Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-t6r6x Total loading time: 0.375 Render date: 2022-07-03T17:59:46.661Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

A source, a cascade, a schizoid: A heuristic proposal from The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 October 2010

Mark F. Lenzenweger*
Affiliation:
State University of New York at Binghamton and Weill Cornell Medical College
*
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Mark F. Lenzenweger, Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Binghamton, Science IV, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000; E-mail: mlenzen@binghamton.edu.

Abstract

It is argued that personality pathology represents the final emergent product of a complex interaction of underlying neurobehavioral systems as well as environment inputs. A number of factors may be involved in the developmental pathway and a cascading of effects is plausible, although a unifying cascade for all personality disorders is not likely. The present study suggests a possible cascade relevant to one personality disorder: schizoid personality disorder in emerging adulthood. In brief, it is hypothesized that the absence of a relationship characterized by a rich degree of psychological proximal process in early childhood, which is associated with nurturance and the facilitation of more complex development, predicts impairment in the actualization of the affiliation system (i.e., that system that facilitates interpersonal connectedness and social bonds in human beings and is under substantial genetic influence), and this impairment in the affiliation system predicts the appearance of schizoid personality disorder symptoms in emerging adulthood (late teens/early 20s), which persists over time into emerging adulthood. The impairment in the affiliation system is argued to proceed through childhood sociality as reflected in temperament on through adult personality as reflected in communal positive emotion. Furthermore, it is also hypothesized that the relationship between proximal processes and the affiliation system maintains irrespective of other childhood temperament factors that might adversely impact early parent/caregiver and child relations. The data for a preliminary illustration of this possible cascade are drawn from The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders, which is a prospective, multiwave study of personality disorders, personality, and temperament in a large sample of adults drawn from a nonclinical population.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
Bernstein, D. P., Arntz, A., & Travaglini, L. (2009). Schizoid and avoidant personality disorders. In Blaney, P. H. & Millon, T. (Eds.), Oxford textbook of psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 586601). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bernstein, D. P., Stein, J. A., & Handelsman, L. (1998). Predicting personality pathology among adult patients with substance use disorders: Effects of childhood maltreatment. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 855868.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bleuler, E. (1950). Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias (Zinkin, J., Trans.). New York: International Universities Press. (Original work published 1911)Google Scholar
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Gotlib, I. H. (1993). Psychopathology and early experience: A reappraisal of retrospective reports. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 8298.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature–nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101, 568586.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In Damon, W. (Series Ed.) & Lerner, R. M. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (5th ed., pp. 9931023). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Church, A. T. (1994). Relating the Tellegen and five-factor models of personality structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 898909.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D. (2002). The impact of social experience on neurobiological systems: Illustration from a constructivist view of child maltreatment. Cognitive Development, 17, 14071428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing meditational models with longitudinal data: Questions and tips in the use of structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 558577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1985). The NEO Personality Inventory. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Depue, R. A., & Lenzenweger, M. F. (2001). A neurobehavioral dimensional model of personality disorders. In Livesley, W. J. (Ed.), The handbook of personality disorders (pp. 136176). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Depue, R. A., & Lenzenweger, M. F. (2005). A neurobehavioral model of personality disturbance. In Lenzenweger, M. F. & Clarkin, J. F. (Eds.), Major theories of personality disorder (2nd ed., pp. 391453). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Depue, R. A., & Morrone-Stupinsky, J. V. (1999). A neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding: Implications for conceptualizing a human trait of affiliation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 313395.Google Scholar
Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Miller, S., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2009). A dynamic cascade model of the development of substance-use onset. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 74, vii119.Google ScholarPubMed
Eagle, R. F., Romancyzk, R. G., & Lenzenweger, M. F. (2010). Classification of children with autism spectrum disorders: A finite mixture modeling approach to heterogeneity. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4, 772781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Essen-Möller, E. (1946). The concept of schizoidia. Monatsschrift Psychiatrie Neurologie, 112, 258271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fairbairn, W. R. D. (1952). Psychoanalytic studies of the personality. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
Guntrip, H. (1968). Schizoid phenomena, object relations, and the self. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Brown, J., Smailes, E. M., & Bernstein, D. P. (1999). Childhood maltreatment increases risk for personality disorders during early adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 600606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Chen, H., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2006). Parenting behaviors associated with risk for offspring personality disorders during adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 579587.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Smailes, E., Skodol, A. E., Brown, J., & Oldham, J. M. (2001). Childhood verbal abuse and risk for personality disorders during adolescence and early adulthood. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 42, 1623.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, K. S., Czajkowski, N., Tambs, K., Togersen, S., Aggen, S. H., Neale, M. C., et al. (2006). Dimensional representations of DSM-IV Cluster A personality disorders in a population-based sample of Norwegian twins: A multivariate study. Psychological Medicine, 36, 15831591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendler, K. S., Myers, J., Torgersen, S., Neale, M. C., & Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2007). The heritability of Cluster A personality disorders assessed by both personal interview and questionnaire. Psychological Medicine, 37, 655665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khouzam, H. R., El-Gabalawi, F., Pirwani, N., & Priest, F. (2004). Asperger's disorder: A review of its diagnosis and treatment. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 45, 184191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenzenweger, M. F. (1998). Schizotypy and schizotypic psychopathology: Mapping an alternative expression of schizophrenia liability. In Lenzenweger, M. F. & Dworkin, R. H. (Eds.), Origins and development of schizophrenia: Advances in experimental psychopathology (pp. 93121). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenzenweger, M. F. (1999). Stability and change in personality disorder features: The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 10091015.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenzenweger, M. F. (2004). Consideration of the challenges, complications, and pitfalls of taxometric analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 1023.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenzenweger, M. F. (2006). The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders: History, design considerations, and initial findings. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20, 645670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenzenweger, M. F. (2008). Epidemiology of personality disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 31, 395403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenzenweger, M. F. (2009). Schizotypic psychopathology: Theory, evidence, and future directions. In Blaney, P. H. & Millon, T. (Eds.), Oxford textbook of psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 692722). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Lenzenweger, M. F. (2010). Schizotypy and schizophrenia: The view from experimental psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Lenzenweger, M. F., & Gold, J. M. (2000). Auditory working memory and verbal recall memory in schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research, 42, 101110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenzenweger, M. F., Johnson, M. D., & Willett, J. B. (2004). Individual growth curve analysis illuminates stability and change in personality disorder features: The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 10151024.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenzenweger, M. F., Lane, M., Loranger, A. W., & Kessler, R. C. (2007). DSM-IV personality disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Biological Psychiatry, 62, 553564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenzenweger, M. F., Loranger, A. W., Korfine, L., & Neff, C. (1997). Detecting personality disorders in a non-clinical population: Application of a 2-stage procedure for case identification. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 345351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenzenweger, M. F., McLachlan, G., & Rubin, D. B. (2007). Resolving the latent structure of schizophrenia endophenotypes using expectation-maximization-based finite mixture modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 1629.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenzenweger, M. F., & Moldin, S. O. (1990). Discerning the latent structure of hypothetical psychosis proneness through admixture analysis. Psychiatry Research, 33, 243257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Livesley, W. J., Jang, K. L., Jackson, D. N., & Vernon, P. A. (1993). Genetic and environmental contributions to dimensions of personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 18261831.Google ScholarPubMed
Loranger, A. W. (1999). International Personality Disorder Examination: DSM-IV and ICD-10 Interviews. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Loranger, A. W., Sartorius, N., Andreoli, A., Berger, P., Buchheim, P., Channabasavanna, S. M., et al. (1994). The International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). The World Health Organization/Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration International Pilot Study of Personality Disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 215224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loranger, A. W., Sartorius, N., & Janca, A. (Eds.). (1996). Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorders: The International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Markon, K. E., Krueger, R. F., Bouchard, T. J., & Gottesman, I. I. (2002). Normal and abnormal personality traits: Evidence for genetic and environmental relationships in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Journal of Personality, 70, 661693.Google ScholarPubMed
Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradović, J. R., Stenne-Boelcke, K., et al. (2005). Developmental cascades: Linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41, 733746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mathieson, K. S., & Tambs, K. (1999). The EAS Temperament Questionnaire—Factor structure, age trends, reliability, and stability in a Norwegian sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 431439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maughan, B., & Rutter, M. (1997a). Psychosocial adversities in childhood and adult psychopathology. Journal of Personality Disorders, 11, 418.Google Scholar
Maughan, B., & Rutter, M. (1997b). Retrospective reporting of childhood adversity: Issues in assessing long-term recall. Journal of Personality Disorders, 11, 1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nærde, A., Røysamb, E., & Tambs, K. (2004). Temperament in adults—Reliability, stability, and factor structure of the EAS Temperament Survey. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82, 7179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plomin, R. (1986). Development, genetics, and psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Roberts, A., Yang, M., Zhang, T., & Coid, J. (2008). Personality disorder, temperament, and childhood adversity: Findings from a cohort study of prisoners in England and Wales. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 19, 460483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheeringa, M. S. (2001). The differential diagnosis of impaired reciprocal social interaction in children: A review of disorders. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 32, 7187.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shaffer, A., Burt, K. B., Obradović, J., Herbers, J. E., & Masten, A. S. (2009). Intergenerational continuity in parenting quality: The mediating role of social competence. Developmental Psychology, 45, 12271240.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shiner, R. L., Masten, A. S., & Roberts, J. M. (2003). Childhood personality foreshadows adult personality and life outcomes two decades later. Journal of Personality, 71, 11451170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Gibbon, M., & First, M. (1990). Users guide for the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
Szatmari, P. (2003). The causes of autism spectrum disorders: Multiple factors have been identified, but a unifying cascade of events is still elusive. British Medical Journal, 326, 173174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tantam, D. (1988). Lifelong eccentricity and social isolation II: Asperger's syndrome or schizoid personality disorder? British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 783791.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tellegen, A. (1982). Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire manual. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Tellegen, A. (1985). Structures of mood and personality and their relevance to assessing anxiety, with an emphasis on self-report. In Tuma, A. H. & Maser, J. D. (Eds.), Anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 681706). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Torgersen, S., Lygren, S., Øien, P. A., Skre, I., Onstad, S., Edvardsen, J., et al. (2000). A twin study of personality disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41, 416425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Waller, N. G., & Meehl, P. E. (1998). Multivariate taxometric procedures: Distinguishing types from continua. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Watson, D., & Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a consensual structure of mood. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 219235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodbury-Smith, M. R., & Volkmar, F. R. (2009). Asperger syndrome. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 18, 211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woodward, S., Lenzenweger, M. F., Kagan, J., Snidman, N. C., & Arcus, D. (2000) Taxonic structure of infant reactivity: Quantitative evidence from a taxometric perspective. Psychological Science, 11, 296301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolff, S. (1991). “Schizoid” personality in childhood and adult life III: The childhood picture. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 629635.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolff, S. (1995). Loners: The life path of unusual children. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolff, S., Townshend, R., McGuire, R. J., & Weeks, D. J. (1991). “Schizoid” personality in childhood and adult life II: Adult adjustment and the continuity with schizotypal personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 620629.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zimmerman, M., Rothschild, L., & Chleminski, I. (2005). The prevalence of DSM-IV personality disorders in psychiatric outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 19111918.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

A source, a cascade, a schizoid: A heuristic proposal from The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

A source, a cascade, a schizoid: A heuristic proposal from The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

A source, a cascade, a schizoid: A heuristic proposal from The Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *