Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-hsbzg Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-24T10:08:58.661Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

The role of language ability and self-regulation in the development of inattentive–hyperactive behavior problems

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 July 2014

Isaac T. Petersen*
Indiana University
John E. Bates
Indiana University
Angela D. Staples
University of Virginia
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Isaac T. Petersen, Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 East 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405. E-mail:


Previous research has found associations but not established mechanisms of developmental linkage between language ability and inattentive–hyperactive (I-H) behavior problems. The present study examined whether self-regulation mediates the effect of language ability on later I-H behavior problems among young children (N = 120) assessed at 30, 36, and 42 months of age. Cross-lagged panel models tested the direction of effect between language ability and self-regulation and longitudinal effects of language ability on later I-H problems mediated by self-regulation. Language ability was measured by children's scores on the receptive and expressive language subtests of the Differential Ability Scales. Self-regulation was measured by three behavioral tasks requiring inhibitory control. I-H problems were reported by parents and secondary caregivers. Language ability predicted later self-regulation as measured by all three tasks. There was no association, however, between self-regulation and later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect was stronger from language ability to later self-regulation. Moreover, the effect of language ability on later I-H behavior problems was mediated by children's self-regulation in one of the tasks (for secondary caregivers' but not parents' ratings). Findings suggest that language deficits may explain later I-H behavior problems via their prediction of poorer self-regulatory skills.

Special Section Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA Preschool Forms and Profiles: An integrated system of multi-informant assessment. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
Albertson, K., & Shore, C. (2008). Holding in mind conflicting information: Pretending, working memory, and executive control. Journal of Cognition and Development, 9, 390410. doi:10.1080/15248370802678240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
Baker, L., & Cantwell, D. P. (1992). Attention deficit disorder and speech/language disorders. Comprehensive Mental Health Care, 2, 316.Google Scholar
Barkley, R. A. (1997a). ADHD and the nature of self-control. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Barkley, R. A. (1997b). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 6594. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.121.1.65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beitchman, J. H., Wilson, B., Johnson, C. J., Atkinson, L., Young, A., Adlaf, E., et al. (2001). Fourteen-year follow-up of speech/language-impaired and control children: Psychiatric outcome. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 7582. doi:10.1097/00004583-200101000-00019CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benson, J. E., Sabbagh, M. A., Carlson, S. M., & Zelazo, P. D. (2013). Individual differences in executive functioning predict preschoolers' improvement from theory-of-mind training. Developmental Psychology, 49, 16151627. doi:10.1037/a0031056CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berger, A. (2011). Self-regulation: Brain, cognition, and development. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berk, L. E. (1999). Children's private speech: An overview of theory and the status of research. In Llyod, P. & Fernyhough, C. (Eds.), Lev Vygotsky: Critical assessments: Thought and language (Vol. 2, pp. 3370). Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.Google Scholar
Bernier, A., Beauchamp, M. H., Bouvette-Turcot, A.-A., Carlson, S. M., & Carrier, J. (2013). Sleep and cognition in preschool years: Specific links to executive functioning. Child Development, 84, 15421553. doi:10.1111/cdev.12063CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernier, A., Carlson, S. M., Bordeleau, S., & Carrier, J. (2010). Relations between physiological and cognitive regulatory systems: Infant sleep regulation and subsequent executive functioning. Child Development, 81, 17391752. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01507.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernier, A., Carlson, S. M., Deschênes, M., & Matte-Gagné, C. (2012). Social factors in the development of early executive functioning: A closer look at the caregiving environment. Developmental Science, 15, 1224. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01093.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, E., & Viswanathan, M. (2009). Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures. Cognition, 112, 494500. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2009.06.014CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bivens, J. A., & Berk, L. E. (1990). A longitudinal study of the development of elementary school children's private speech. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 36, 443463.Google Scholar
Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78, 647663. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01019.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2009). Tools of the mind: A Vygotskian-based early childhood curriculum. Early Childhood Services, 3, 245262.Google Scholar
Bornstein, M. H., Hahn, C.-S., & Suwalsky, J. T. D. (2013). Physically developed and exploratory young infants contribute to their own long-term academic achievement. Psychological Science, 24, 19061917. doi:10.1177/0956797613479974CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bornstein, M. H., Hahn, C.-S., & Wolke, D. (2012). Systems and cascades in cognitive development and academic achievement. Child Development, 84, 154162. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01849.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brownlie, E. B., Beitchman, J., Escobar, M., Young, A., Atkinson, L., Johnson, C., et al. (2004). Early language impairment and young adult delinquent and aggressive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 453467. doi:10.1023/b:jacp.0000030297.91759.74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Calkins, S. D., & Fox, N. A. (2002). Self-regulatory processes in early personality development: A multilevel approach to the study of childhood social withdrawal and aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 477498. doi:10.1017/S095457940200305XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, S., Shaw, D., & Gilliom, M. (2000). Early externalizing behavior problems: Toddlers and preschoolers at risk for later maladjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 467488. doi:10.1017/S0954579400003114CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carlson, S. M., Mandell, D. J., & Williams, L. (2004). Executive function and theory of mind: Stability and prediction from ages 2 to 3. Developmental Psychology, 40, 11051122. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1105CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carlson, S. M., & Moses, L. J. (2001). Individual differences in inhibitory control and children's theory of mind. Child Development, 72, 10321053. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00333CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carlson, S. M., Moses, L. J., & Breton, C. (2002). How specific is the relation between executive function and theory of mind? Contributions of inhibitory control and working memory. Infant & Child Development, 11, 7392. doi:10.1002/icd.298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carson, D. K., Perry, C. K., Diefenderfer, A., & Klee, T. (1999). Differences in family characteristics and parenting behavior in families with language-delayed and language-normal toddlers. Infant–Toddler Intervention, 9, 259279.Google Scholar
Chen, W. J., Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., & Tsuang, M. T. (1994). Diagnostic accuracy of the Child Behavior Checklist scales for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 10171025. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.62.5.1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing mediational models with longitudinal data: Questions and tips in the use of structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 558577. doi:10.1037/0021-843x.112.4.558CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conners, C. K. (1973). Rating scales for use in drug studies with children. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 9, 2484.Google Scholar
Cox, M. J., Mills-Koonce, R., Propper, C., & Gariépy, J.-L. (2010). Systems theory and cascades in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 497506. doi:10.1017/s0954579410000234CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuskelly, M., & Stubbins, P. (2006). Self-imposed delay of gratification in adolescents with Down syndrome. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 12, 1928.Google Scholar
Derks, E. M., Hudziak, J. J., Dolan, C. V., van Beijsterveldt, T. C. E. M., Verhulst, F. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (2008). Genetic and environmental influences on the relation between attention problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavior Genetics, 38, 1123. doi:10.1007/s10519-007-9178-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diamond, A., Barnett, W. S., Thomas, J., & Munro, S. (2007). Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science, 318, 13871388. doi:10.1126/science.1151148CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dodge, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Malone, P. S., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2008). Testing an idealized dynamic cascade model of the development of serious violence in adolescence. Child Development, 79, 19071927. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01233.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Miller, S., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2009). A dynamic cascade model of the development of substance-use onset (Vol. 74). Boston: Wiley–Blackwell.Google ScholarPubMed
Doyle, A. E., Faraone, S. V., Seidman, L. J., Willcutt, E. G., Nigg, J. T., Waldman, I. D., et al. (2005). Are endophenotypes based on measures of executive functions useful for molecular genetic studies of ADHD? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 774803. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01476.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisenberg, N., Edwards, A., Spinrad, T. L., Sallquist, J., Eggum, N. D., & Reiser, M. (2013). Are effortful and reactive control unique constructs in young children? Developmental Psychology, 49, 20822094. doi:10.1037/a0031745 10.1037/a0031745.supp (Supplemental)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elliott, C. D. (1997). The Differential Ability Scales. In Flanagan, D. P., Genshaft, J. L., & Harrison, P. L. (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (pp. 183208). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Evans, A. D., & Lee, K. (2013). Emergence of lying in very young children. Developmental Psychology, 49, 19581963. doi:10.1037/a0031409CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frauenglass, M. H., & Diaz, R. M. (1985). Self-regulatory functions of children's private speech: A critical analysis of recent challenges to Vygotsky's theory. Developmental Psychology, 21, 357364. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.21.2.357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ganger, J., & Brent, M. R. (2004). Reexamining the vocabulary spurt. Developmental Psychology, 40, 621632. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.40.4.621CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 3160. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.134.1.31CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gusdorf, L. M. A., Karreman, A., van Aken, M. A. G., Deković, M., & van Tuijl, C. (2011). The structure of effortful control in preschoolers and its relation to externalizing problems. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 612634. doi:10.1348/026151010x526542CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four Factor Index of Social Status. New Haven, CT: Yale University, Department of Sociology.Google Scholar
Horn, D. L., Davis, R. A. O., Pisoni, D. B., & Miyamoto, R. T. (2005). Behavioral inhibition and clinical outcomes in children with cochlear implants. Laryngoscope, 115, 595600. doi:10.1097/01.mlg.0000161340.00258.1dCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horn, D. L., Pisoni, D. B., & Miyamoto, R. T. (2006). Divergence of fine and gross motor skills in prelingually deaf children: Implications for cochlear implantation. Laryngoscope, 116, 15001506. doi:10.1097/01.mlg.0000230404.84242.4cCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ivanov, I., Schulz, K. P., London, E. D., & Newcorn, J. H. (2008). Inhibitory control deficits in childhood and risk for substance use disorders: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 34, 239258. doi:10.1080/00952990802013334CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnstone, S. J., Barry, R. J., Markovska, V., Dimoska, A., & Clarke, A. R. (2009). Response inhibition and interference control in children with AD/HD: A visual ERP investigation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 72, 145153. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.11.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, L. B., Rothbart, M. K., & Posner, M. I. (2003). Development of executive attention in preschool children. Developmental Science, 6, 498504. doi:10.1111/1467-7687.00307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joseph, R. M., McGrath, L. M., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2005). Executive dysfunction and its relation to language ability in verbal school-age children with autism. Developmental Neuropsychology, 27, 361378. doi:10.1207/s15326942dn2703_4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karreman, A., van Tuijl, C., van Aken, M. A. G., & Deković, M. (2009). Predicting young children's externalizing problems: Interactions among effortful control, parenting, and child gender. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 55, 111134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keenan, K., & Shaw, D. S. (1997). Developmental and social influences on young girls' early problem behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 95113. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.121.1.95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keenan, K., & Shaw, D. S. (2003). Starting at the beginning: Exploring the etiology of antisocial behavior in the first years of life. In Lahey, B. B., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (Eds.), The causes of conduct disorder and serious delinquency (pp. 153181). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Kenny, D. A., & Judd, C. M. (2014). Power anomalies in testing mediation. Psychological Science, 25, 334339. doi:10.1177/0956797613502676CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kenny, D. A., Kaniskan, B., & McCoach, D. B. (2012). The performance of RMSEA in models with small degrees of freedom. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C., & Murray, K. T. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 10911111. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00336CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology, 36, 220232. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.36.2.220CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kochanska, G., Murray, K., Jacques, T. Y., Koenig, A. L., & Vandegeest, K. A. (1996). Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization. Child Development, 67, 490507. doi:10.2307/1131828CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kopp, C. B. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 199214. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.18.2.199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lahat, A., Degnan, K. A., White, L. K., McDermott, J. M., Henderson, H. A., Lejuez, C. W., et al. (2012). Temperamental exuberance and executive function predict propensity for risk taking in childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 847856. doi:10.1017/S0954579412000405CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lane, J. D., Wellman, H. M., Olson, S. L., Miller, A. L., Wang, L., & Tardif, T. (2013). Relations between temperament and theory of mind development in the United States and China: Biological and behavioral correlates of preschoolers' false-belief understanding. Developmental Psychology, 49, 825836. doi:10.1037/a0028825CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lansford, J. E., Malone, P. S., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2010). Developmental cascades of peer rejection, social information processing biases, and aggression during middle childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 593602. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000301CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Law, J., Garrett, Z., & Nye, C. (2004). The efficacy of treatment for children with developmental speech and language delay/disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 924943. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/069)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, H. J., Kang, E., Oh, S.-H., Kang, H., Soo Lee, D., Lee, M. C., et al. (2005). Preoperative differences of cerebral metabolism relate to the outcome of cochlear implants in congenitally deaf children. Hearing Research, 203, 29. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2004.11.005Google ScholarPubMed
Lengua, L. J., Honorado, E., & Bush, N. R. (2007). Contextual risk and parenting as predictors of effortful control and social competence in preschool children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 4055. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2006.10.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lifford, K. J., Harold, G. T., & Thapar, A. (2008). Parent–child relationships and ADHD symptoms: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 285296. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9177-5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lindsay, G., Dockrell, J. E., & Strand, S. (2007). Longitudinal patterns of behaviour problems in children with specific speech and language difficulties: Child and contextual factors. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 811828. doi:10.1348/000709906x171127CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liss, M., Fein, D., Allen, D., Dunn, M., Feinstein, C., Morris, R., et al. (2001). Executive functioning in high-functioning children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 261270. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00717CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Little, T. D., Preacher, K. J., Selig, J. P., & Card, N. A. (2007). New developments in latent variable panel analyses of longitudinal data. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 357365. doi:10.1177/0165025407077757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luna, B., & Sweeney, J. A. (2004). The emergence of collaborative brain function: fMRI studies of the development of response inhibition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 296309. doi:10.1196/annals.1308.035CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luria, A. R. (1961). The development of the regulatory role of speech in the child. In Tizard, J. (Ed.), The role of speech in the regulation of normal and abnormal behavior. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
Lynam, D., Moffitt, T., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1993). Explaining the relation between IQ and delinquency: Class, race, test motivation, school failure, or self-control? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 187196. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.102.2.187CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lynn, L. N., Cuskelly, M., Gray, P. H., & O'Callaghan, M. J. (2012). Self-regulation in children born with extremely low birth weight at 2 years old: A comparison study. Infants & Young Children, 25, 136148. doi:10.1097/IYC.0b013e31824963a2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradović, J., Riley, J. R., et al. (2005). Developmental cascades: Linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41, 733746. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.41.5.733CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maxwell, S. E., & Cole, D. A. (2007). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation. Psychological Methods, 12, 2344. doi:10.1037/1082-989x.12.1.23CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maxwell, S. E., Cole, D. A., & Mitchell, M. A. (2011). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation: Partial and complete mediation under an autoregressive model. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 46, 816841. doi:10.1080/00273171.2011.606716CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Menting, B., van Lier, P. A. C., & Koot, H. M. (2011). Language skills, peer rejection, and the development of externalizing behavior from kindergarten to fourth grade. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 52, 7279. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02279.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moran, L. R., Lengua, L. J., & Zalewski, M. (2013). The interaction between negative emotionality and effortful control in early social-emotional development. Social Development, 22, 340362. doi:10.1111/sode.12025CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Müller, U., Liebermann-Finestone, D. P., Carpendale, J. I. M., Hammond, S. I., & Bibok, M. B. (2012). Knowing minds, controlling actions: The developmental relations between theory of mind and executive function from 2 to 4 years of age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 331348. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2011.08.014CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2011). Mplus user's guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.Google Scholar
Olson, S. L., Tardif, T. Z., Miller, A., Felt, B., Grabell, A. S., Kessler, D., et al. (2011). Inhibitory control and harsh discipline as predictors of externalizing problems in young children: A comparative study of U.S., Chinese, and Japanese preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 11631175. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9531-5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oosterlaan, J., Logan, G. D., & Sergeant, J. A. (1998). Response inhibition in AD/HD, CD, comorbid AD/HD+CD, anxious, and control children. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 39, 411425. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00336CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Orta, I. M., Corapci, F., Yagmurlu, B., & Aksan, N. (2013). The mediational role of effortful control and emotional dysregulation in the link between maternal responsiveness and Turkish preschoolers' social competency and externalizing symptoms. Infant and Child Development, 22, 459479. doi:10.1002/icd.1806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petersen, I. T., Bates, J. E., D'Onofrio, B. M., Coyne, C. A., Lansford, J. E., Dodge, K. A., et al. (2013). Language ability predicts the development of behavior problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 542557. doi:10.1037/a0031963CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pisoni, D. B., Conway, C. M., Kronenberger, W. G., Horn, D. L., Karpicke, J., & Henning, S. C. (2008). Efficacy and effectiveness of cochlear implants in deaf children. In Marschark, M. & Hauser, P. C. (Eds.), Deaf cognition: Foundations and outcomes. Perspectives on deafness (pp. 52101). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427441. doi:10.1017/s0954579400003096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raaijmakers, M. A. J., Smidts, D. P., Sergeant, J. A., Maassen, G. H., Posthumus, J. A., van Engeland, H., et al. (2008). Executive functions in preschool children with aggressive behavior: Impairments in inhibitory control. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 10971107. doi:10.1007/s10802-008-9235-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reed, M. A., Pien, D. L., & Rothbart, M. K. (1984). Inhibitory self-control in preschool children. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 30, 131147.Google Scholar
Rhoades, B. L., Greenberg, M. T., & Domitrovich, C. E. (2009). The contribution of inhibitory control to preschoolers' social-emotional competence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 310320. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roben, C. K. P., Cole, P. M., & Armstrong, L. M. (2013). Longitudinal relations among language skills, anger expression, and regulatory strategies in early childhood. Child Development, 84, 891905. doi:10.1111/cdev.12027CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodriguez, M. L., Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1989). Cognitive person variables in the delay of gratification of older children at risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 358367. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.57.2.358CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roebers, C. M., & Schneider, W. (2005). Individual differences in young children's suggestibility: Relations to event memory, language abilities, working memory, and executive functioning. Cognitive Development, 20, 427447. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2005.05.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In Eisenberg, N., Damon, W., & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 99166). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Russell, J., Jarrold, C., & Hood, B. (1999). Two intact executive capacities in children with autism: Implications for the core executive dysfunctions in the disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 103112. doi:10.1023/a:1023084425406CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In von Eye, A. & Clogg, C. C. (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399419). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Sattler, J. M., & Hoge, R. D. (2006). Assessment of children: Behavioral, social, and clinical foundations (5th ed.). San Diego, CA: Jerome M. Sattler.Google Scholar
Shaw, D. S., Owens, E. B., Giovannelli, J., & Winslow, E. B. (2001). Infant and toddler pathways leading to early externalizing disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 3643. doi:10.1097/00004583-200101000-00014CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7, 422445. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.7.4.422CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slaats-Willemse, D., Swaab-Barneveld, H., de Sonneville, L. E. O., van der Meulen, E., & Buitelaar, J. A. N. (2003). Deficient response inhibition as a cognitive endophenotype of ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 12421248. doi:10.1097/00004583-200310000-00016CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stattin, H., & Klackenberg-Larsson, I. (1993). Early language and intelligence development and their relationship to future criminal behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 369378. doi:10.1037/0021-843x.102.3.369CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
St. Clair, M. C., Pickles, A., Durkin, K., & Conti-Ramsden, G. (2011). A longitudinal study of behavioral, emotional and social difficulties in individuals with a history of specific language impairment (SLI). Journal of Communication Disorders, 44, 186199. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2010.09.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stevenson, J., McCann, D., Watkin, P., Worsfold, S., & Kennedy, C. (2010). The relationship between language development and behaviour problems in children with hearing loss. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 51, 7783. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02124.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tirosh, E., & Cohen, A. (1998). Language deficit with attention-deficit disorder: A prevalent comorbidity. Journal of Child Neurology, 13, 493497. doi:10.1177/088307389801301005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ursache, A., Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). The promotion of self-regulation as a means of enhancing school readiness and early achievement in children at risk for school failure. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 122128. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00209.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vallotton, C., & Ayoub, C. (2011). Use your words: The role of language in the development of toddlers' self-regulation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26, 169181. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.09.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Elk, M., van Schie, H. T., Zwaan, R. A., & Bekkering, H. (2010). The functional role of motor activation in language processing: Motor cortical oscillations support lexical–semantic retrieval. NeuroImage, 50, 665677. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.12.123CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and word. In Vygotsky, L. S., Hanfmann, E., & Vakar, G. (Eds.), Thought and language: Studies in communication (pp. 119153). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willett, J. B., Singer, J. D., & Martin, N. C. (1998). The design and analysis of longitudinal studies of development and psychopathology in context: Statistical models and methodological recommendations. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 395426. doi:10.1017/s0954579498001667CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolfe, C. D., & Bell, M. A. (2004). Working memory and inhibitory control in early childhood: Contributions from physiology, temperament, and language. Developmental Psychobiology, 44, 6883. doi:10.1002/dev.10152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolfe, C. D., & Bell, M. A. (2007). Sources of variability in working memory in early childhood: A consideration of age, temperament, language, and brain electrical activity. Cognitive Development, 22, 431455. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2007.08.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yew, S. G. K., & O'Kearney, R. (2013). Emotional and behavioural outcomes later in childhood and adolescence for children with specific language impairments: Meta-analyses of controlled prospective studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 516524. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, S. E., Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Willcutt, E. G., Corley, R. P., Haberstick, B. C., et al. (2009). Behavioral disinhibition: Liability for externalizing spectrum disorders and its genetic and environmental relation to response inhibition across adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 117130. doi:10.1037/a0014657CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed