Skip to main content

An experimental test of the fetal programming hypothesis: Can we reduce child ontogenetic vulnerability to psychopathology by decreasing maternal depression?

  • Elysia Poggi Davis (a1) (a2), Benjamin L. Hankin (a3), Danielle A. Swales (a1) and M. Camille Hoffman (a4)

Maternal depression is one of the most common prenatal complications, and prenatal maternal depression predicts many child psychopathologies. Here, we apply the fetal programming hypothesis as an organizational framework to address the possibility that fetal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy affects fetal development of vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms, which enhance risk for subsequent psychopathology. We consider four candidate pathways through which maternal prenatal depression may affect the propensity of offspring to develop later psychopathology across the life span: brain development, physiological stress regulation (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis), negative emotionality, and cognitive (effortful) control. The majority of past research has been correlational, so potential causal conclusions have been limited. We describe an ongoing experimental test of the fetal programming influence of prenatal maternal depressive symptoms using a randomized controlled trial design. In this randomized controlled trial, interpersonal psychotherapy is compared to enhanced usual care among distressed pregnant women to evaluate whether reducing prenatal maternal depressive symptoms has a salutary impact on child ontogenetic vulnerabilities and thereby reduces offspring's risk for emergence of later psychopathology.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Elysia Poggi Davis, Department of Psychology, 2155 South Race Street, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208-3500; E-mail:
Hide All

Supported by the National Institutes of Health Grants R01 MH109662 and P50 MH096889.

Hide All
Accortt, E. E., Cheadle, A., & Schetter, C. D. (2015). Prenatal depression and adverse birth outcomes: An updated systematic review. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19, 13061337. doi:10.1007/s10995-014-1637-2
Adam, E. K., Doane, L. D., Zinbarg, R. E., Mineka, S., Craske, M. G., & Griffith, J. W. (2010). Prospective prediction of major depressive disorder from cortisol awakening responses in adolescence. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 921931. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.12.007
Adam, E. K., Quinn, M. E., Tavernier, R., McQuillan, M. T., Dahlke, K. A., & Gilbert, K. E. (2017). Diurnal cortisol slopes and mental and physical health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 83, 2541. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.05.018
Adam, E. K., Vrshek-Schallhorn, S., Kendall, A. D., Mineka, S., Zinbarg, R. E., & Craske, M. G. (2014). Prospective associations between the cortisol awakening response and first onsets of anxiety disorders over a six-year follow-up—2013 Curt Richter Award Winner. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 44, 4759. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.02.014
Aoki, Y., Inokuchi, R., Nakao, T., & Yamasue, H. (2013). Neural bases of antisocial behavior: A voxel-based meta-analysis. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 12231231. doi:10.1093/scan/nst104
Avitsur, R., Grinshpahet, R., Goren, N., Weinstein, I., Kirshenboim, O., & Chlebowski, N. (2016). Prenatal SSRI alters the hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in female mice: Possible role for glucocorticoid resistance. Hormone Behavior, 84, 4149. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2016.06.001
Banich, M. T. (2009). Executive function: The search for an integrated account. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 8994. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01615.x
Barker, D. (2003). The midwife, the coincidence, and the hypothesis. British Medical Journal, 327, 14281430. doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7429.1428
Barker, D. J. (1998). In utero programming of chronic disease. Clinical Science, 95, 115128. doi:10.1042/cs0950115
Barker, D. J., Eriksson, J. G., Forsen, T., & Osmond, C. (2002). Fetal origins of adult disease: Strength of effects and biological basis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 12351239. doi:10.1093/ije/31.6.1235
Barker, E. D., Jaffee, S. R., Uher, R., & Maughan, B. (2011). The contribution of prenatal and postnatal maternal anxiety and depression to child maladjustment. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 696702. doi:10.1002/da.20856
Barry, T. J., Murray, L., Pasco Fearon, R. M., Moutsiana, C., Cooper, P., Goodyer, I. M., … Halligan, S. L. (2015). Maternal postnatal depression predicts altered offspring biological stress reactivity in adulthood. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 52, 251260. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.12.003
Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A., & Ridge, B. (1998). Interaction of temperamental resistance to control and restrictive parenting in the development of externalizing behavior. Developmental Psychology, 34, 982. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.34.5.982
Battle, C. L., Salisbury, A. L., Schofield, C. A., & Ortiz-Hernandez, S. (2013). Perinatal antidepressant use: Understanding women's preferences and concerns. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 19, 443453. doi:10.1097/01.pra.0000438183.74359.46
Beauchaine, T. P., & Thayer, J. F. (2015). Heart rate variability as a transdiagnostic biomarker of psychopathology. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98, 338350. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.08.004
Bergman, K., Sarkar, P., Glover, V., & O'Connor, T. G. (2010). Maternal prenatal cortisol and infant cognitive development: Moderation by infant-mother attachment. Biological Psychiatry, 67, 10261032. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.01.002
Bhat, A., Chowdayya, R., Selvam, S., Khan, A., Kolts, R., & Srinivasan, K. (2015). Maternal prenatal psychological distress and temperament in 1–4 month old infants: A study in a non-Western population. Infant Behavior and Development, 39, 3541. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.12.002
Boes, A. D., McCormick, L. M., Coryell, W. H., & Nopoulos, P. (2008). Rostral anterior cingulate cortex volume correlates with depressed mood in normal healthy children. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 391397. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.07.018
Borue, X., Chen, J., & Condron, B. G. (2007). Developmental effects of SSRIs: Lessons learned from animal studies. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 25, 341347. doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2007.06.003
Boukhris, T., Sheehy, O., Mottron, L., & Berard, A. (2016). Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorder in children. Journal of the American Medical Association Pediatrics, 170, 117124. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3356
Bourgeois, J. P. (1997). Synaptogenesis, heterochrony and epigenesis in the mammalian neocortex. Acta Paediatrica, 422, 2733. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1997.tb18340.x
Bourgeois, J. P., Goldman-Rakic, P. S., & Rakic, P. (1994). Synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkeys. Cerebral Cortex, 4, 7896. doi:10.1093/cercor/4.1.78
Braithwaite, E. C., Murphy, S. E., & Ramchandani, P. G. (2016). Effects of prenatal depressive symptoms on maternal and infant cortisol reactivity. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 19, 581590. doi:10.1007/s00737-016-0611-y
Brennan, P. A., Pargas, R., Walker, E. F., Green, P., Newport, D. J., & Stowe, Z. (2008). Maternal depression and infant cortisol: Influences of timing, comorbidity and treatment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 49, 10991107. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01914
Buckholtz, J. W., & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2012). Psychopathology and the human connectome: Toward a transdiagnostic model of risk for mental illness. Neuron, 74, 9901004. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.06.002
Burke, H. M., Davis, M. C., Otte, C., & Mohr, D. C. (2005). Depression and cortisol responses to psychological stress: A meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 846856. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.02.010
Buss, C., Davis, E. P., Shahbaba, B., Pruessner, J. C., Head, K., & Sandman, C. A. (2012). Maternal cortisol over the course of pregnancy and subsequent child amygdala and hippocampus volumes and affective problems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, E1312E1319. doi:10.1073/pnas.1201295109
Capron, L. E., Glover, V., Pearson, R. M., Evans, J., O'Connor, T. G., Stein, A., … Ramchandani, P. G. (2015). Associations of maternal and paternal antenatal mood with offspring anxiety disorder at age 18 years. Journal of Affective Disorders, 187, 2026. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.012
Caspi, A., Henry, B., McGee, R. O., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1995). Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: From age three to age fifteen. Child Development, 66, 5568. doi:10.2307/1131190
Caspi, A., Houts, R. M., Belsky, D. W., Goldman-Mellor, S. J., Harrington, H., Israel, S., … Poulton, R. (2014). The p factor: One general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders? Clinical Psychological Science, 2, 119137. doi:10.1177/2167702613497473
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Newman, D. L., & Silva, P. A. (1996). Behavioral observations at age 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders: Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 10331039. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830110071009
Chen, M. C., Hamilton, J. P., & Gotlib, I. H. (2010). Decreased hippocampal volume in healthy girls at risk of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 270276. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.202
Clark, R., Tluczek, A., & Wenzel, A. (2003). Psychotherapy for postpartum depression: A preliminary report. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73, 441454. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.73.4.441
Class, Q. A., Rickert, M. E., Larsson, H., Lichtenstein, P., & D'Onofrio, B. M. (2014). Fetal growth and psychiatric and socioeconomic problems: Population-based sibling comparison. British Journal of Psychiatry, 205, 355361. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.143693
Clemens, C. C., Castro, V. M., Blumenthal, S. R., Rosenfield, H. R., Murphy, S. N., Fava, M., & Robinson, E. B. (2015). Prenatal antidepressant exposure is associated with risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder but not autism spectrum disorder in a large health system. Molecular Psychiatry, 20, 727734. doi:10.1038/mp.2014.90
Cole, M. W., Repovš, G., & Anticevic, A. (2014). The frontoparietal control system: A central role in mental health. Neuroscientist, 20, 652664. doi:10.1177/1073858414525995
Cowan, W. M. (1979). The development of the brain. Scientific American, 241, 113133. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0979-112
Croen, L. A., Grether, J. K., Yoshida, C. K., Odouli, R., & Hendrick, V. (2011). Antidepressant use during pregnancy and childhood autism spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 11041112. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.73
Cuijpers, P., Cristea, I. A., Karyotaki, E., Reijnders, M., & Huibers, M. J. H. (2016). How effective are cognitive behavior therapies for major depression and anxiety disorders? A meta-analytic update of the evidence. World Psychiatry, 15, 245258. doi:10.1002/wps.20346
Cuijpers, P., Karyotaki, E., Weitz, E., Andersson, G., Hollon, S. D., & van Straten, A. (2014). The effects of psychotherapies for major depression in adults on remission, recovery and improvement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 159, 118126. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.02.026
Danielson, C. K., Hankin, B. L., & Badanes, L. S. (2015). Youth offspring of mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder have altered stress reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 53, 170178. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.01.001
Davis, E. P., Glynn, L. M., Schetter, C. D., Hobel, C., Chicz-Demet, A., & Sandman, C. A. (2007). Prenatal exposure to maternal depression and cortisol influences infant temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 737746. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e318047b775
Davis, E. P., Glynn, L. M., Waffarn, F., & Sandman, C. A. (2011). Prenatal maternal stress programs infant stress regulation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 119129. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02314.x
Davis, E. P., & Pfaff, D. (2014). Sexually dimorphic responses to early adversity: Implications for affective problems and autism spectrum disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 49, 1125. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.06.014
Davis, E. P., & Sandman, C. A. (2012). Prenatal psychobiological predictors of anxiety risk in preadolescent children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 12241233. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.12.016
Davis, E. P., Snidman, N., Wadhwa, P. D., Dunkel Schetter, C., Glynn, L., & Sandman, C. A. (2004). Prenatal maternal anxiety and depression predict negative behavioral reactivity in infancy. Infancy, 6, 319331. doi:10.1207/s15327078in0603_1
Dennis, C., & Dowswell, T. (2013). Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001134.pub3
Denver, R. J. (1997). Environmental stress as a developmental cue: Corticotropin-releasing hormone is a proximate mediator of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in amphibian metamorphosis. Hormone Behavior, 31, 169179. doi:10.1006/hbeh.1997.1383
Dougherty, L. R., Klein, D. N., Durbin, C. E., Hayden, E. P., & Olino, T. M. (2010). Temperamental positive and negative emotionality and children's depressive symptoms: A longitudinal prospective study from age three to age ten. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29, 462488. doi:10.1521/jscp.2010.29.4.462
Downey, G., & Coyne, J. C. (1990). Children of depressed parents: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 5076. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.108.1.50
Ducharme, S., Albaugh, M. D., Hudziak, J. J., Botteron, K. N., Nguyen, T., Truong, C., … Byars, A. W. (2013). Anxious/depressed symptoms are linked to right ventromedial prefrontal cortical thickness maturation in healthy children and young adults. Cerebral Cortex, 24, 29412950. doi:10.1093/cercor/bht151
Dunkel Schetter, C. (2009). Stress processes in pregnancy and preterm birth. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 204209.
Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Spinrad, T. L., Cumberland, A., Liew, J., Reiser, M., … Losoya, S. H. (2009). Longitudinal relations of children's effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality to their externalizing, internalizing, and co-occurring behavior problems. Developmental Psychology, 45, 988. doi:10.1037/a0016213
Eke, A., Saccone, G., & Berghella, V. (2016). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 123, 19001907. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.14144
El Marroun, H., Tiemeier, H., Muetzel, R. L., Thijssen, S., der Knaap, N. J. F., Jaddoe, V. W. V., … White, T. J. H. (2016). Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and non-verbal cognitive functioning in childhood. Depression and Anxiety, 33, 658666. doi:10.1002/da.22524
El Marroun, H., White, T. J., Fernandez, G., Jaddoe, V. W. V., Verhulst, F. C., Stricker, B. H., & Tiemeier, H. (2017). Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and non-verbal cognitive functioning in childhood. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 31, 346355. doi:10.1177/0269881116665335
Etkin, A., & Wager, T. D. (2007). Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: A meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 14761488. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07030504
Evans, J., Heron, J., Francomb, H., Oke, S., & Golding, J. (2001). Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. British Medical Journal, 323, 257260. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7307.257
Evans, J., Melotti, R., Heron, J., Ramchandani, P., Wiles, N., Murray, L., & Stein, A. (2012). The timing of maternal depressive symptoms and child cognitive development: A longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 632640. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02513.x
Fernandes, M., Stein, A., Srinivasan, K., Menezes, G., & Ramchandani, P. G. (2015). Foetal exposure to maternal depression predicts cortisol responses in infants: Findings from rural South India. Child Care and Health Development, 41, 677686. doi:10.1111/cch.12186
Field, T., Diego, M., Dieter, J., Hernandez-Reif, M., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C., … Bendell, D. (2004). Prenatal depression effects on the fetus and the newborn. Infant Behavior and Development, 27, 216229. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2003.09.010
Firestein, S. (2015). Failure: Why science is so successful. New York: Oxford University Press.
Foland-Ross, L. C., Gilbert, B. L., Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2015). Neural markers of familial risk for depression: An investigation of cortical thickness abnormalities in healthy adolescent daughters of mothers with recurrent depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124, 476. doi:10.1037/abn0000050
Garber, J., Ciesla, J. A., McCauley, E., Diamond, G., & Schloredt, K. A. (2011). Remission of depression in parents: Links to healthy functioning in their children. Child Development, 82, 226243. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01552.x
Gavin, N. I., Gaynes, B. N., Lohr, K. N., Meltzer-Brody, S., Gartlehner, G., & Swinson, T. (2005). Perinatal depression: A systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 106, 10711083. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000183597.31630.db
Gaynes, B. N., Gavin, N., Meltzer-Brody, S., Lohr, K. N., Swinson, T., Gartlehner, G., … Miller, W. C. (2005). Perinatal depression: Prevalence, screening accuracy, and screening outcomes. Evidence Report/Technological Assessment (Summary), 119.
Gerardin, P., Wendland, J., Bodeau, N., Galin, A., Bialobos, S., Tordjman, S., … Cohen, D. (2011). Depression during pregnancy: Is the developmental impact earlier in boys? A prospective case-control study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72, 378387. doi:10.4088/JCP.09m05724blu
Gingrich, J. A., Malm, H., Ansorge, M. S., Brown, A., Sourander, A., Suri, D., … Weissman, M. M. (2017). New insights into how serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors shape the developing brain. Birth Defects Research, 109, 924932. doi:10.1002/bdr2.1085
Gjone, H., & Stevenson, J. (1997). A longitudinal twin study of temperament and behavior problems: Common genetic or environmental influences? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 14481456. doi:10.1097/00004583-199710000-00028
Glover, V., O'Connor, T. G., & O'Donnell, K. (2010). Prenatal stress and the programming of the HPA axis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1722. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.11.008
Gluckman, P. D., & Hanson, M. A. (2004). Living with the past: Evolution, development, and patterns of disease. Science, 305, 17331736. doi:10.1126/science.1095292
Glynn, L. M., Dunkel Schetter, C., Hobel, C., & Sandman, C. A. (2008). Pattern of perceived stress and anxiety in pregnancy predict preterm birth. Health Psychology, 27, 4251. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.27.1.43
Goodkind, M., Eickhoff, S. B., Oathes, D. J., Jiang, Y., Chang, A., Jones-Hagata, L. B., … Korgaonkar, M. S. (2015). Identification of a common neurobiological substrate for mental illness. Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, 72, 305315. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2206
Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458490. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.106.3.458
Goodman, S. H., Rouse, M. H., Connell, A. M., Broth, M. R., Hall, C. M., & Heyward, D. (2011). Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 127. doi:10.1007/s10567-010-0080-1
Grant, K., McMahon, C., Austin, M., Reilly, N., Leader, L., & Ali, S. (2009). Maternal prenatal anxiety, postnatal caregiving and infants' cortisol responses to the still-face procedure. Developmental Psychobiology, 51, 625637. doi:10.1002/dev.20397
Grigoriadis, S., VonderPorten, E. H., Mamisashvili, L., Eady, A., Tomlinson, G., Dennis, C., … Cheung, A. (2013). The effect of prenatal antidepressant exposure on neonatal adaptation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 74, e309e320. doi:10.4088/JCP.12r07967
Grigoriadis, S., VonderPorten, E. H., Mamisashvili, L., Tomlinson, G., Dennis, C. L., Koren, G., … Ross, L. E. (2013). The impact of maternal depression during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 74, e321e341. doi:10.4088/JCP.12r07968
Grote, N. K., Bridge, J. A., Gavin, A. R., Melville, J. L., Iyengar, S., & Katon, W. J. (2010). A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 10121024. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.111
Grote, N. K., Katon, W. J., Russo, J. E., Lohr, M. J., Curran, M., Galvin, E., & Carson, K. (2015). Collaborative care for perinatal depression in socioeconomically disadvantaged women: A randomized trial. Depression and Anxiety, 32, 821834. doi:10.1002/da.22405
Grote, N. K., Swartz, H. A., Geibel, S. L., Zuckoff, A., Houck, P. R., & Frank, E. (2009). A randomized controlled trial of culturally relevant, brief interpersonal psychotherapy for perinatal depression. Psychiatric Services, 60, 313321. doi:10.1176/ps.2009.60.3.313
Grupe, D. W., & Nitschke, J. B. (2013). Uncertainty and anticipation in anxiety: An integrated neurobiological and psychological perspective. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14, 488501. doi:10.1038/nrn3524
Guerry, J. D., & Hastings, P. D. (2011). In search of HPA axis dysregulation in child and adolescent depression. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 135160. doi:10.1007/s10567-011-0084-5
Gunlicks, M. L., & Weissman, M. M. (2008). Change in child psychopathology with improvement in parental depression: A systematic review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 379389. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181640805
Gunnar, M. R., & Vazquez, D. (2006). Stress neurobiology and developmental psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Haijma, S. V., Van Haren, N., Cahn, W., Koolschijn, P. C., Hulshoff Pol, H. E., & Kahn, R. S. (2012). Brain volumes in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis in over 18 000 subjects. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 39, 11291138. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbs118
Haltigan, J. D., Roisman, G. I., Susman, E. J., Barnett-Walker, K., & Monahan, K. C. (2011). Elevated trajectories of externalizing problems are associated with lower awakening cortisol levels in midadolescence. Developmental Psychology, 47, 472478. doi:10.1037/a0021911
Hammen, C. (2005). Stress and depression. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 293319. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143938
Hankin, B. L., Davis, E. P., Snyder, H., Young, J. F., Glynn, L. M., & Sandman, C. A. (2017). Temperament factors and dimensional, latent bifactor models of child psychopathology: Transdiagnostic and specific associations in two youth samples. Psychiatry Research, 252, 139146. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2017.02.061
Hankin, B. L., Snyder, H. R., Gulley, L. D., Schweizer, T. H., Bijttebier, P., Nelis, S., … Vasey, M. W. (2016). Understanding comorbidity among internalizing problems: Integrating latent structural models of psychopathology and risk mechanisms. Development and Psychopathology, 28, 9871012. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000663
Harrington, R. A., Lee, L.-C., Crum, R. M., Zimmerman, A. W., & Hertz-Picciotto, I. (2014). Prenatal SSRI use and offspring with autism spectrum disorder or developmental delay. Pediatrics, 133, e1241e1248. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-3406
Hay, D. F., Pawlby, S., Waters, C. S., Perra, O., & Sharp, D. (2010). Mothers' antenatal depression and their children's antisocial outcomes. Child Development, 81, 149165. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01386.x
Hendrick, V., Stowe, Z. N., Altshuler, L. L., Hwang, S., Lee, E., & Haynes, D. (2003). Placental passage of antidepressant medications. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 993996. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.5.993
Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Micco, J., Henin, A., Bloomfield, A., Biederman, J., & Rosenbaum, J. (2008). Behavioral inhibition. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 357367. doi:10.1002/da.20490
Hobfoll, S. E., Ritter, C., Lavin, J., Hulsizer, M. R., & Cameron, R. P. (1995). Depression prevalence and incidence among inner-city pregnant and postpartum women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 445453. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.63.3.445
Hoffman, M. C., Mazzoni, S. E., Wagner, B. D., Laudenslager, M. L., & Ross, R. G. (2016). Measures of maternal stress and mood in relation to preterm birth. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 127, 545552. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000001287
Hollon, S. D. (2016). The efficacy and acceptability of psychological interventions for depression: Where we are now and where we are going. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 25, 295300. doi:10.1017/S2045796015000748
Huot, R., Brennan, P., Stowe, Z., Plotsky, P., & Walker, E. (2004). Negative affect in offspring of depressed mothers is predicted by infant cortisol levels at 6 months and maternal depression during pregnancy, but not postpartum. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 234236. doi:10.1196/annals.1314.028
Hviid, A., Melbye, M., & Pasternak, B. (2013). Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy and risk of autism. New England Journal of Medicine, 369, 24062415. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1301449
Jarde, A., Morais, M., Kingston, D., Giallo, R., MacQueen, G., Giglia, L., … McDonald, S. D. (2016). Neonatal outcomes in women with untreated antenatal depression compared with women without depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, 73, 826837. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0934
Jha, S. C., Meltzer-Brody, S., Steiner, R. J., Cornea, E., Woolson, S., Ahn, M., … Styner, M. (2016). Antenatal depression, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and neonatal brain structure: A propensity-matched cohort study. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 253, 4353. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2016.05.004
Joëls, M., & Baram, T. Z. (2009). The neuro-symphony of stress. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 459466. doi:10.1038/nrn2632
Johnson, J. E., Price, A. B., Kao, J. C., Fernandes, K., Stout, R., Gobin, R. L., & Zlotnick, C. (2016). Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for major depression following perinatal loss: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 19, 845859. doi:10.1007/s00737-016-0625-5
Johnson, M. B., Kawasawa, Y. I., Mason, C. E., Krsnik, Z., Coppola, G., Bogdanovic, D., … Sestan, N. (2009). Functional and evolutionary insights into human brain development through global transcriptome analysis. Neuron, 62, 494509. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.03.027
Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1987). The physiology and psychology of behavioral inhibition in children. Child Development, 58, 14591473. doi:10.2307/1130685
Kaiser, R. H., Andrews-Hanna, J. R., Wager, T. D., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2015). Large-scale network dysfunction in major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of resting-state functional connectivity. Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, 72, 603611. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0071
Kaplan, L. A., Evans, L., & Monk, C. (2008). Effects of mothers' prenatal psychiatric status and postnatal caregiving on infant biobehavioral regulation: Can prenatal programming be modified? Early Human Development, 84, 249256. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2007.06.004
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593602. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593
Ko, J. Y., Farr, S. L., Dietz, P. M., & Robbins, C. L. (2012). Depression and treatment among US pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, 2005–2009. Journal of Women's Health, 21, 830836. doi:10.1089/jwh.2011.3466
Korhonen, M., Luoma, I., Salmelin, R., & Tamminen, T. (2012). A longitudinal study of maternal prenatal, postnatal and concurrent depressive symptoms and adolescent well-being. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136, 680692. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.10.007
Kostovic, I., Judas, M., Rados, M., & Hrabac, P. (2002). Laminar organization of the human fetal cerebrum revealed by histochemical markers and magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral Cortex, 12, 536544. doi:10.1093/cercor/12.5.536
Kotov, R., Gamez, W., Schmidt, F., & Watson, D. (2010). Linking ‘big’ personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 768821. doi:10.1037/a0020327
Krueger, R. F. (1999). The structure of common mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 921926. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.10.921
Lahey, B. B. (2009). Public health significance of neuroticism. American Psychologist, 64, 241256. doi:10.1037/a0015309
Lahey, B. B., Krueger, R. F., Rathouz, P. J., Waldman, I. D., & Zald, D. H. (2017). A hierarchical causal taxonomy of psychopathology across the life span. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 142186. doi:10.1037/bul0000069
Lebel, C., Walton, M., Letourneau, N., Giesbrecht, G. F., Kaplan, B. J., & Dewey, D. (2016). Prepartum and postpartum maternal depressive symptoms are related to children's brain structure in preschool. Biological Psychiatry, 80, 859868. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.12.004
Leichsenring, F., & Steinert, C. (2017). Is cognitive behavioral therapy the gold standard for psychotherapy? The need for plurality in treatment and research. Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, 318, 13231324. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.13737
Lenze, S. N., & Potts, M. A. (2017). Brief interpersonal psychotherapy for depression during pregnancy in a low-income population: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 210, 151157. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.029
Lopez-Duran, N. L., Kovacs, M., & George, C. J. (2009). Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation in depressed children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 12721283. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.03.016
Lumey, L. H., Stein, A. D., & Susser, E. (2011). Prenatal famine and adult health. Annual Review of Public Health, 32, 237262. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031210-101230
Lundy, B. L., Jones, N. A., Field, T., Nearing, G., Davalos, M., Pietro, P. A., … Kuhn, C. (1999). Prenatal depression effects on neonates. Infant Behavior and Development, 22, 119129. doi:10.1016/S0163-6383(99)80009-5
Luoma, I., Tamminen, T., Kaukonen, P., Laippala, P., Puura, K., Salmelin, R., & Almqvist, F. (2001). Longitudianl study of maternal depressive symptoms and child well-being. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 13671374. doi:10.1097/00004583-200112000-00006
Mäki, P., Veijola, J., Räsänen, P., Joukamaa, M., Valonen, P., Jokelainen, J., & Isohanni, M. (2003). Criminality in the offspring of antenatally depressed mothers: A 33-year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. Journal of Affective Disorders, 74, 273278. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(02)00019-8
Man, K. K., Chan, E. W., Ip, P., Coghill, D., Simonoff, E., Chan, P. K., & Wong, I. C. (2017). Prenatal antidepressant use and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring: Population based cohort study. British Medical Journal, 357, j2350. doi:10.1136/bmj.j2350
Marcus, S. M. (2009). Depression during pregnancy: Rates, risks and consequences—Motherisk Update 2008. Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 16, 1522.
Marcus, S. M., Flynn, H. A., Blow, F. C., & Barry, K. L. (2003). Depressive symptoms among pregnant women screened in obstetrics settings. Journal of Women's Health, 12, 373380. doi:10.1089/154099903765448880
McCarthy, H., Skokauskas, N., & Frodl, T. (2014). Identifying a consistent pattern of neural function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 44, 869880. doi:10.1017/S0033291713001037
McEwen, B. S. (2004). Protection and damage from acute and chronic stress: Allostasis and allostatic overload and relevance to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 17. doi:10.1196/annals.1314.001
Meehl, P. E. (1978). Theoretical risks and tabular asterisks: Sir Karl, Sir Ronald, and the slow progress of soft psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 806834. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.46.4.806
Melville, J. L., Reed, S. D., Russo, J., Croicu, C. A., Ludman, E., LaRocco-Cockburn, A., & Katon, W. (2014). Improving care for depression in obstetrics and gynecology: A randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 123, 12371246. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000231
Miller, C. H., Hamilton, J. P., Sacchet, M. D., & Gotlib, I. H. (2015). Meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging of major depressive disorder in touth. Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, 72, 10451053. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.1376
Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., Silva, P., & Stanton, W. (1996). Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct problems in males: Natural history from ages 3 to 18 years. Developmental Psychopathology, 8, 399424. doi:10.1017/S0954579400007161
Mulcahy, R., Reay, R. E., Wilkinson, R. B., & Owen, C. (2010). A randomised control trial for the effectiveness of group interpersonal psychotherapy for postnatal depression. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 13, 125139. doi:10.1007/s00737-009-0101-6
Mulder, E., Ververs, F., De Heus, R., & Visser, G. (2011). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors affect neurobehavioral development in the human fetus. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36, 19611971. doi:10.1038/npp.2011.67
Murray, L., Arteche, A., Fearon, P., Halligan, S., Croudace, T., & Cooper, P. (2010). The effects of maternal postnatal depression and child sex on academic performance at age 16 years: A developmental approach. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 11501159. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02259.x
Nathanielsz, P. W. (1999). Life in the womb: The origin of health and disease. Ithaca, NY: Promethean Press.
National Center for Health Statistics. (2015). Prescription drug use in the past 30 days, by sex, race and Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1988–1994 through 2009–2012. Hyattsville, MD: Author.
Niendam, T. A., Laird, A. R., Ray, K. L., Dean, Y. M., Glahn, D. C., & Carter, C. S. (2012). Meta-analytic evidence for a superordinate cognitive control network subserving diverse executive functions. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 241268. doi:10.3758/s13415-011-0083-5
Nigg, J. T. (2017). Annual Research Review: On the relations among self-regulation, self-control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk-taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58, 361383. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12675
Nulman, I., Koren, G., Rovet, J., Barrera, M., Pulver, A., Streiner, D., & Feldman, B. (2012). Neurodevelopment of children following prenatal exposure to venlafaxine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or untreated maternal depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 11651174. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.11111721
O'Connor, E., Rossom, R. C., Henninger, M., Groom, H. C., & Burda, B. U. (2016). Primary care screening for and treatment of depression in pregnant and postpartum women: Evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Journal of the American Medical Association, 315, 388406. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18948
O'Connor, T. G., Monk, C., & Fitelson, E. M. (2014). Practitioner review: Maternal mood in pregnancy and child development—Implications for child psychology and psychiatry. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 99111. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12153
O'Donnell, K. J., Glover, V., Barker, E. D., & O'Connor, T. G. (2014). The persisting effect of maternal mood in pregnancy on childhood psychopathology. Developmental Psychopathology, 26, 393403. doi:10.1017/S0954579414000029
O'Donnell, K. J., Glover, V., Jenkins, J., Browne, D., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Golding, J., & O'Connor, T. G. (2013). Prenatal maternal mood is associated with altered diurnal cortisol in adolescence. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 16301638. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.01.008
O'Hara, M. W., Stuart, S., Gorman, L. L., & Wenzel, A. (2000). Efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for postpartum depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 10391045. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.11.1039
Olino, T. M., Dougherty, L. R., Bufferd, S. J., Carlson, G. A., & Klein, D. N. (2014). Testing models of psychopathology in preschool-aged children using a structured interview-based assessment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 12011211. doi:10.1007/s10802-014-9865-x
Olivier, J. D., Åkerud, H., Kaihola, H., Pawluski, J., Skalkidou, A., Högberg, U., & Sundström-Poromaa, I. (2013). The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 7, 115. doi:10.3389/fncel.2013.00073
Olson, S. L., Bates, J. E., Sandy, J. M., & Lanthier, R. (2000). Early developmental precursors of externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 119133. doi:10.1023/A:1005166629744
Ormel, J., Jeronimus, B. F., Kotov, R., Riese, H., Bos, E. H., Hankin, B., … Oldehinkel, A. J. (2013). Neuroticism and common mental disorders: Meaning and utility of a complex relationship. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 686697. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.04.003
Pacheco, A., & Figueiredo, B. (2012). Mother's depression at childbirth does not contribute to the effects of antenatal depression on neonate's behavioral development. Infant Behavior and Development, 35, 513522. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.02.001
Pariante, C. M., & Lightman, S. L. (2008). The HPA axis in major depression: Classical theories and new developments. Trends in Neurosciences, 31, 464468. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2008.06.006
Pearson, R. M., Evans, J., Kounali, D., Lewis, G., Heron, J., Ramchandani, P. G., … Stein, A. (2013). Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period: Risks and possible mechanisms for offspring depression at age 18 years. Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, 70, 13121319. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2163
Peterson, B. S., Warner, V., Bansal, R., Zhu, H., Hao, X., Liu, J., … Weissman, M. M. (2009). Cortical thinning in persons at increased familial risk for major depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 62736278. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805311106
Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P., Talati, A., Tang, M., Hughes, C. W., Garber, J., … Sood, A. B. (2008). Children of depressed mothers 1 year after the initiation of maternal treatment: Findings from the STAR*D-Child Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 11361147. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07081286
Plant, D. T., Barker, E. D., Waters, C. S., Pawlby, S., & Pariante, C. M. (2013). Intergenerational transmission of maltreatment and psychopathology: The role of antenatal depression. Psychological Medicine, 43, 519528. doi:10.1017/S0033291712001298
Plant, D. T., Pariante, C. M., Sharp, D., & Pawlby, S. (2015). Maternal depression during pregnancy and offspring depression in adulthood: Role of child maltreatment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 207, 213220. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.114.156620
Posner, J., Cha, J., Roy, A., Peterson, B., Bansal, R., Gustafsson, H., … Monk, C. (2016). Alterations in amygdala–prefrontal circuits in infants exposed to prenatal maternal depression. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e935. doi:10.1038/tp.2016.146
Qiu, A., Anh, T. T., Li, Y., Chen, H., Rifkin-Graboi, A., Broekman, B. F., … Meaney, M. J. (2015). Prenatal maternal depression alters amygdala functional connectivity in 6-month-old infants. Translational Psychiatry, 5, e508. doi:10.1038/tp.2015.3
Renken, B., Egeland, B., Marvinney, D., Mangelsdorf, S., & Sroufe, L. A. (1989). Early childhood antecedents of aggression and passive-withdrawal in early elementary school. Journal of Personality, 57, 257281. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1989.tb00483.x
Rifkin-Graboi, A., Bai, J., Chen, H., Hameed, W. B., Sim, L. W., Tint, M. T., … Qiu, A. (2013). Prenatal maternal depression associates with microstructure of right amygdala in neonates at birth. Biological Psychiatry, 74, 837844. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.06.019
Rogers, J. C., & de Brito, S. A. (2016). Cortical and subcortical gray matter volume in youths with conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, 73, 6472. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2423
Ross, L. E., Grigoriadis, S., Mamisashvili, L., VonderPorten, E. H., Roerecke, M., Rehm, J., … Mousmanis, P. (2013). Selected pregnancy and delivery outcomes after exposure to antidepressant medication: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, 70, 436443. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.684
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., Hersey, K. L., & Fisher, P. (2001). Investigations of temperament at three to seven years: The Children's Behavior Questionnaire. Child Development, 72, 13941408. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00355
Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In Eisenberg, N., Damon, W., & Lerner, L. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Rouse, M. H., & Goodman, S. H. (2014). Perinatal depression influences on infant negative affectivity: Timing, severity, and co-morbid anxiety. Infant Behavior and Development, 37, 739751. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.09.001
Rutter, M., & Uher, R. (2012). Classification issues and challenges in child and adolescent psychopathology. International Review of Psychiatry, 24, 514529. doi:10.3109/09540261.2012.719862
Sandman, C. A., Buss, C., Head, K., & Davis, E. P. (2015). Fetal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms is associated with cortical thickness in late childhood. Biological Psychiatry, 77, 324334. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.06.025
Sandman, C. A., Class, Q. A., Glynn, L. M., & Davis, E. P. (2016). Neurobehavioral disorders and developmental origins of health and disease. In Rosenfeld, C. (Ed.), The epigenome and developmental origins of health and disease (pp. 236267). London: Academic Press/Elsevier.
Scheinost, D., Sinha, R., Cross, S. N., Kwon, S. H., Sze, G., Constable, R. T., & Ment, L. R. (2017). Does prenatal stress alter the developing connectome? Pediatric Research, 81, 214226. doi:10.1038/pr.2016.197
Shang, J., Fu, Y., Ren, Z., Zhang, T., Du, M., Gong, Q., … Zhang, W. (2014). The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: Meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. PLOS ONE, 9, 110. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093432
Sidman, R. L., & Rakic, P. (1973). Neuronal migration, with special reference to developing human brain: A review. Brain Research, 62, 135. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(73)90617-3
Smith, R., Mesiano, S., & McGrath, S. (2002). Hormone trajectories leading to human birth. Regulatory Peptides, 108, 159164. doi:10.1016/S0167-0115(02)00105-2
Smith, S. M., & Vale, W. W. (2006). The role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neuroendocrine responses to stress. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 8, 383395.
Snyder, H. R., Hankin, B. L., Sandman, C. A., Head, K., & Davis, E. P. (2017). Distinct patterns of reduced prefrontal and limbic gray matter volume in childhood general and internalizing psychopathology. Clinical Psychological Science, 5, 10011013. doi:10.1177/2167702617714563
Snyder, H. R., Miyake, A., & Hankin, B. L. (2015). Advancing understanding of executive function impairments and psychopathology: Bridging the gap between clinical and cognitive approaches. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 124. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00328
Snyder, H. R., Young, J. F., & Hankin, B. L. (2017). Strong homotypic continuity in common psychopathology, internalizing, and externalizing factors across 18 months in adolescents. Clinical Psychological Science, 5, 98110. doi:10.1177/2167702616651076
Sockol, L. E., Epperson, C. N., & Barber, J. P. (2011). A meta-analysis of treatments for perinatal depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 839849. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.03.009
Solomonov, N., & Barber, J. P. (2016). What we know, what we do not know, and where are we heading? Efficacy and acceptability of psychological interventions for depression. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 25, 301308. doi:10.1017/S2045796015000815
Somhovd, M. J., Hansen, B. M., Brok, J., Esbjorn, B. H., & Greisen, G. (2012). Anxiety in adolescents born preterm or with very low birthweight: A meta-analysis of case-control studies. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 54, 988994. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04407.x
Spinelli, M. G., & Endicott, J. (2003). Controlled clinical trial of interpersonal psychotherapy versus parenting education program for depressed pregnant women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 555562. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.3.555
Spinelli, M. G., Endicott, J., Goetz, R. R., & Segre, L. S. (2016). Reanalysis of efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for antepartum depression versus parenting education program: Initial severity of depression as a predictor of treatment outcome. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77, 535540. doi:10.4088/JCP.15m09787
Stout, S. A., Espel, E. V., Sandman, C. A., Glynn, L. M., & Davis, E. P. (2015). Fetal programming of children's obesity risk. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 53, 2939. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.12.009
Sujan, A. C., Rickert, M. E., Öberg, A. S., Quinn, P. D., Hernández-Díaz, S., Almqvist, C., … D'Onofrio, B. M. (2017). Associations of maternal antidepressant use during the first trimester of pregnancy with preterm birth, small for gestational age, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring. Journal of the American Medical Association, 317, 15531562. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.3413
Susman, E. J. (2006). Psychobiology of persistent antisocial behavior: Stress, early vulnerabilities and the attenuation hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 376389. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.08.002
Swartz, H. A., Frank, E., Zuckoff, A., Cyranowski, J. M., Houck, P. R., Cheng, Y., … Shear, M. K. (2008). Brief interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed mothers whose children are receiving psychiatric treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 11551162. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07081339
Swartz, J. R., Williamson, D. E., & Hariri, A. R. (2015). Developmental change in amygdala reactivity during adolescence: Effects of family history of depression and stressful life events. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 276283. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14020195
Tackett, J. L., Lahey, B. B., van Hulle, C., Waldman, I., Krueger, R. F., & Rathouz, P. J. H. (2013). Common genetic influences on negative emotionality and a general psychopathology factor in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 11421153. doi:10.1037/a0034151
Thomason, M. E., Grove, L. E., Lozon, T. A., Vila, A. M., Ye, Y., Nye, M. J., … Yeo, L. (2015). Age-related increases in long-range connectivity in fetal functional neural connectivity networks in utero. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 11, 96104. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2014.09.001
Thomason, M. E., Scheinost, D., Manning, J. H., Grove, L. E., Hect, J., Marshall, N., … Yeo, L. (2017). Weak functional connectivity in the human fetal brain prior to preterm birth. Scientific Reports, 7, 39286. doi:10.1038/srep39286
Tollenaar, M. S., Beijers, R., Jansen, J., Riksen-Walraven, J. M., & de Weerth, C. (2011). Maternal prenatal stress and cortisol reactivity to stressors in human infants. Stress, 14, 5365. doi:10.3109/10253890.2010.499485
Van Batenburg-Eddes, T., Brion, M. J., Henrichs, J., Jaddoe, V. W. V., Hofman, A., Verhulst, F. C., … Tiemeier, H. (2013). Parental depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy and attention problems in children: A cross-cohort consistency study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 591600. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12023
van den Bergh, B. R., & Marcoen, A. (2004). High antenatal maternal anxiety is related to ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and anxiety in 8- and 9-year-olds. Child Development, 75, 10851097. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00727.x
van den Bergh, B. R., Mennes, M., Oosterlaan, J., Stevens, V., Stiers, P., Marcoen, A., & Lagae, L. (2005). High antenatal maternal anxiety is related to impulsivity during performance on cognitive tasks in 14- and 15-year-olds. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 259269. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.10.010
van den Bergh, B. R., van Calster, B., Pinna Puissant, S., & van Huffel, S. (2008). Self-reported symptoms of depressed mood, trait anxiety and aggressive behavior in post-pubertal adolescents: Associations with diurnal cortisol profiles. Hormone Behavior, 54, 253257. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.03.015
van den Bergh, B. R., van Calster, B., Smits, T., van Huffel, S., & Lagae, L. (2008). Antenatal maternal anxiety is related to HPA-axis dysregulation and self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescence: A prospective study on the fetal origins of depressed mood. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 536545. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1301450
van der Knaap, N. J. F., Klumpers, F., El Marroun, H., Mous, S., Schubert, D., Jaddoe, V., … White, T. (2017). Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy are associated with amygdala hyperresponsivity in children. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 18.
Vänskä, M., Punamäki, R., Lindblom, J., Tolvanen, A., Flykt, M., Unkila-Kallio, L., … Tiitinen, A. (2016). Timing of early maternal mental health and child cortisol regulation. Infant and Child Development, 25, 461483. doi:10.1002/icd.1948
Venkatesh, K. K., Riley, L., Castro, V. M., Perlis, R. H., & Kaimal, A. J. (2016). Association of antenatal depression symptoms and antidepressant treatment with preterm birth. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 127, 926933. doi:10.1097/aog.0000000000001397
Viktorin, A., Lichtenstein, P., Lundholm, C., Almqvist, C., D'Onofrio, B. M., Larsson, H., … Magnusson, P. K. E. (2016). Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor use during pregnancy: Association with offspring birth size and gestational age. International Journal of Epidemiology, 45, 170177. doi:10.1093/ije/dyv351
Volpe, J. J. (2008). Neurology of the newborn (5th ed.). Philedelphia: Elsevier.
Vrshek-Schallhorn, S., Doane, L. D., Mineka, S., Zinbarg, R. E., Craske, M. G., & Adam, E. K. (2013). The cortisol awakening response predicts major depression: Predictive stability over a 4-year follow-up and effect of depression history. Psychological Medicine, 43, 483493. doi:10.1017/S0033291712001213
Weikum, W. M., Oberlander, T. F., Hensch, T. K., & Werker, J. F. (2012). Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and depressed maternal mood alter trajectory of infant speech perception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(Suppl. 2), 1722117227. doi:10.1073/pnas.1121263109
Weissman, M. M., Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P. J., Talati, A., Wisniewski, S. R., Fava, M., … King, C. A. (2006). Remissions in maternal depression and child psychopathology: A STAR*D-child report. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 13891398. doi:10.1001/jama.295.12.1389
Werner, E. A., Myers, M. M., Fifer, W. P., Cheng, B., Fang, Y., Allen, R., & Monk, C. (2007). Prenatal predictors of infant temperament. Developmental Psychobiology, 49, 474484. doi:10.1002/dev.20232
Westdahl, C., Milan, S., Magriples, U., Kershaw, T. S., Rising, S. S., & Ickovics, J. R. (2007). Social support and social conflict as predictors of prenatal depression. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 110, 134140. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000265352.61822.1b
White, R. H., Bates, M. E., & Buyske, S. (2001). Adolescence-limited versus persistent delinquency: Extending Moffitt's hypothesis into adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 600609. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.110.4.600
Wickramaratne, P., Gameroff, M. J., Pilowsky, D. J., Hughes, C. W., Garber, J., Malloy, E., … Alpert, J. E. (2011). Children of depressed mothers 1 year after remission of maternal depression: Findings from the STAR*D-Child study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 593602. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10010032
Wise, T., Radua, J., Via, E., Cardoner, N., Abe, O., Adams, T. M., … Perico, C. A. M. (2017). Common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume alteration in major depression and bipolar disorder: Evidence from voxel-based meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 22, 14551463. doi:10.1038/mp.2016.72
Yehuda, R. (2002). Current status of cortisol findings in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 25, 341368. doi:10.1016/S0193-953X(02)00002-3
Zald, D. H., & Lahey, B. B. (2017). Implications of the hierarchical structure of psychopathology for psychiatric neuroimaging. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 2, 310317. doi:10.1016/j.bpsc.2017.02.003
Zlotnick, C., Miller, I. W., Pearlstein, T., Howard, M., & Sweeney, P. (2006). A preventive intervention for pregnant women on public assistance at risk for postpartum depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 14431445. doi:10.1176/ajp.2006.163.8.1443
Zlotnick, C., Tzilos, G., Miller, I., Seifer, R., & Stout, R. (2016). Randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression in mothers on public assistance. Journal of Affective Disorders, 189, 263268. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.09.059
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed