Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 115
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Becker, Stephen P. Leopold, Daniel R. Burns, G. Leonard Jarrett, Matthew A. Langberg, Joshua M. Marshall, Stephen A. McBurnett, Keith Waschbusch, Daniel A. and Willcutt, Erik G. 2016. The Internal, External, and Diagnostic Validity of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo: A Meta-Analysis and Critical Review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 55, Issue. 3, p. 163.

    Howard, S. J Powell, T Vasseleu, E Johnstone, S and Melhuish, E 2016. Enhancing Preschoolers’ Executive Functions Through Embedding Cognitive Activities in Shared Book Reading. Educational Psychology Review,

    Johnson, Samantha Kochhar, Puja Hennessy, Enid Marlow, Neil Wolke, Dieter and Hollis, Chris 2016. Antecedents of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children Born Extremely Preterm. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, Vol. 37, Issue. 4, p. 285.

    Lenartowicz, Agatha Lu, Steven Rodriguez, Cameron Lau, Edward P. Walshaw, Patricia D. McCracken, James T. Cohen, Mark S. and Loo, Sandra K. 2016. Alpha desynchronization and fronto­parietal connectivity during spatial working memory encoding deficits in ADHD: A simultaneous EEG­fMRI study. NeuroImage: Clinical, Vol. 11, p. 210.

    Li, Wendi Zhang, Wei Xiao, Lin and Nie, Jia 2016. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychiatry Research, Vol. 243, p. 357.

    Montagna, Anita and Nosarti, Chiara 2016. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,

    Perry, William McIlwain, Meghan Kloezeman, Karen Henry, Brook L. and Minassian, Arpi 2016. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 240, p. 278.

    Dovis, Sebastiaan Van der Oord, Saskia Huizenga, Hilde M. Wiers, Reinout W. and Prins, Pier J. M. 2015. Prevalence and diagnostic validity of motivational impairments and deficits in visuospatial short-term memory and working memory in ADHD subtypes. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 24, Issue. 5, p. 575.

    Dovis, Sebastiaan Van der Oord, Saskia Wiers, Reinout W. and Prins, Pier J. M. 2015. ADHD Subtype Differences in Reinforcement Sensitivity and Visuospatial Working Memory. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Vol. 44, Issue. 5, p. 859.

    Elisa, Rebecca N. and Parris, Benjamin A. 2015. The relationship between core symptoms of ADHD and the Cognitive Reflection Test in a non-clinical sample. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 20, Issue. 5, p. 416.

    Heidbreder, Rebeca 2015. ADHD symptomatology is best conceptualized as a spectrum: a dimensional versus unitary approach to diagnosis. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, Vol. 7, Issue. 4, p. 249.

    Mathis, Chantal Savier, Elise Bott, Jean-Bastien Clesse, Daniel Bevins, Nicholas Sage-Ciocca, Dominique Geiger, Karin Gillet, Anaïs Laux-Biehlmann, Alexis Goumon, Yannick Lacaud, Adrien Lelièvre, Vincent Kelche, Christian Cassel, Jean-Christophe Pfrieger, Frank W. and Reber, Michael 2015. Defective response inhibition and collicular noradrenaline enrichment in mice with duplicated retinotopic map in the superior colliculus. Brain Structure and Function, Vol. 220, Issue. 3, p. 1573.

    Mohamed, Saleh M. H. Börger, Norbert A. Geuze, Reint H. and van der Meere, Jaap J. 2015. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms and Interhemispheric Interaction in Adults: A Dimensional Approach. Behavioural Neurology, Vol. 2015, p. 1.

    Razza, Rachel A. Bergen-Cico, Dessa and Raymond, Kimberly 2015. Enhancing Preschoolers’ Self-Regulation Via Mindful Yoga. Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 372.

    Romo, L. Rémond, J. J. Coeffec, A. Kotbagi, G. Plantey, S. Boz, F. and Kern, L. 2015. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 31, Issue. 4, p. 1261.

    Barkley, Russell A. 2014. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (Concentration Deficit Disorder?): Current Status, Future Directions, and a Plea to Change the Name. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 117.

    Becker, Stephen P. and Langberg, Joshua M. 2014. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Dimensions in Relation to Executive Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, Vol. 45, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Becker, Stephen P. Luebbe, Aaron M. Fite, Paula J. Stoppelbein, Laura and Greening, Leilani 2014. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Children: Factor Structure and Relations to Internalizing Symptoms, Social Problems, and Observed Behavioral Dysregulation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 49.

    Buyck, Inez and Wiersema, Jan R. 2014. Resting electroencephalogram in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Developmental course and diagnostic value. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 216, Issue. 3, p. 391.

    Dalbudak, Ercan and Evren, Cuneyt 2014. The relationship of Internet addiction severity with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in Turkish University students; impact of personality traits, depression and anxiety. Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 55, Issue. 3, p. 497.


Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2005

Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (underarousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal–striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal–parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies.Preparation of this manuscript was supported by grants from NIDA (R01 DA19685-16A2) and the McDonnell Foundation (JSMF Grant 21002016). The author gratefully thanks Russ Barkley, Dante Cicchetti, Michael Posner, and Margaret Weiss for comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript. Of course, only the author bears responsibility for any errors in this paper.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Adele Diamond, Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2255 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A1, Canada; E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *