Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-xtgtn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-15T10:42:45.454Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

From emotion resonance to empathic understanding: A social developmental neuroscience account

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 October 2008

Jean Decety*
University of Chicago
Meghan Meyer
Stanford University School of Medicine
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Jean Decety, Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry and Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience, University of Chicago, 5848 South University Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637; E-mail:


The psychological construct of empathy refers to an intersubjective induction process by which positive and negative emotions are shared, without losing sight of whose feelings belong to whom. Empathy can lead to personal distress or to empathic concern (sympathy). The goal of this paper is to address the underlying cognitive processes and their neural underpinnings that constitute empathy within a developmental neuroscience perspective. In addition, we focus on how these processes go awry in developmental disorders marked by impairments in social cognition, such as autism spectrum disorder, and conduct disorder. We argue that empathy involves both bottom-up and top-down information processing, underpinned by specific and interacting neural systems. We discuss data from developmental psychology as well as cognitive neuroscience in support of such a model, and highlight the impact of neural dysfunctions on social cognitive developmental behavior. Altogether, bridging developmental science and cognitive neuroscience helps approach a more complete understanding of social cognition. Synthesizing these two domains also contributes to a better characterization of developmental psychopathologies that impacts the development of effective treatment strategies.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


The writing of this manuscript was supported by NSF Grant BCS 0718480 (to J.D.).


Apperly, I., Samson, D., Chiavarino, C., & Humphreys, G. (2004). Frontal and temporo-parietal lobe contributions to theory of mind: Neuropsychological evidences from a false-belief task with reduced language and executive function. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 17731784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arsenio, W. F., & Lemerise, E. A. (2001). Varieties of childhood bullying: Values, emotion processes, and social competence. Review of Social Development, 10, 5973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Avikainen, S., Kulomaki, T., & Hari, R. (1999). Normal movement reading in Asperger subjects. NeuroReport, 10, 34673470.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baranek, G. T. (1999). Autism during infancy: A retrospective video analysis of sensory-motor and social behaviors at 9–12 months of age. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 199, 213224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barbas, H., Saha, S., Rempel-Clover, N., & Ghashghaei, T. (2003). Serial pathways from primate prefrontal cortex to autonomic areas may influence emotion expression. BMC Neuroscience, 4, 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. (2002). The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 248254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnea-Goraly, N., Kwon, H., Menon, V., Eliez, S., Lotspeich, L., & Reiss, A. L. (2004). White matter structure in autism: Preliminary evidence from diffusion tensor imaging. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 323326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bastiaanen, J., Thioux, M., & Keysers, (2008, April). Mirror-neuron system not broken in adults with ASD for viewing emotions of others. Paper presented at the Fifteen Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Batson, C. D. (1990). How social an animal? The human capacity for caring. American Psychologist, 45, 336346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question: Toward a social–psychological answer. Hove: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Batson, C. D., Fultz, J., & Schoenrade, P. (1987). Distress and empathy: Two qualitatively distinct vicarious emotions with different motivational consequences. Journal of Personality, 55, 1939.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Batson, D. C., Early, S., & Salvarani, G. (1997). Perspective taking: Imagining how another feels versus imagining how you would feel. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 175178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batson, C. D., Lishner, D. A., Carpenter, A., Dulin, L., Harjusola-Webb, S., Stocks, E. L., et al. (2003). As you would have them do unto you: Does imagining yourself in the other's place stimulate moral action? Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 11901201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Batson, C. D., Sager, K., Garst, E., Kang, M., Rubchinsky, K., & Dawson, K. (1997). Is empathy-induced helping because of self-other merging? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 73, 495509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497529.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bennetto, L., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1996). Intact and impaired memory functions in autism. Child Development, 67, 18161835.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berluchi, G., & Aglioti, S. (1997). The body in the brain: Neural bases of corporeal awareness. Trends in Neuroscience, 20, 560564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernier, R., Dawson, G., Webb, S., & Murias, M. (2007). EEG mu rhythm and imitation impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Brain and Cognition, 64, 228237.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blakemore, S.-J., & Decety, J. (2001). From the perception of action to the understanding of intention. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 561567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blakemore, S.-J., & Frith, C. D. (2003). Self-awareness and action. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13, 219224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blair, R. J. R. (1999). Psycho-physiological responsiveness to the distress of others in children with autism. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 477485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanke, O., & Arzy, S. (2005). The out-of-body experience: Distributed self-pricessing at the temporo-parietal junction. The Neuroscientist, 11, 1624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanke, O., Ortigue, S., Landis, T., & Seeck, M. (2002). Stimulating illusory own-body perceptions: The part of the brain that can induce out-of-body experiences has been located. Nature, 419, 269270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowlby, J. (1958). The nature of the child's tie to his mother. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 39, 350373.Google ScholarPubMed
Bunge, S. A., Dudukovic, N. N., Thomason, M. E., Vaidya, C. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2002). Immature frontal lobe contributions to cognitive control in children: Evidence from fMRI. Neuron, 33, 301311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bush, L. K., Barr, C. L., McHugo, G. J., & Lanzetta, J. T. (1989). The effects of facial control and facial mimicry on subjective reactions to comedy routines. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 3152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Lorig, T. S., Norris, C. J., Rickett, E., & Nusbaum, H. (2003). Just because you're imaging the brain doesn't mean you can stop using your head: A primer set of first principles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 650661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calkins, S. D., & Dedmon, S. (2000). Physiological and behavioral regulation in two-year-old children with aggressive/destructive behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 103118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Calkins, S. D., Graziano, P. A., & Keane, S. P. (2007). Cardiac vagal regulation differentiates among children at risk for behavioral problems. Biological Psychology, 74, 144153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carr, L., Iacoboni, M., Dubeau, M. C., Mazziotta, J. C., & Lenzi, G. L. (2003). Neural mechanisms of empathy in humans: A relay from neural systems for imitation to limbic areas. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 54975502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carlson, S. M., & Moses, L. J. (2001). Individual differences in inhibitory control and children's theory of mind. Child Development, 72, 10321053.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chaminade, T., & Decety, J. (2002). Leader or follower? Involvement of the inferior parietal lobule in agency. NeuroReport, 13, 19751978.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, Y., Lin, C., Liu, H. L., Hsu, Y., Lim, K., Hung, D., et al. (2007). Expertise modulates the perception of pain in others. Current Biology, 17, 17081713.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, Y., Meltzoff, A. N., & Decety, J. (2007). Motivation modulates the activity of the human mirror system: An fMRI study. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 19791986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chiron, C., Raynaud, C, Maziere, B., Zilbovicius, M., Laflamme, L., Masure, M. C., et al. (1992). Changes in regional cerebral blood flow during brain maturation in children and adolescents. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine 33, 696703.Google ScholarPubMed
Cialdini, R., Brown, S., Lewis, B., Luce, C., & Neuberg, S. (1997). Reinterpreting the empathy-altruism relationship: When one into one equals oneness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 481494.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corona, C., Dissanayake, C., Arbelle, A., Wellington, P., & Sigman, M. (1998). Is affect aversive to young children with autism? Behavioral and cardiac response to experimenter distress. Child Development, 69, 14941502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cummins, A., Piek, J. P., & Murray, J. D. (2005). Motor coordination, empathy, and social behavior in school-aged children. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 47, 437–432.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dapretto, M., Davies, M. S., Pfeifer, J. H., Scott, A. A., Sigman, M., Bookheimer, S. Y., et al. (2006). Understanding emotions in others: Mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 2831.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Darwin, C. (1872). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London: John Murray Editions.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davidson, R. J., Jackson, D. C., & Kalin, N. H. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspective from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 890909.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, M. H. (1994). Empathy: A social psychological approach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
DeCasper, A. J., & Fifer, W. P. (1980). Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers' voices. Science, 208, 11741176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Decety, J. (2002). Naturaliser l'empathie [Naturalized empathy]. L'Encephale, 28, 920.Google Scholar
Decety, J. (2005). Perspective taking as the royal avenue to empathy. In Malle, B. F. & Hodges, S. D. (Eds.), Other minds: Other minds: How humans bridge the divide between self and others (pp. 135149). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Decety, J., & Chaminade, T. (2003). When the self represents the other: A new cognitive neuroscience view of psychological identification. Consciousness and Cognition, 12, 577596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decety, J., Chaminade, T., Grèzes, J., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2002). A PET exploration of the neural mechanisms involved in reciprocal imitation. NeuroImage, 15, 265272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Decety, J., & Grèzes, J. (2006). The power of simulation: Imagining one's own and other's behavior. Brain Research, 1079, 414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Decety, J., & Lamm, C. (2008). Empathy versus personal distress—Recent evidence from social neuroscience. In Decety, J. & Ickes, W. (Eds.), The social neuroscience of empathy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Decety, J., Michalska, K., & Akitsuki, Y. (2008). Who caused the pain? A functional MRI investigation of empathy and intentionality in children. Neuropsychologia, 46, 26072614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decety, J., & Jackson, P. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3, 71100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Decety, J., & Jackson, P. (2006). A social neuroscience perspective on empathy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 406411.Google Scholar
Decety, J., & Lamm, C. (2006). Human empathy through the lens of social neuroscience. The Scientific World Journal, 6, 11461163.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Decety, J., & Lamm, C. (2007). The role of the right temporoparietal junction in social interaction: How low-level computational processes contribute to meta-cognition. The Neuroscientist, 13, 580593.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Decety, J., & Moriguchi, Y. (2007). The empathic brain and its dysfunction in psychiatric populations: Implications for intervention across different clinical conditions. BioPsychoSocial Medicine, 1, 2265.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Decety, J., & Sommerville, J.A. (2003). Shared representations between self and others: A social cognitive neuroscience view. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 527533.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dissanayake, C., Sigman, M., & Kasari, C. (1996). Long-term stability of individual differences in the emotional responsiveness of children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 37, 461467.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dondi, M., Simion, F., & Caltran, G. (1999). Can newborns discriminate between their own cry and the cry of another newborn infant? Developmental Psychology, 35, 418426.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, regulation, and moral development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 665697.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisenberg, N., Bridget, C. M., & Shepard, S. (1997). The development of empathic accuracy. In Ickes, W. (Ed.), Empathic accuracy (pp. 194215). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., & Eggum, N. D. (in press). Empathic responding: Sympathy and personal distress. In Decety, J. and Ickes, W., The Social Neuroscience of Empathy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1990). Empathy: Conceptualization, measurement, and relation to prosocial behavior. Motivation and Emotion, 14, 131149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, B., Karbon, M, Maszk, P., Smith, M., et al. (1994). The relations of emotionality and regulation to dispositional and situational empathy-related responding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 776797.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisenberg, N., Shea, C. L., Carlo, G., & Knight, G. P. (1991). Empathy-related responding and cognition: A “chicken and the egg” dilemma. In Kurtines, W. M. & Gewirtz, J. L. (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development research (Vol. 2., pp. 6388). New York: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Sadovsky, A. (2006). Empathy-related responding in children. In Killen, M. & Smetana, J. (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 517549). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Fadiga, L., & Craighero, L. (2004). Electrophysiology of action representation. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 21, 157169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Pavesi, G., & Rizzolatti, G. (1995). Motor facilitation during action observation: A magnetic stimulation study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 73, 26082611.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farrer, C., & Frith, C. D. (2002). Experiencing oneself vs. another person as being the cause of an action: The neural correlates of the experience of agency. NeuroImage, 15, 596603.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farrer, C., Franck, N., Frith, C. D., Decety, J., Damato, T., & Jeannerod, M. (2004). Neural correlates of action attribution in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 131, 3144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farrer, C., Franck, N., Georgieff, N., Frith, C. D., Decety, J., & Jeannerod, M. (2003). Modulating the experience of agency: A positron emission tomography study. NeuroImage, 18, 324333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fecteau, S., Carmant, L., Tremblay, C., Robert, M. Bouthillier, A., & Theoret, H. (2004). A motor resonance mechanism in children? Evidence from subdural electrodes in a 6-month-old child. NeuroReport, 15, 2262522627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feshbach, N. D. (1997). Empathy: The formative years—Implications for clinical practice. In Bohart, A. C. & Greenberg, L. S. (Eds.), Empathy reconsidered: New directions in psychotherapy (pp. 3359). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Field, T. (1989). Individual and maturational differences in infant expressivity. In Eisenberg, N. (Ed.), Empathy and related emotional responses, (pp. 923). San Francisco, CA: Jossey–Bass.Google Scholar
Field, T., Healy, B., Goldstein, S., & Guthertz, M. (1990). Behavior-state matching and synchrony in mother–infant interactions of nondepressed versus depressed dyads. Developmental Psychology, 26, 714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Field, T. M., Woodson, R., Greenberg, R., & Cohen, D. (1982). Discrimination and imitation of facial expression by neonates. Science, 219, 179181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fiske, S. (2004). Social beings: A core motives approach to social psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Flavell, J. H. (1999). Cognitive development: Children's knowledge about the mind. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 2145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fletcher, G. J. O., Reeder, G., & Bull, V. (1990). Bias and accuracy in attitude attribution: The role of attributional complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 28, 320388.Google Scholar
Gallagher, S. (2000). Philosophical conceptions of the self: Implications for cognitive science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 1421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gallagher, S. (2004). Understanding interpersonal problems in autism: Interaction theory as an alternative to theory of mind. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 11, 199217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallagher, S. (2001). The practice of mind: Theory, simulation, or interaction? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8, 83107.Google Scholar
Gallagher, S., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1996). The earliest sense of self and others: Merleau-Ponty and recent developmental studies. Philosophical Psychology, 9, 211233.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillberg, C. (1992). Autism and autistic like conditions: Subclasses among disorders of empathy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 813842.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldman, A. (1993). Ethics and cognitive science. Ethics, 103, 337360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grèzes, J., Frith, C. D., & Passingham, R. E. (2004). Inferring false beliefs from the actions of oneself and others: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 21, 744750.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gusnard, D. A., Akbudak, E., Shulman, G. L., & Raichle, M. E. (2001). Medial prefrontal cortex and self-referential mental activity: Relation to a default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 42594264.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R., Snyder, J., & Gager-Flushberg, H. (2005). Anatomical differences in the mirror neuron system and social cognition network in autism. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 1093.Google Scholar
Hall, G. B. C., Scezchtman, H., & Nahmias, C. (2003). Enhanced salience and emotion recognition in autism: A PET study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 14391441.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamilton, A. F., Brindley, R. M., & Frith, U. (2007). Imitation and action understanding in autistic spectrum disorders: How valid is the hypothesis of a deficit in the mirror neuron system? Neuropsychologia, 45, 18591868.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hastings, P. D., Zahn-Waxler, ., & McShane, K. (2006). We are, by nature, moral creatures: Biological bases of concern for others. In Killen, M. & Smetana, J. (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 483516). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J., & Rapson, R. (1994). Emotional contagion. New York: Cambridge Press.Google Scholar
Haviland, J. M., & Lelwica, M. (1987). The induced affect response: 10-week-old infants' responses to three emotion expressions. Developmental Psychology, 23, 97104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hess, U., & Blairy, S. (2001). Facial mimicry and emotional contagion to dynamic emotional facial expressions and their influence on decoding accuracy. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 40, 129141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirai, M., & Hiraki, K. (2005). An event-related potentials study of biological motion perception in human infants. Brain Research, 22, 301304.Google ScholarPubMed
Hobson, R. P. (2002). The cradle of thought. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Hobson, P., & Meyer, J. (2006). Imitation, identification, and the shaping of mind: Insights from autism. In Rogers, S. J. & Williams, S. H. G. (Eds.), Imitation and the social mind: Autism and typical development (pp. 198224). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Hoffman, M. L. (1975). Developmental synthesis of affect and cognition and its implications of altruistic motivation. Developmental Psychology, 23, 97104.Google Scholar
Hoffman, M. L. (1982). Development of prosocial motivation: Empathy and guilt. In Eisenberg, N. (Ed.), The development of prosocial behavior (pp. 281313). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, M. L. (2000). Empathy and moral development: implications for caring and justice. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, M. L. (2001). A comprehensive theory of prosocial moral development. Stipek, D. & Bohart, A. (Eds.), Constructive and Destructive Behavior (pp. 6186). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Hommel, B., Musseler, J., Aschersleben, G., & Prinz, W. (2001). The theory of event coding: A framework for perception and action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 849878.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huttenlocher, P. R., & Dabholkar, A. S. (1997). Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 387, 167178.3.0.CO;2-Z>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ickes, W. (1997). Empathic accuracy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Izard, C. E. (1982). Measuring emotions in infants and young children. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Jackson, P. L., Brunet, E., Meltzoff, A. N., & Decety, J. (2006). Empathy and the neural mechanisms involved in imagining how I feel versus how you would feel pain: An event-related fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 44, 752761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, P. L., & Decety, J. (2004). Motor cognition: A new paradigm to study self other interactions. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14, 259263.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, P. L., Rainville, P., & Decety, J. (2006). To what extent do we share the pain of others? Insight from the neural bases of pain empathy. Pain, 125, 59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jeannerod, M. (1999). To act or not to act: Perspective on the representation of actions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 42, 129.Google Scholar
Kana, R. K., Keller, T. A., Minshew, N. J., & Just, M. A. (2007). Inhibitory control in high-functioning autism: Decreased activation and underconnectivity in inhibition networks. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 198206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kennedy, D. P., Redcay, E., & Courchesne, E. (2006). Failing to deactivate: Resting functional abnormalities in autism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 82758280.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kohlberg, L. (1976). Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive–developmental approach. In Lickona, T. (Ed.), Moral development and behavior (pp. 3153). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
Kringelbach, M. L., & Rolls, E. T. (2004). The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: Evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Progress in Neurobiology, 72, 341372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Burke, J. D., & Applegate, B. (2005). Predicting future antisocial personality disorder in males from a clinical assessment in childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 389399.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lahey, B. B., Hart, E. L., Pliszka, S., Applegate, B., & McBurnett, K. (1993). Neurophysiological correlates of conduct disorder: A rational and review of research. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 141153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lamm, C., Batson, C. D., & Decety, J. (2007). The neural basis of human empathy—Effects of perspective-taking and cognitive appraisal: An event-related fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 4258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, A., Hobson, P. R., & Chiat, S. (1994). I, you, me, and autism: An experimental study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 155176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leiberg, S., & Anders, S. (2006). The multiple facets of empathy: A survey of theory and evidence. Progress in Brain Research, 156, 419440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lepage, J. F., & Theoret, H. (2006). EEG evidence for the presence of an action observation-execution matching system in children. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 25052510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lepage, J. F., & Theoret, H. (2007). The mirror neuron system: Grasping others' action from birth? Developmental Science, 10, 513529.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leube, D. T., Knoblich, G., Erb, M., Grodd, W., Bartels, M., & Kircher, T. T. J. (2003). The neural correlates of perceiving one's own movements. NeuroImage, 20, 20842090.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levenson, R. W. (2007). Emotion elicitation with neurological patients. In Coan, J. A. & Allen, J. J. B. (Eds.), The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment (pp. 158168). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levenson, R. W., & Ruef, A. M. Physiological aspects of emotional knowledge and rapport. In Ickes, W. J. (Ed.), Empathic accuracy (pp. 194215). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Lewis, M. D., Granic, I., & Lamm, C. (2006). Behavioral differences in aggressive children linked with neural mechanisms of emotion regulation. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1094, 164177.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martin, G. B., & Clark, R. D. (1982). Distress crying in neonates: Species and peer specificity. Developmental Psychology, 18, 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McIntosh, D. N., & Reichmann-Decker, A., Winkelman, P., & Wilbarger, J. L. (2006). When the social mirror breaks: Deficits in automatic, but not voluntary mimicry of emotional facial expressions in autism. Developmental Science, 9, 295302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meltzoff, A. N., & Brooks, R. (2001). “Like Me” as a building block for understanding other minds: Bodily acts, attention, and intention. In Malle, B. F., Moses, L. J. & Baldwin, D. A. (Eds.), Intentions and intentionality: Foundations of social cognition (pp. 171191). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meltzoff, A. N., & Decety, J. (2003). What imitation tells us about social cognition: A rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, 358, 491500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meltzoff, A. N., & Moore, M. K. (1997). Explaining facial imitation: A theoretical model. Early Development and Parenting, 17, 8399.Google Scholar
Meyer, J., & Hobson, R. P. (2004). Orientation in relation to self and other; The case of autism. Interaction Studies, 5, 221244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mikulineer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2005). Attachment security, compassion, and altruism. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 3438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, P. A., & Eisenberg, N. (1988). The relation of empathy to aggressive and externalizing/antisocial behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 324344.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Minshew, N. J., Meyer, J., & Goldstein, G. (2002). Abstract reasoning in autism: A dissociation between concept formation and concept identification. Neuropsychology, 16, 327334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moll, J., de Oliviera-Souza, R., & Eslinger, P. (2003). Morals and the human brain. NeuroReport, 14, 299305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morgan, R., & Rochat, P. (1997). Intermodal calibration of the body in early infancy. Ecological Psychology, 9, 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moriguchi, Y., Ohnishi, T., Mori, T., Matsuda, H., & Komaki, G. (2007). Changes of brain activity in the neural substrates for theory of mind in childhood and adolescence. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 61, 355363.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muthukumaraswamy, S. D., Johnson, B. W., & McNair, N. A. (2004). Mu rhythm modulation during observation of an object-directed grasp. Cognitive Brain Research, 19, 195201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nielsen, L. (2002). The simulation of emotion experience: On the emotional foundations of theory of mind. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 1, 255286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neisser, U. (1991). Two perceptually given aspects of the self and their development. Developmental Review, 11, 197209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nishitani, N., Avikainen, S., & Hari, R. (2004). Abnormal imitation-related cortical activation sequences in Asperger's syndrome. Annals of Neurology, 55, 558562.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oberman, L. M., Hubbard, E. M., McCleery, J. P., Altschuler, E. L., Ramachandran, V. S., & Pineda, J. A. (2005). EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Cognitive Brain Research, 24, 190198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ochsner, K. N., & Gross, J. J. (2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 242249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ohta, M. (1987). Cognitive disorders of infantile autism: A study employing the WISC, spatial relationships, conceptualization, and gestural imitation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 4562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozonoff, S., & McEvoy, R. E. (1994). A longitudinal study of executive function and theory of mind development in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 415431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1991). Executive function deficits in high-functioning autistic individuals: Relationship to theory of mind. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 10811105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Panksepp, J. (1986). The neurochemistry of behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 37, 77107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paus, T., Zijdenbos, A., Worsley, K., Collins, D. L., Blumenthal, J., Giedd, J. N., et al. (1999). Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: In vivo study. Science 283, 19081911.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Porges, S. W. (1995). Orienting in a defensive world: Mammalian modifications of our evolutionary heritage—A polyvagal theory. Psychophysiology 32, 301318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Porges, S. W. (1996). Physiological regulation in high-risk infants: A model for assessment and potential intervention. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 4358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Preston, S. D., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2002). Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 172.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Price, B. H., Daffner, K. R., Stowe, R. M., & Mesulam, M. M. (1990). The comportmental learning-disabilities of early frontal lobe damage. Brain, 113, 13831393.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prinz, W. (1997). Perception and action planning. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 9, 129154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radke-Yarrow, M., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1984). Roots, motives, and patterning in children's prosocial behavior. In Staub, E., Bartal, K. D., Karylowski, J. & Raykowski, J. (Eds.), The development and maintenance of prosocial behavior: International perspectives on positive morality (pp. 8199). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raichle, M. E., MacLeod, A. M., Snyder, A. Z., Powers, W. J., Gusnard, D. A., & Shulman, G. L. (2000). A default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 676682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raine, A. (1996). Autonomic nervous system factors underlying disinhibited, antisocial, and violent behavior: Biosocial perspectives and treatment implications. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 794, 4659.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raine, A., Venables, P., Mednick, S., & Sarnoff, A. (1997). Low resting heart rate at age 3 years predisposes to aggression at age 11 years: Evidence form the Mauritius child health project. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 14571464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raine, A., & Yang, Y. (2006). The anatomical bases of psychopathy: A review of brain imaging findings: In Patrick, C. J. (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 278295). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Repacholi, B. M., & Gopnik, A. (1997). Early reasoning about desires: Evidence from 14–18-months-olds. Developmental Psychology, 33, 1221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rizzolatti, G., Fogassi, L., & Gallese, V. (2001). Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the understanding and the imitation of action. Nature Review Neuroscience, 2, 661670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rochat, P. (1999). Early social cognition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Rochat, P. (2002). The infant's world. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Rochat, P., & Hespos, S. J. (1997a). Differential rooting response by neonates: Evidence for an early sense of self. Early Development & Parenting, 6, 105112.3.0.CO;2-U>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rochat, P., & Hespos, S. J. (1997b). Social–cognitive development in the first year. In Rochat, P. (Ed.), Early social cognition (pp. 334). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Rochat, P., & Striano, T. (1999). Social cognitive development in the first year. In Rochat, P. (Ed.), Early social cognition (pp. 334). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Rochat, P., & Striano, T. (2000). Perceived self in infancy. Infant Behavior & Development, 23, 513530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rochat, P., & Striano, T. (2002). Who's in the mirror? Self-other discrimination in specular images by four- and nine-month-old infants. Child Development, 73, 3546.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rogeness, G. A., Cepeda, C., Macedo, C., Fischer, C., & Harris, W. (1990). Differences in heart rate and blood pressure in children with conduct disorder, major depression, and separation anxiety. Psychiatry Research, 33, 199206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rogers, S. J. (1999). An examination of the imitation deficit in autism: The roles of imitation and executive function. In Nadel, J. & Butterworth, G. (Eds.), Imitation in infancy (pp. 254283). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Hershey, K. L. (1994). Temperament and social behavior in childhood. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 40, 2139.Google Scholar
Ruby, P., & Decety, J. (2001). Effect of subjective perspective taking during simulation of action: A PET investigation of agency. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 546550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruby, P., & Decety, J. (2004). How would you feel versus how do you think she would feel? A neuroimaging study of perspective-taking with social emotions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 988999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, J. (1996). Agency and its role in mental development. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Sagi, A., & Hoffman, M. L. (1976). Empathic distress in the newborn. Developmental Psychology, 12, 175176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saxe, R., & Wexler, A. (2005). Making sense of another mind: The role of the right temporo-parietal junction. Neuropsychologia, 43, 13911399.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schulkin, J. (2005). Moral sensibility, visceral representations, and social cohesion: A behavioral neuroscience perspective. Mind and Matter, 26, 3156.Google Scholar
Shamay-Tsoory, S. G., Tomer, R., Yaniv, S., & Aharon-Peretz, J. (2002). Empathy deficits in Asperger syndrome: A cognitive profile. Neurocase, 8, 245252.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sigman, M. D., Kasri, C., Kwon, J., & Yirmiya, N. (1992). Responses to the negative emotions of others by autistic, mentally retarded and normal children. Child Development, 63, 797807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silk, T. J., Rinehart, N., Bradshaw, J. L., Tonge, B., Egan, G., et al. (2006). Visuospatial processing and the function of prefrontal-parietal networks in autism spectrum disorders: A functional MRI study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 14401443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, I. M., & Bryson, S. E. (1998). Gesture Imitation in autism I: Non symbolic postures and sequences. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 15, 747770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sommerville, J. A., & Decety, J. (2006). Weaving the fabric of social interaction: Articulating developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience in the domain of motor cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 179200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sowell, R. E., Thompson, P. M., Holmes, C. J., Jernigan, T. L., & Toga, A. W. (1999). In vivo evidence for post-adolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 859861.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spence, S. A., Brooks, D. J., Hirsch, S. R., Liddle, P. F., Meehan, J., & Grasby, P. M. (1997). A PET study of voluntary movement in schizophrenic patients experiencing passivity phenomena (delusions of alien control). Brain, 120, 19972011.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stotland, E. (1969). Exploratory investigations of empathy. In Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 271314). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Sturm, V. E., Rosen, H. J., Allison, S., Miller, B. L., & Levenson, R. W. (2006). Self-conscious emotions deficits in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Brain, 129, 25082516.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Takahashi, T., Shirane, R., Sato, S., & Yoshimoto, T. (1999). Developmental changes of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in children. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 20, 917922.Google ScholarPubMed
Tamm, L., Menon, V., & Reiss, A.L. (2002). Maturation of brain function associated with response inhibition. Journal of American Children and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 12311238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tetlock, P. E. (1985). Accountability: A social check on the fundamental attribution error. Social Psychology Quarterly, 48, 227236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Theoret, H., Halligan, E., Kobayashi, M., Fregni, F., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2005). Impaired motor facilitation during action observation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Current Biology, 15, 8485.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trevarthen, C., & Aitken, K. J. (2001). Infant intersubjectivity: Research, theory, and clinical applications. Journal of Child Psychiatry, 42, 348.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tronick, E. Z., & Weinberg, M. K. (1997). Depressed mothers and infants: Failure to form dyadic states of consciousness. In Murray, L. & Cooper, P. J. (Eds.), Postpartum Depression and Child Development (pp. 5481). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Ungerer, J. A., Dolby, R., Waters, B., Barnett, B., Kelk, N., & Lewin, V. (1990). The early development of empathy: Self-regulation and individual differences in the first year. Motivation and Emotion, 14, 93106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Villalobos, M. E., Mizuno, A., Dahl, B. C., Kemmotsu, N., & Muller, R. A. (2004). Reduced functional connectivity between V1 and inferior frontal cortex associated with visuomotor performance in autism. NeuroImage, 25, 916925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walton, G. E., Bower, N. J. A., & Bower, T. G. R. (1992). Recognition of familiar faces by newborns. Infant Behavior and Development, 15, 265269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weinberg, M. K., & Tronick, E. Z. (1996). Infant affective reactions to the resumption of maternal interaction after the still-face. Child Development, 67, 905914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, P. H., & McKenzie, B. E. (1998). Information processing deficits associated with developmental coordination disorder: A meta-analysis of research findings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 829840.Google ScholarPubMed
Woodward, A. L., Sommerville, J. A., & Guajardo, J. J. (2001). How infants make sense of intentional action. In Malle, B., Moses, L., & Baldwin, D. (Eds.), Intentions and intentionality: Foundations of social cognition (pp. 149169). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zahn-Waxler, C., Cole, P. M., Welsh, J. D., & Fox, N. A. (1995). Psychophysiological correlates of empathy and prosocial behaviors in preschool children with behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 2748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zahn-Waxler, C., & Radke-Yarrow, M. (1990). The origins of empathic concern. Motivation and Emotion, 14, 107130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zald, D. H. (2003). The human amygdala and the emotional evaluation of sensory stimuli. Brain Research Reviews, 41, 88123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zelazo, P. D. (2004). The development of conscious control in childhood. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 1217.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zelazo, P. D., Craik, F. I., & Booth, L. (2004). Executive function across the life span. Acta Psychologica, 115, 167183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed