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Latent classes of oppositional defiant disorder in adolescence and prediction to later psychopathology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 January 2022

Sarah J. Racz*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
Robert J. McMahon
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada BC Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada
Gretchen Gudmundsen
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA St. Luke’s Children’s Hospital, Boise, ID, USA
Elizabeth McCauley
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA
Ann Vander Stoep
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
*
Corresponding author: Sarah J. Racz, email: sracz@umd.edu

Abstract

Current conceptualizations of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) place the symptoms of this disorder within three separate but related dimensions (i.e., angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, vindictiveness). Variable-centered models of these dimensions have yielded discrepant findings, limiting their clinical utility. The current study utilized person-centered latent class analysis based on self and parent report of ODD symptomatology from a community-based cohort study of 521 adolescents. We tested for sex, race, and age differences in the identified classes and investigated their ability to predict later symptoms of depression and conduct disorder (CD). Diagnostic information regarding ODD, depression, and CD were collected annually from adolescents (grades 6–9; 51.9% male; 48.7% White, 28.2% Black, 18.5% Asian) and a parent. Results provided evidence for three classes of ODD (high, medium, and low endorsement of symptoms), which demonstrated important developmental differences across time. Based on self-report, Black adolescents were more likely to be in the high and medium classes, while according to parent report, White adolescents were more likely to be in the high and medium classes. Membership in the high and medium classes predicted later increases in symptoms of depression and CD, with the high class showing the greatest risk for later psychopathology.

Type
Regular Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

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