Skip to main content Accessibility help

Attachment security and disorganization in maltreating and high-risk families: A series of meta-analyses

  • Chantal Cyr (a1) (a2), Eveline M. Euser (a1), Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (a1) and Marinus H. Van Ijzendoorn (a1)


The current meta-analytic study examined the differential impact of maltreatment and various socioeconomic risks on attachment security and disorganization. Fifty-five studies with 4,792 children were traced, yielding 59 samples with nonmaltreated high-risk children (n = 4,336) and 10 samples with maltreated children (n = 456). We tested whether proportions of secure versus insecure (avoidant, resistant, and disorganized) and organized versus disorganized attachments varied as a function of risks. Results showed that children living under high-risk conditions (including maltreatment studies) showed fewer secure (d = 0.67) and more disorganized (d = 0.77) attachments than children living in low-risk families. Large effects sizes were found for the set of maltreatment studies: maltreated children were less secure (d = 2.10) and more disorganized (d = 2.19) than other high-risk children (d = 0.48 and d = 0.48, respectively). However, children exposed to five socioeconomic risks (k = 8 studies, d = 1.20) were not significantly less likely to be disorganized than maltreated children. Overall, these meta-analyses show the destructive impact of maltreatment for attachment security as well as disorganization, but the accumulation of socioeconomic risks appears to have a similar impact on attachment disorganization.


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Chantal Cyr, Department of Psychology, University of Québec at Montréal, Case Postale 8888, Succ. Centreville, Montréal H3C 3P8, Canada; E-mail:; or Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Centre for Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; E-mail:


Hide All
References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.
Ackerman, B. P., Izard, C. E., Schoff, K., Youngstrom, E. A., & Kogos, J. (1999). Contextual risk, caregiver emotionality, and the problem behaviors of six- and seven-year-old children from economically disadvantaged families. Child Development, 70, 14151427.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
*Andreozzi, L., Flanagan, P., Seifer, R., Brunner, S., & Lester, B. (2002). Attachment classifications among 18 month old children of adolescent mothers. Archives of Pediatrics Adolescent Medicine, 156, 2026.
*Anisfeld, E., Casper, V., & Nozyce, M. (1990). Does infant carrying promote attachment? An experimental study of the effects of increased physical contact on the development of attachment. Child Development, 61, 16171627.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2006). Gene–environment interaction of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and observed maternal insensitivity predicting externalizing behavior in preschoolers. Developmental Psychobiology, 48, 406409.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007). Research review: Genetic vulnerability or differential susceptibility in child development: The case of attachment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 11601173.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Juffer, F. (2003). Less is more: Meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 195215.
*Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Kroonenburg, P. M. (2004). Differences in attachment security between African-American and white children: Ethnicity or socio-economic status? Infant Behavior and Development, 27, 417433.
*Barnett, D., Ganiban, J., & Cicchetti, D. (1999). Maltreatment, negative expressivity, and the development of type D attachments from 12 to 24 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 64(Serial No. 258), 97118.
*Barnett, D., Kidwell, S. L., & Leung, K. H. (1998). Parenting and preschooler attachment among low-income urban African-American families. Child Development, 69, 16571671.
Barry, R. A., Kochanska, G., & Philibert, R. A. (May 2008). G × E interactions in the organization of attachment: Mothers' responsiveness as a moderator of children's genotypes. Poster presented at the 20th annual convention of the Association for Psychological Science, Chicago.
Beeghly, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1994). Child maltreatment, attachment, and the self system: Emergence of an internal state lexicon in toddlers at high social risk. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 530.
*Beeghly, M., Frank, D. A., Rose-Jacobs, R., Cabral, H., & Tronick, E. (2003). Level of prenatal cocaine exposure and infant–caregiver attachment behavior. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 25, 2338.
Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. American Psychologist, 35, 320335.
Belsky, J. (1996). Parent, infant, and social-contextual antecedents of father–son attachment security. Developmental Psychology, 32, 905914.
Belsky, J. (1997). Variation in susceptibility to environmental influence: An evolutionary argument. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 182186.
Belsky, J., & Isabella, R. (1988). Maternal, infant, and social-contextual determinants of infant–mother attachment. In Belsky, J. & Nezworski, T. (Eds.) Clinical implications of attachment (pp. 4194). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Belsky, J., Rosenberger, K., & Crnic, K. (1995). Maternal personality, marital quality, social support, and infant temperament: Their significance for infant–mother attachment in human families. In Pryce, C., Martin, R., & Skuse, D. (Eds.), Motherhood in human and nonhuman primates: A synthetic approach (pp. 115124). Basel: Karger.
Belsky, J., & Stratton, P. (2002). An ecological analysis of the etiology of child maltreatment. In Browne, K., Hanks, H., Stratton, P., & Hamilton, C. (Eds.), Early prediction and prevention of child abuse: A handbook (pp. 95110). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Berlin, L. J., Ziv, Y., Amaya-Jackson, L., & Greenberg, M. T. (2005). Enhancing early attachments: Theory, research, intervention, and policy. New York: Guilford Press.
*Bombardier, C. L. (1997). Prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances: Its effects on newborgn behavior and subsequent attachment behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachussets.
*Booth, C. L., Kathryn, E. B., Mitchell, S. K., & Speiker, S. J. (1987). Successful Intervention with multi-problem mothers: Effects on the mother–infant relationship. Infant Mental Health Journal, 8, 288306.
Borenstein, M., Rothstein, D., & Cohen, J. (2004). Comprehensive meta-analysis: A computer program for research synthesis [Software]. Englewood, NJ: Biostat.
*Bost, K. K., Vaughn, B. E., Washington, W. N., Cielinski, K. L., & Bradbard, M. R. (1998). Social competence, social support, and attachment: Demarcation of construct domains, measurement, and paths of influence for preschool children attending Head Start. Child Development, 69, 192218.
Bousha, D. M., & Twentyman, C. T. (1984). Mother–child interactional style in abuse, neglect, and control groups. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 106114.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological models of human development. In Husten, T. & Postlethwaite, T. N. (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (Vol. 3, 2nd ed., pp. 16431647). New York: Elsevier Science.
*Broussard, E. R. (1995). Infant attachment in a sample of adolescent mothers. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 25, 211219.
Carlson, V., Cicchetti, D., Barnett, D., & Braunwald, K. (1989). Disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships in maltreated infants. Developmental Psychology, 25, 525531.
*Cargill-Jensen, H. (2000). A comparison of attachment security in adolescent mother–child dyads and adult mother–child dyads. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology.
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851854.
Chaffin, M., Hanson, R., Saunders, B., Barnett, D., Zeanah, C., Berliner, L., et al. (2006). Report of the APSAC Task Force on attachment therapy, reactive attachment disorder, and attachment problems. Child Maltreatment, 11, 7689.
Chilamkurti, C., & Milner, J. S. (1993). Perceptions and evaluations of child transgressions and disciplinary techniques in high- and low-risk mothers and their children. Child Development, 64, 18011814.
*Cicchetti, D., & Barnett, D. (1991). Attachment organization in maltreated preschoolers. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 397411.
Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M. (1993). Toward an ecological transactional model of community violence and child maltreatment—Consequences for childrens development. Psychiatry—Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 56, 96118.
*Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Toth, S. L. (2006). Fostering secure attachment in infants in maltreating families through prevention interventions. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 623649.
Cicchetti, D., & Valentino, K. (2006). An ecological–transactional perspective on child maltreatment: Failure of the average expectable environment and its influence on child development. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.) Developmental psychopathology (pp. 129201). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
*Coyl, D. D., Roggman, L. A., & Newland, L. A. (2002). Stress, maternal depression, and negative mother–infant interactions in relation to infant attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 23, 145163.
Crittenden, P. M. (1981). Abusing, neglecting, problematic and adequate dyads: Differentiating by patterns of interaction. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 27, 201218.
Crittenden, P. M. (1985). Maltreated infants: Vulnerability and resilience. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 8596.
*Crittenden, P. M. (1988). Relationships at risk. In Belsky, J. & Nezworski, T. (Eds.), Clinical implications of attachment (pp. 136174). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Crittenden, P. M. (1992). Children's strategies for coping with adverse home environments: An interpretation using attachment theory. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 329343.
*Das Eiden, R., Edwards, P. E., & Leonard, K. E. (2002). Mother–infant and father–infant attachment among alcoholic families. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 253278.
DeKlyen, M. (1996). Disruptive behavior disorder and intergenerational attachment patterns: A comparison of clinic-referred and normally functioning preschoolers and their mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 257365.
De Wolff, M. S., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1997). Sensitivity and attachment: A meta-analysis on parental antecedents of infant attachment. Child Development, 68, 571591.
*Diener, M. L., Nievar, M. A., & Wright, C. (2003). Attachment security among mothers and their young children living in poverty: Associations with maternal, child, and contextual characteristics. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 49, 154182.
Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). Trim and fill: A simple funnel-plot based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics, 56, 455463.
*Easterbrooks, M. A., & Graham, M. A. (1999). Security of attachment and parenting: Homeless and low-income housed mothers and infants. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69, 337346.
*Egeland, B., & Erickson, M. F. (1993). Attachment theory and findings: Implication for prevention and intervention. In Kramer, S. & Parens, H. (Eds.), Prevention in mental health: Now, tomorrow, ever? (pp. 2150). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
*Egeland, B., & Sroufe, A. L. (1981). Attachment and early maltreatment. Child Development, 52, 4452.
*Espinosa, M., Beckwith, L., Howard, J., Tyler, R., & Swanson, K. (2001). Maternal psychopathology and attachment in toddlers of heavy cocaine-using mothers. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 316333.
*Fish, M. (2001). Attachment in low-SES rural Appalachian infants: Contextual, infant, maternal interaction risk and protective factors. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 641664.
*Frodi, A., Grolnick, W., Bridges, L., & Berko, J. (1990). Infants of adolescent and adult mothers: Two indices of socioemotional development. Adolescence, 25, 363374.
*Goodman, G., Hans, S. L., & Cox, S. M. (1999). Attachment behavior and its antecedents in offspring born to methadone-maintained women. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 5869.
Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
*Heinicke, C. M., Fineman, N. R., Ruth, G., Recchia, S. L., Guthrie, D., & Rodning, C. (1999). Relationship-based intervention with at-risk mothers: Outcome in the first year of life. Infant Mental Health Journal, 20, 349374.
Hesse, E., & Main, M. (1999). Second-generation effects of unresolved trauma in nonmaltreating parents: Dissociated, frightened, and threatening parental behavior. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 19, 481540.
Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2000). Disorganized infant, child, and adult attachment: Collapse in behavioral and attentional strategies. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48, 10971127.
Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2006). Frightened, threatening, and dissociative parental behavior in low-risk samples: Description, discussion, and interpretations. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 309343.
*Hubbs-Tait, L., Osofsky, J. D., Hann, D. M., & McDonald Culp, A. (1994). Predicting behavior problems and social competence in children of adolescent mothers. Family Relations, 43, 439446.
*Ispa, J. M., Fine, M. A., & Thornburg, K. R. (2002). Maternal personality as a moderator of relations between difficult infant temperament and attachment security in low-income families. Infant Mental Health Journal, 23, 130144.
*Jacobson, S. W., & Frye, K. F. (1991). Effect of maternal social support on attachment: Experimental evidence. Child Development, 62, 572582.
Juffer, F., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2008). Promoting positive parenting: An attachment-based intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
*Lamb, M. E., Hopps, K., & Elster, A. B. (1987). Strange Situation behavior of infants with adolescent mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 3948.
*Lamb, M. E., Gaensbauer, T. J., Malkin, C. M., & Schultz, L. A. (1985). The effects of child maltreatment on security of infant–adult attachment. Infant Behavior and Development, 8, 3545.
*Lieberman, A. F., Weston, D. R., & Pawl, J. H. (1991). Preventive intervention and outcome with anxiously attached dyads. Child Development, 62, 199209.
Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Applied social research methods series (Vol. 49). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lorber, R., Felton, D. K., & Reid, J. B. (1984). A social learning approach to the reduction of coercive processes in child abusive families: A molecular analysis. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 6, 2945.
*Lounds, J. J., Borkowski, J. G., Whitman, T. L., Maxwell, S. E., & Weed, K. (2005). Adolescent parenting and attachment during infancy and early childhood. Parenting: Science and Practice, 5, 91118.
Lynch, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1998). An ecological-transactional analysis of children and contexts: The longitudinal interplay among child maltreatment, community violence, and children's symptomatology. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 235257.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Bronfman, E., & Parsons, E. (1999). Maternal frightened, frightening, or atypical behavior and disorganized infant attachment patterns. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 258(Serial No. 64), 6796.
*Lyons-Ruth, K., Connell, D. B., Grunebaum, H. U., & Botein, S. (1990). Infants at social risk: Maternal depression and family support services as mediators of infant development and security of attachment. Child Development, 61, 8598.
Lyons-Ruth, K., & Jacobvitz, D. (1999). Attachment disorganization: Unresolved loss, relational violence, and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (1st ed., pp. 520554). New York: Guilford Press.
Lyons-Ruth, K., & Jacobvitz, D. (2008). Attachment disorganization: Genetic factors, parenting contexts, and developmental transformation from incancy to adulthood. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 666697). New York: Guilford Press.
Madigan, S., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Moran, G., Pederson, D. R., & Benoit, D. (2006). Unresolved states of mind, anomalous parental behavior, and disorganized attachment: A review and meta-analysis of a transmission gap. Attachment and Human Development, 8, 89111.
*Madigan, S., Moran, G., & Pederson, D. R. (2006). Unresolved states of mind, disorganized attachment relationships, and disrupted interactions of adolescent mothers and their infants. Developmental Psychology, 42, 293304.
Main, M. (1990). Cross-cultural studies of attachment organization: Recent studies, changing methodologies, and the concept of conditional strategies. Human Development, 33, 4861.
Main, M., & Cassidy, J. (1988). Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predicted from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. Developmental Psychology, 24, 415426.
Main, M., & Hesse, E. (1990). Parent's unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status: Is frightened and/or frightening parental behavior the linking mechanism? In Greenberg, M. T., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 161182). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In Greenberg, M. T., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, M. (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 121160). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311346.
*Meij, J. T. (1992). Sociale ondersteuning, gehechtheidskwaliteit en vroegkinderlijke competentie-ontwikkeling [Social support, attachment, and early competence]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Catholic University, Nijmegen.
*Minde, K., Minde, R., & Vogel, W. (2006). Culturally sensitive assessment of attachment in children aged 18–40 months in a South African township. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27, 544558.
Moss, E., Cyr, C., & Dubois-Comtois, K. (2005). Attachment at early school age and developmental risk: Examining family contexts and behavior problems of controlling–caregiving, controlling–punitive, and behaviorally disorganized children. Developmental Psychology, 40, 519532.
*Moss, E., Dubois-Comtois, K., Cyr, C., St-Laurent, D., Tarabulsy, G. M., Bernier, A., et al. (2007). Can caregiving behavior of maltreating mothers be changed? Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston.
Mullen, B. (1989). Advanced basic meta-analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
*O'Connor, M. J., Kogan, N., & Findlay, R. (2002). Prenatal alcohol exposure and attachment behavior in children. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26, 15921602.
*O'Connor, M. J., Sigman, M., & Brill, N. (1987). Disorganization of attachment in relation to maternal alcohol consumption. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 831836.
O'Connor, M. J., & Zeanah, C. H. (2003). Introduction to the special issue: Current perspectives on assessment and treatment of attachment disorders. Attachment & Human Development, 5, 221222.
O'Connor, T. G., Marvin, R. S., Rutter, M., Olrisk, J. T., Britner, P. A., & The English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team (2003). Child–parent attachment following early institutional deprivation. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 1938.
Oppenheim, D., & Goldsmith, D. F. (2007). Attachment theory in clinical work with children: Bridging the gap between research and practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Oravecz, L. M., Koblinsky, S. A., & Randolph, S. M. (2008). Community violence, interpartner conflict, parenting, and social support as predictors of the social competence of African American preschool children. Journal of Black Psychology, 34, 192216.
Pungello, E. P., Kupersmidt, J. B., Burchinal, M. R., Burchinal, M. R., & Patterson, C. J. (1996). Environmental risk factors and children's achievement from middle childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 32, 755767.
*Raikes, H. A., & Thompson, R. A. (2005). Links between risk and attachment security: Models of influence. Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 440455.
*Raikes, H. A., & Thompson, R. A. (2006). Family emotional climate, attachment security, and young children's emotion knowledge in a high risk sample. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 89104.
*Rodning, C., Beckwith, L., & Howard, J. (1992). Quality of attachment and home environments in children prenatally exposed to PCP and cocaine. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 351366.
Rosenthal, R. (1991). Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Rosenthal, R. (1995). Writing meta-analytic reviews. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 183192.
Rutter, M. (1979). Protective factors in children's responses to stress and disadvantage. In Kent, M. W. & Rolf, J. E. (Eds.), Primary prevention in psychopathology: Vol. 8. Social competence in children (pp. 4974). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
Sameroff, A. J., Bartko, W. T., Baldwin, A., Balwing, C., & Seifer, R. (1998). Family and social influences on the development of child competence. In Lewis, M. & Feiring, C. (Eds.), Families, risk, and competence (pp. 161185). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., Barocas, R., Zax, M., & Greenspan, S. (1987). Intelligence quotient scores of 4-year-old children: Social environmental risk factors. Pediatrics, 79, 343350.
Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., & McDonough, S. C. (2004). Contextual contributors to the assessment of infant mental health. In DelCarmen-Wiggins, R. & Carter, A. (Eds.), Handbook of infant, toddler, and preschool mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
*Schneider-Rosen, K., & Cicchetti, D. (1984). The relationship between affect and cognition in maltreated infants: Quality of attachment and the development of visual self-recognition. Child Development, 55, 648658.
Schuengel, C., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1999). Frightening, frightened and/or dissociated behavior, unresolved loss, and infant disorganization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 5463.
*Seifer, R., LaGasse, L. L., Lester, B., Bauer, C. R., Shankaran, S., Bada, H. S., et al. (2004). Attachment status in children prenatally exposed to cocaine and other substances. Child Development, 75, 850868.
Shaw, D. S., & Vondra, J. I. (1993). Chronic family adversity and infant attachment security. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 12051215.
Solomon, J., & George, C. (1999). The place of disorganization in attachment theory: Linking classic observations with contemporary findings. In Solomon, J. & George, C. (Eds.), Attachment disorganization (pp. 332). New York: Guilford Press.
*Spieker, S. J., & Bensley, L. (1994). Roles of living arrangements and grandmother social support in adolescent mothering and infant attachment. Developmental Psychology, 30, 102111.
*Spieker, S. J., Nelson, D. C., Petras, A., Jolley, S. N., & Bernard, K. E. (2003). Joint influence of child care and infant attachment security for cognitive and language outcomes of low-income toddlers. Infant Behavior and Development, 26, 326344.
Sroufe, A., Erickson, M. F., & Friedrich, W. N. (2002). Attachment theory and “attachment therapy.” APSAC Advisor, 14, 46.
*Stacks, A. M. (2002). Children's aggressive behavior in a Head Start sample: Its relation to caregiver psychological and environmental factors and children's attachment representations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.
Stovall-McClough, K. C., & Dozier, M. (2004). Forming attachments in foster care: Infant attachment behaviors during the first 2 months of placement. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 253271.
*Tarabulsy, G. M., Bernier, A., Provost, M. A., Maranda, J., Larose, S., Moss, E., et al. (2005). Another look inside the gap: Ecological contributions to the transmission of attachment in a sample of adolescent mother–infant dyads. Developmental Psychology, 41, 212224.
Teti, D. M., Gelfand, D. M., Messinger, D. S., & Isabella, R. (1995). Maternal depression and the quality of early attachment: An examination of infants, preschoolers, and their mothers. Developmental Psychology, 31, 364376.
*Valenzuela, M. (1990). Attachment in chronically underweight young children. Child Development, 61, 19841996.
*Van den Boom, D. C. (1994). The influence of temperament and mothering on attachment and exploration: An experimental manipulation of sensitive responsiveness among lower-class mothers with irritable infants. Child Development, 65, 14571477.
*van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1990). Attachment in Surinam–Dutch families: A contribution to the cross-cultural study of attachment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 13, 333344.
van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2003). Attachment disorders and disorganized attachment: Similar and different. Attachment and Human Development, 5, 313320.
van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2006). DRD4 7-repeat polymorphism moderates the association between maternal unresolved loss or trauma and infant disorganization. Attachment & Human Development, 8, 291307.
van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Mesman, J. (2008). Dopamine system genes associated with parenting in the context of daily hassles. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 7, 403410.
van IJzendoorn, M. H., Goldberg, S., Kroonenberg, P. M., & Frenkel, O. J. (1992). The relative effects of maternal and child problems on the quality of attachment: A meta-analysis of attachment in clinical samples. Child Development, 63, 840858.
van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Sagi, A. (2008). Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: Universal and contextual dimensions. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 880905.). New York: Guilford Press.
van IJzendoorn, M. H., Schuengel, C., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (1999). Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 225249.
van IJzendoorn, M. H., Vereijken, C. M. J. L., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Riksen-Walraven, J. M. (2004). Assessing attachment security with the attachment Q-Sort: Meta-analytic evidence for the validity of the observer AQS. Child Development, 75, 11881213.
*Vondra, J. L., Shaw, D. S., Swearingen, L., Cohen, M., & Owens, B. E. (2001). Attachment stability and emotional and behavioral regulation from infancy to preschool age. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 1333.
*Ward, M. J., & Carlson, E. A. (1995). Associations among adult attachment representations, maternal sensitivity, and infant–mother attachment in a sample of adolescent mothers. Child Development, 66, 6979.
Wartner, U. G., Grossmann, K., Fremmer-Bombik, E., & Suess, G. (1994). Attachment patterns at age six in south Germany: Predictability from infancy and implications for preschool behavior. Child Development, 65, 10141027.
Zeanah, C. H., Danis, B., Hirshberg, L., Benoit, D., Miller, D., & Heller, S. S. (1999). Disorganized attachment associated with partner violence: A research note. Infant Mental Health Journal, 20, 7786.
Zeanah, C. H., Scheeringa, M., Boris, N. W., Heller, S. S., Smyke, A. T., & Trapani, J. (2004). Reactive attachment disorder in maltreated toddlers. Child Abuse and Neglect, 28, 877888.
*Zelenko, M., Kraemer, H., Huffman, L., Gschwendt, M., Pageler, N., & Steiner, H. (2005). Heart rate correlates of attachment status in young mothers and their infants. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 470476.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed