Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-56f9d74cfd-nww4m Total loading time: 0.422 Render date: 2022-06-25T08:35:51.313Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent pregnancy: A multiple mediational model

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 January 2022

Justin Russotti*
Mt. Hope Family Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, USA
Sarah A. Font
Department of Sociology and Criminology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA
Sheree L. Toth
Mt. Hope Family Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, USA
Jennie G. Noll
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA
Corresponding author: Justin Russotti, email:


Adolescent pregnancy (AP) is a significant public health issue. Child maltreatment (CM) represents an established risk factor, yet little is known about the explanatory mechanisms linking the phenomena. Informed by developmental theory, this study prospectively tested seven multi-level, indirect pathways that could plausibly explain the relationship between CM and AP: (1) substance use (polysubstance use and frequency); (2) sexual risk behavior; (3) depressive symptoms; (4) posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms; (5) cognitive dysregulation; (6) pregnancy desire and difficulty expectancies; and (7) age at menarche. Data came from a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 469 ethnically diverse, nulliparous adolescent females, designed to examine the impact of substantiated CM on reproductive outcomes such as pregnancy and childbirth (265 maltreated and 204 demographically matched comparison adolescents). A multiple-mediator structural equation model was conducted to simultaneously test multiple indirect effects while accounting for confounding variables. Maltreatment had an indirect effect on pregnancy via substance use and higher pregnancy desire/lower perceived difficulty. Findings represent a step towards elucidating pathways linking CM with AP. Recommendations are offered to prevent pregnancy by addressing the pregnancy-specific mechanisms that are part of the maltreatment sequelae.

Regular Article
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abajobir, A. A., Kisely, S., Williams, G., Strathearn, L., & Najman, J. M. (2018). Risky sexual behaviors and pregnancy outcomes in young adulthood following substantiated childhood maltreatment: Findings from a prospective birth cohort study. The Journal of Sex Research, 55, 106119. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allison, P. D. (2012). Logistic regression using SAS: Theory and application. SAS Institute.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Author.Google Scholar
Aparicio, E., Pecukonis, E. V., & O’Neale, S. (2015). “The love that I was missing”: Exploring the lived experience of motherhood among teen mothers in foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 51, 4454. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baele, J., Dusseldorp, E., & Maes, S. (2001). Condom use self-efficacy: Effect on intended and actual condom use in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28, 421431. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baker, C. K. (2016). Dating violence and substance use: Exploring the context of adolescent relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31, 900919. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., Ball, R., & Ranieri, W. F. (1996). Comparison of beck depression inventories-IA and-II in psychiatric outpatients. Journal of Personality Assessment, 67, 588597. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beers, L. A. S., & Hollo, R. E. (2009). Approaching the adolescent-headed family: A review of teen parenting. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 39, 216233. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benassi, V. A., Sweeney, P. D., & Dufour, C. L. (1988). Is there a relation between locus of control orientation and depression? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 357. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, S. E., & Assefi, N. P. (2005). School-based teenage pregnancy prevention programs: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36, 7281. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bleil, M. E., Booth-LaForce, C., & Benner, A. D. (2017). Race disparities in pubertal timing: Implications for cardiovascular disease risk among African American women. Population Research and Policy Review, 36(5), 717738.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bollen, K. A., & Pearl, J. (2013). Eight myths about causality and structural equation models. In S. L. Morgan (Ed.), Handbook of causal analysis for social research (pp. 301328). Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boustani, M. M., Frazier, S. L., Hartley, C., Meinzer, M., & Hedemann, E. (2015). Perceived benefits and proposed solutions for teen pregnancy: Qualitative interviews with youth care workers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 85, 80. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breheny, M., & Stephens, C. (2004). Barriers to effective contraception and strategies for overcoming them among adolescent mothers. Public Health Nursing, 21, 220227. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown, J. L., Young, A. M., Sales, J. M., DiClemente, R. J., Rose, E. S., & Wingood, G. M. (2014). Impact of abuse history on adolescent African American women’s current HIV/STD-associated behaviors and psychosocial mediators of HIV/STD risk. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 23, 151167. doi: 10.1080/10926771.2014.873511 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cederbaum, J. A., Putnam-Hornstein, E., King, B., Gilbert, K., & Needell, B. (2013). Infant birth weight and maltreatment of adolescent mothers. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 45, 197201. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2017). Teen pregnancy. Scholar
Chapman, S. L. C., & Wu, L. T. (2013). Substance use among adolescent mothers: A review. Children and Youth Services Review, 35, 806815. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2021). Foster care statistics 2019. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Children’s Bureau.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Handley, E. D. (2019). Child maltreatment and the development of substance use and disorder. Neurobiology of Stress, 10, 100144. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M. (1993). Toward an ecological/transactional model of community violence and child maltreatment: Consequences for children’s development. Psychiatry, 56(1), 96118. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M. (1995). Failures in the expectable environment and their impact on individual development: The case of child maltreatment. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597600. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2009). The past achievements and future promises of developmental psychopathology: The coming of age of a discipline. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 1625. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2016). Child maltreatment and developmental psychopathology: A multilevel perspective. In D. Cicchetti (Ed.), Developmental psychopathology: Maladaptation and psychopathology (pp. 457–512). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connolly, J., Heifetz, M., & Bohr, Y. (2012). Pregnancy and motherhood among adolescent girls in child protective services: A meta-synthesis of qualitative research. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 6, 614635. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Covington, R. D., Goesling, B., Clark Tuttle, C., Crofton, M., Manlove, J., Oman, R. F., & Vesely, S. (2016). Final impacts of the POWER through choices program. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health.Google Scholar
Coyne, C. A., & D’Onofrio, B. M. (2012). Some (but not much) progress toward understanding teenage childbearing: A review of research from the past decade. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 42, 113152. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diamond, G. U. Y., & Siqueland, L. (1995). Family therapy for the treatment of depressed adolescents. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 32, 77. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dodge, K. A. (2020). Annual research review: Universal and targeted strategies for assigning interventions to achieve population impact. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 61, 255267. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dworsky, A., & Courtney, M. E. (2010). The risk of teenage pregnancy among transitioning foster youth: Implications for extending state care beyond age 18. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 13511356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
East, P. L. (1998). Racial and ethnic differences in girls’ sexual, marital, and birth expectations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
East, P. L., Khoo, S. T., & Reyes, B. T. (2006). Risk and protective factors predictive of adolescent pregnancy: A longitudinal, prospective study. Applied Developmental Science, 10, 188199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehrenberg, M. F., Cox, D. N., & Koopman, R. F. (1991). The relationship between self-efficacy and depression in adolescents. Adolescence, 26, 361.Google ScholarPubMed
Ewing, S. W. F., Ryman, S. G., Gillman, A. S., Weiland, B. J., Thayer, R. E., & Bryan, A. D. (2016). Developmental cognitive neuroscience of adolescent sexual risk and alcohol use. AIDS and Behavior, 20, 97108. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
French, S. E., & Holland, K. J. (2013). Condom negotiation strategies as a mediator of the relationship between self-efficacy and condom use. Journal of Sex Research, 50, 4859. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garwood, S. K., Gerassi, L., Jonson-Reid, M., Plax, K., & Drake, B. (2015). More than poverty: The effect of child abuse and neglect on teen pregnancy risk. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57, 164168. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giedd, J. N. (2004). Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021(1), 7785.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Godiwala, P., Appelhans, B. M., Moore Simas, T. A., Xiao, R. S., Liziewski, K. E., Pagoto, S. L., & Waring, M. E. (2016). Pregnancy intentionality in relation to non-planning impulsivity. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 37, 130136. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goesling, B., Colman, S., Trenholm, C., Terzian, M., & Moore, K. (2014). Programs to reduce teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and associated sexual risk behaviors: A systematic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54, 499507. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldstein, B. L., Finsaas, M. C., Olino, T. M., Kotov, R., Grasso, D. J., & Klein, D. N. (2021). Three-Variable systems: An integrative moderation and mediation framework for developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 112. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grace, K. T., & Anderson, J. C. (2018). Reproductive coercion: A systematic review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 19, 371390. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunby, C., Carline, A., Bellis, M. A., & Beynon, C. (2012). Gender differences in alcohol-related non-consensual sex. BMC Public Health, 12, 216. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hampton-Anderson, J. N., Carter, S., Fani, N., Gillespie, C. F., Henry, T. L., Holmes, E., Lamis, D. A., LoParo, D., Maples-Keller, J. L., Powers, A., Sonu, S., & Kaslow, N. J. (2021). Adverse childhood experiences in African Americans: Framework, practice, and policy. American Psychologist, 76(2), 314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harding, J. F., Knab, J., Zief, S., Kelly, K., & McCallum, D. (2020). A systematic review of programs to promote aspects of teen parents’ self-sufficiency: Supporting educational outcomes and healthy birth spacing. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 24, 121. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, A. L., Jones, K. A., McCauley, H. L., Tancredi, D. J., Silverman, J. G., & Miller, E. (2019). Reproductive coercion and relationship abuse among adolescents and young women seeking care at school health centers. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 134(2), 351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holliday, C. N., Miller, E., Decker, M. R., Burke, J. G., Documet, P. I., Borrero, S. B., Silverman, J. G., Trancredi, J., Ricci, E., & McCauley, H. L. (2018). Racial differences in pregnancy intention, reproductive coercion, and partner violence among family planning clients: A qualitative exploration. Women’s Health Issues, 28(3), 205211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hovsepian, S., Blais, M., Manseau, H., Otis, J., & Girard, M. (2010). Prior victimization and sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy among adolescent females under Child Protective Services care. Health Education & Behavior, 37, 6583. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Humphreys, K. L., LeMoult, J., Wear, J. G., Piersiak, H. A., Lee, A., & Gotlib, I. H. (2020). Child maltreatment and depression: A meta-analysis of studies using the childhood trauma questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 102, 104361. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hussong, A. M., Jones, D. J., Stein, G. L., Baucom, D. H., & Boeding, S. (2011). An internalizing pathway to alcohol use and disorder. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25, 390. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, A. V., Karasek, D., Dehlendorf, C., & Foster, D. G. (2016). Racial and ethnic differences in women’s preferences for features of contraceptive methods. Contraception, 93, 406411. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaffee, S. R. (2017). Child maltreatment and risk for psychopathology in childhood and adulthood. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 13, 525551.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2005). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2004. Volume I: Secondary school students. National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
Kaltiala-Heino, R., Kosunen, E., & Rimpelä, M. (2003). Pubertal timing, sexual behaviour and self-reported depression in middle adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 531545. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
King, B., Putnam-Hornstein, E., Cederbaum, J. A., & Needell, B. (2014). A cross-sectional examination of birth rates among adolescent girls in foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 36, 179186. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kost, K., Maddow-Zimet, I., & Arpaia, A. (2017). Pregnancies, births and abortions among adolescents and young women in the United States, 2013: National and state trends by age, race and ethnicity. Guttmacher Institute.Google Scholar
Kovensky, R., Khurana, A., Guyer, S., & Leve, L. D. (2021). Childhood adversity, impulsivity, and HIV knowledge as predictors of sexual risk outcomes in at-risk female youth. Adolescents, 1, 5669. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, M., D’arcy, C., & Meng, X. (2016). Maltreatment in childhood substantially increases the risk of adult depression and anxiety in prospective cohort studies: Systematic review, meta-analysis, and proportional attributable fractions. Psychological Medicine, 46, 717730. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Love, L. T., McIntosh, J., Rosst, M., & Tertzakian, K. (2005). Preventing teen pregnancy among youth in foster care. National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.Google Scholar
MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Reviews Psychology, 58, 593614. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madigan, S., Wade, M., Tarabulsy, G., Jenkins, J. M., & Shouldice, M. (2014). Association between abuse history and adolescent pregnancy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55, 151159. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marklein, E., Negriff, S., & Dorn, L. D. (2009). Pubertal timing, friend smoking, and substance use in adolescent girls. Prevention Science, 10, 141. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McIntyre, A., Saudargas, R. A., & Howard, R. (1991). Attribution of control and teenage pregnancy. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 12, 5561. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A., Colich, N. L., Rodman, A. M., & Weissman, D. G. (2020). Mechanisms linking childhood trauma exposure and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic model of risk and resilience. BMC Medicine, 18, 111. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mellins, C. A., Walsh, K., Sarvet, A. L., Wall, M., Gilbert, L., Santelli, J. S., Thompson, M., Wilson, P. A., Khan, S., Benson, S., Bah, K., Kaufman, K. A., Reardon, L., & Hirsch, J. (2017). Sexual assault incidents among college undergraduates: Prevalence and factors associated with risk. PLoS One, 12, e0186471. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mendle, J., Beltz, A. M., Carter, R., & Dorn, L. D. (2019). Understanding puberty and its measurement: Ideas for research in a new generation. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 29(1), 8295.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mendle, J., Turkheimer, E., & Emery, R. E. (2007). Detrimental psychological outcomes associated with early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Developmental Review, 27, 151171. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mezzich, A. C., Tarter, R. E., Giancola, P. R., & Kirisci, L. (2001). The dysregulation inventory: A new scale to assess the risk for substance use disorder. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 10, 3543. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, E., McCauley, H. L., Tancredi, D. J., Decker, M. R., Anderson, H., & Silverman, J. G. (2014). Recent reproductive coercion and unintended pregnancy among female family planning clients. Contraception, 89, 122128. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Millstein, S. G., & Halpern–Felsher, B. L. (2002). Judgments about risk and perceived invulnerability in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12, 399422. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mollborn, S., & Morningstar, E. (2009). Investigating the relationship between teenage childbearing and psychological distress using longitudinal evidence. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 310326. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mufson, L. (2004). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Guilford Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2017). Mplus user’s guide (8th ed.). Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
Negriff, S. (2018). Developmental pathways from maltreatment to risk behavior: Sexual behavior as a catalyst. Development and Psychopathology, 30, 683693. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Negriff, S., Schneiderman, J. U., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior: Maltreatment types and gender differences. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP, 36, 708. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Negriff, S., Susman, E. J., & Trickett, P. K. (2011). The developmental pathway from pubertal timing to delinquency and sexual activity from early to late adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(10), 13431356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nikulina, V., & Widom, C. S. (2013). Child maltreatment and executive functioning in middle adulthood: A prospective examination. Neuropsychology, 27, 417. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. (2021). A critical review of child sexual abuse as a unique risk factor for the development of psychopathology: The compounded convergence of mechanisms. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 17, 439464. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noll, J. G., Guastaferro, K., Beal, S. J., Schreier, H. M., Barnes, J., Reader, J. M., & Font, S. A. (2018). Is sexual abuse a unique predictor of sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, and motherhood in adolescence? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 29, 967983. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., Haralson, K. J., Butler, E. M., & Shenk, C. E. (2011). Childhood maltreatment, psychological dysregulation, and risky sexual behaviors in female adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36, 743752. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., Horowitz, L. A., Bonanno, G. A., Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (2003). Revictimization and self-harm in females who experienced childhood sexual abuse: Results from a prospective study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 14521471. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., & Shenk, C. E. (2013). Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females. Pediatrics, 131, e1181e1187. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., Shenk, C. E., & Putnam, K. T. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse and adolescent pregnancy: A meta-analytic update. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 366378. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noll, J. G., Trickett, P. K., Long, J. D., Negriff, S., Susman, E. J., Shalev, I., Li, J. C., & Putnam, F. W. (2017). Childhood sexual abuse and early timing of puberty. Journal of Adolescent Health, 60, 6571. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oshri, A., Tubman, J. G., & Burnette, M. L. (2012). Childhood maltreatment histories, alcohol and other drug use symptoms, and sexual risk behavior in a treatment sample of adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 102, S250S257. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paradis, H. A., Sandler, M., Manly, J. T., & Valentine, L. (2013). Building healthy children: Evidence-based home visitation integrated with pediatric medical homes. Pediatrics, 132, S174S179. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patel, P. H., & Sen, B. (2012). Teen motherhood and long-term health consequences. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16, 10631071. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
PettyJohn, M. E., Reid, T. A., Miller, E., Bogen, K. W., & McCauley, H. L. (2021). Reproductive coercion, intimate partner violence, and pregnancy risk among adolescent women with a history of foster care involvement. Children and Youth Services Review, 120, 105731. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polacsek, M., Celentano, D. D., O’Campo, P., & Santelli, J. (1999). Correlates of condom use stage of change: Implications for intervention. AIDS Education and Prevention, 11(1), 38.Google ScholarPubMed
Putnam-Hornstein, E., Cederbaum, J. A., King, B., Cleveland, J., & Needell, B. (2013). A population-based examination of maltreatment history among adolescent mothers in California. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 794797. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Putnam-Hornstein, E., & Needell, B. (2011). Predictors of child protective service contact between birth and age five: An examination of California’s 2002 birth cohort. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 13371344. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raiford, J. L., DiClemente, R. J., & Wingood, G. M. (2009). Effects of fear of abuse and possible STI acquisition on the sexual behavior of young African American women. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 10671071. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynolds, B. W., Basso, M. R., Miller, A. K., Whiteside, D. M., & Combs, D. (2019). Executive function, impulsivity, and risky behaviors in young adults. Neuropsychology, 33, 212. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rogosch, F. A., Oshri, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 883. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Russotti, J., Handley, E. D., Rogosch, F. A., Toth, S. L., & Cicchetti, D. (2020). The interactive effects of child maltreatment and adolescent pregnancy on late-adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 48, 12231237. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Russotti, J., Rogosch, F. A., Handley, E. D., Douthit, K. Z., Marquis, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2020). Teen childbearing and offspring internalizing symptoms: The mediating role of child maltreatment. Development and Psychopathology, 33, 11841196. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruttle, P. L., Shirtcliff, E. A., Armstrong, J. M., Klein, M. H., & Essex, M. J. (2015). Neuroendocrine coupling across adolescence and the longitudinal influence of early life stress. Developmental Psychobiology, 57, 688704. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salazar, L. F., DiClemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., Crosby, R. A., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E. W., & Oh, M. K. (2004). Self-concept and adolescents′ refusal of unprotected sex: A test of mediating mechanisms among African American girls. Prevention Science, 5, 137149. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sales, J. M., Milhausen, R. R., Wingood, G. M., DiClemente, R. J., Salazar, L. F., & Crosby, R. A. (2008). Validation of a parent-adolescent communication scale for use in STD/HIV prevention interventions. Health Education & Behavior, 35(3), 332345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santelli, J. S., Kaiser, J., Hirsch, L., Radosh, A., Simkin, L., & Middlestadt, S. (2004). Initiation of sexual intercourse among middle school adolescents: The influence of psychosocial factors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 34, 200208. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saxbe, D. E., Negriff, S., Susman, E. J., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Attenuated hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning predicts accelerated pubertal development in girls 1 year later. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 819828. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sedgh, G., Finer, L. B., Bankole, A., Eilers, M. A., & Singh, S. (2015). Adolescent pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates across countries: Levels and recent trends. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56, 223230. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Senn, T. E., & Carey, M. P. (2010). Child maltreatment and women’s adult sexual risk behavior: Childhood sexual abuse as a unique risk factor. Child Maltreatment, 15, 324335. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sipsma, H. L., Ickovics, J. R., Lewis, J. B., Ethier, K. A., & Kershaw, T. S. (2011). Adolescent pregnancy desire and pregnancy incidence. Women’s Health Issues, 21, 110116. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sisson, G. (2012). Finding a way to offer something more: Reframing teen pregnancy prevention. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 9, 5769. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, A. M., & Rosenthal, D. A. (1995). Adolescents’ perceptions of their risk environment. Journal of Adolescence, 18, 229245. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stattin, H., & Magnusson, D. (1990). Pubertal maturation in female development: Paths through life. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Stevens-Simon, C., Sheeder, J., Beach, R., & Harter, S. (2005). Adolescent pregnancy: Do expectations affect intentions? Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, 243. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Svoboda, D. V., Shaw, T. V., Barth, R. P., & Bright, C. L. (2012). Pregnancy and parenting among youth in foster care: A review. Children and Youth Services Review, 34, 867875. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Terplan, M., Hand, D. J., Hutchinson, M., Salisbury-Afshar, E., & Heil, S. H. (2015). Contraceptive use and method choice among women with opioid and other substance use disorders: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 80, 2331. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thibodeau, M. E., Lavoie, F., Hébert, M., & Blais, M. (2017). Childhood maltreatment and adolescent sexual risk behaviors: Unique, cumulative and interactive effects. Child Abuse & Neglect, 72, 411420. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, R., & Neilson, E. C. (2014). Early parenting: The roles of maltreatment, trauma symptoms, and future expectations. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 10991108. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Toth, S. L., & Gravener, J. (2012). Bridging research and practice: Relational interventions for maltreated children. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17, 131138. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toth, S. L., Gravener-Davis, J. A., Guild, D. J., & Cicchetti, D. (2013). Relational interventions for child maltreatment: Past, present, and future perspectives. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 16011617. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trickett, P. K., Negriff, S., Ji, J., & Peckins, M. (2011). Child maltreatment and adolescent development. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 320. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trussell, J. (2009). Understanding contraceptive failure. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 23(2), 199209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trussell, J. (2011). Contraceptive failure in the United States. Contraception, 83, 397404. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vachon, D. D., Krueger, R. F., Rogosch, F. A., & Cicchetti, D. (2015). Assessment of the harmful psychiatric and behavioral effects of different forms of child maltreatment. JAMA Psychiatry, 72, 11351142. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Valentino, K. (2017). Relational interventions for maltreated children. Child Development, 88, 359367. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, Y. P., & Gorenstein, C. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Beck depression inventory—II: A comprehensive review. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 35, 431. Google ScholarPubMed
Warmingham, J. M., Handley, E. D., Russotti, J., Rogosch, F. A., & Cicchetti, D. (2021). Childhood attention problems mediate effects of child maltreatment on decision-making performance in emerging adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 57, 443. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weller, J. A., & Fisher, P. A. (2013). Decision-making deficits among maltreated children. Child Maltreatment, 18, 184194. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wellings, K., Jones, K.G., Mercer, C.H (2013). The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy and associated factors in Britain: Findings from the third national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. Lancet, 382, 18071816. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, H. W., & Widom, C. S. (2009). Sexually transmitted diseases among adults who had been abused and neglected as children: A 30-year prospective study. American Journal of Public Health, 99, S197S203. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wingood, G. M., DiClemente, R. J., & Raj, A. (2000). Adverse consequences of intimate partner abuse among women in non-urban domestic violence shelters. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 19, 270275. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woodward, L., Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2001). Risk factors and life processes associated with teenage pregnancy: Results of a prospective study from birth to 20 years. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 11701184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Health Organization. (2021). Family planning and contraception. Google Scholar
Young, T., Turner, J., Denny, G., & Young, M. (2004). Examining external and internal poverty as antecedents of teen pregnancy. American Journal of Health Behavior, 28, 361373. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yu, C. Y., & Muthén, B. (2002). Evaluation of model fit indices for latent variable models with categorical and continuous outcomes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent pregnancy: A multiple mediational model
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent pregnancy: A multiple mediational model
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent pregnancy: A multiple mediational model
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *