resting heart rate, vagal tone, and reactive and proactive aggression in Chinese children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(3), 501514, https://doi-org/10.1007/s10802-013-9792-2 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Ostrov et al. supplementary material

Table S1

Download Ostrov et al. supplementary material(File)
File 29 KB
Supplementary material: File

Ostrov et al. supplementary material

Ostrov et al. supplementary material 2

Download Ostrov et al. supplementary material(File)
File 215 KB

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The development of forms and functions of aggression during early childhood: A temperament-based approach
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The development of forms and functions of aggression during early childhood: A temperament-based approach
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The development of forms and functions of aggression during early childhood: A temperament-based approach
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *