Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)

  • ADELE DIAMOND (a1)
Abstract

Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (underarousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal–striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal–parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies.Preparation of this manuscript was supported by grants from NIDA (R01 DA19685-16A2) and the McDonnell Foundation (JSMF Grant 21002016). The author gratefully thanks Russ Barkley, Dante Cicchetti, Michael Posner, and Margaret Weiss for comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript. Of course, only the author bears responsibility for any errors in this paper.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Adele Diamond, Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2255 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A1, Canada; E-mail: adele.diamond@ubc.ca.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Aaron, P., Joshi, R. M., & Phipps, J. (2004). A cognitive tool to diagnose predominantly inattentive ADHD behaviour. Journal of Attention Disorders7, 125135.

Auerbach, J. G., Benjamin, J., Faroy, M., Geller, V., & Ebstein, R. (2001). DRD4 related to infant attention and information processing: A developmental link to ADHD?Psychiatric Genetics11, 3135.

Awh, E., Anllo–Vento, L., & Hillyard, S. A. (2000). The role of spatial selective attention in working memory for locations: Evidence from event-related potentials. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience12, 840847.

Awh, E., & Jonides, J. (2001). Overlapping mechanisms of attention and spatial working memory. Trends in Cognitive Science5, 119126.

Aylward, E. H., Reiss, A. L., Reader, M. J., Singer, H. S., Brown, J. E., & Denckla, M. B. (1996). Basal ganglia volumes in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Neurology11, 112115.

Baddeley, A. (1992). Working memory. Science255, 556559.

Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (1994). Developments in the concept of working memory. Neuropsychology8, 485493.

Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin121, 6594.

Barkley, R. A., DuPaul, G. J., & McMurray, M. B. (1990). A comprehensive evaluation of attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology58, 775789.

Barkley, R. A., Grodzinsky, G., & DuPaul, G. (1992). Frontal lobe functions in attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: A review and research report. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology20, 163188.

Barnes, L. L., Nelson, J. K., & Reuter–Lorenz, P. A. (2001). Object based attention and object working memory: Overlapping processes revealed by selective interference effect in humans. Progress in Brain Research134, 471481.

Barr, C. L., Wigg, K. G., Bloom, S., Schachar, R., Tannock, R., Roberts, W., Malone, M., & Kennedy, J. L. (2000). Further evidence from haplotype analysis for linkage of the dopamine D4 receptor gene and ADHD. American Journal of Medical Genetics96, 262267.

Bayliss, D. M., & Roodenrys, S. (2000). Executive processing and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An application of the supervisory attentional system. Developmental Neuropsychology17, 161180.

Benedetto–Nasho, E., & Tannock, R. (1999). Math computation, error patterns and stimulant effects in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders3, 121134.

Carlson, C. L., Lahey, B. B., & Neeper, R. (1986). Direct assessment of the cognitive correlates of attention deficit disorders with and without hyperactivity. Journal of Psychopathology Behavioral Assessment8, 6986.

Carlson, C. L., & Mann, M. (2002). Sluggish cognitive tempo predicts a different pattern of impairment in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive type. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology31, 123129.

Case, R. (1972). Validation of a neo-Piagetian capacity construct. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology14, 287302.

Case, R. (1992a). The role of the frontal lobes in the regulation of cognitive development. Brain and Cognition20, 5173.

Case, R., Kurland, D. M., & Goldberg, J. (1982). Operational efficiency and the growth of short-term memory span. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology33, 386404.

Casey, B. J., Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Marsh, W. L., Hamburger, S. D., Schubert, A. B., Vauss, Y. C., Vaituzis, A. C., Dickstein, D. P., Sarfatti, S. E., & Rapoport, J. L. (1997). Implication of right frontostriatal circuitry in response inhibition and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry36, 374383.

Casey, B., Forman, S., Franzen, P., Berkowitz, A., Braver, T., Nystrom, L., Thomas, K., & Noll, D. (2001). Sensitivity of prefrontal cortex to changes in target probability: A functional MRI study. Human Brain Mapping13, 2633.

Castellanos, F. X. (1997). Toward a pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Pediatrics36, 381393.

Castellanos, F. X., Elia, J., Kruesi, J. J. P., Gulotta, C. S., Mefford, I. N., Potter, W. Z., Ritchie, G. F., & Rapoport, J. L. (1994). Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Research52, 305316.

Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Marsh, W. L., Hamburger, S. D., Vaituzis, A. C., Dickstein, D. P., Sarfatti, S. E., Vauss, Y. C., Snell, J. W., Lange, N., Kaysen, D., Krain, A. L., Ritchie, G. F., Rajapakse, J. C., & Rapoport, J. L. (1996). Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry53, 607616.

Chee, P., Logan, G., Schachar, R., Lindsay, P., & Wachsmuth, R. (1989). Effects of event rate and display time on sustained attention in hyperactive, normal and control children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology17, 371391.

Chochon, F., Cohen, L., van de Moortele, P. F., & Dehaene, S. (1999). Differential contributions of the left and right inferior parietal lobules to number processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience11, 617630.

Conte, R., Kinsbourne, M., Swanson, J., Zirk, H., & Samuels, M. (1986). Presentation rate effects on paired associate learning by attention deficit disordered children. Child Development57, 681687.

Conway, A. R. A., Cowan, N., & Bunting, M. F. (2001). The cocktail party phenomenon revisited: The importance of working memory capacity. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review8, 331335.

Conway, A. R. A., & Engle, R. W. (1994). Working memory and retrieval: A resource-dependent inhibition model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General123, 354373.

Conway, A. R. A., Tuholski, S. W., Shisler, R. J., & Engle, R. (1999). The effect of memory load on negative priming: An individual differences investigation. Memory and Cognition27, 10421050.

Corkum, P. V., & Siegel, L. S. (1993). Is the continuous performance task a valuable research tool for use with children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder?Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry34, 12171239.

Cook, E. J. (2000). Genetics of psychiatric disorders: Where have we been and where are we going?American Journal of Psychiatry157, 10391040.

Daly, G., Hawi, Z., Fitzgerald, M., & Gill, M. (1999). Mapping susceptibility loci in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Preferential transmission of parental alleles at DAT1, DBH and DRD5 to affected children. Molecular Psychiatry4, 192196.

Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior19, 450466.

de Fockert, J., Rees, G., Frith, C., & Lavie, N. (2001). The role of working memory in visual selective attention. Science291, 18031806.

deHaas, P. A., & Young, R. D. (1984). Attention styles of hyperactive and normal girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology12, 531546.

De La Garza, R., & Madras, B. K. (2000). [(3)H]PNU-101958, a D(4) dopamine receptor probe, accumulates in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of non-human primate brain. Synapse37, 232244.

Dempster, F. N. (1981). Memory span: Sources of individual and developmental differences. Psychological Bulletin89, 63100.

D'Esposito, M., Detre, J. A., Alsop, D. C., Shin, R. K., Atlas, S., & Grossman, M. (1995). The neural basis of the central executive system of working memory. Nature378, 279281.

D'Esposito, M., Postle, B. R., & Rypma, B. (2000). Prefrontal cortical contributions to working memory: Evidence from event-related fMRI studies. Experimental Brain Research133, 311.

Diamond, A. (1990). The development and neural bases of memory functions, as indexed by the A-not- and delayed response tasks, in human infants and infant monkeys. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences608, 267317.

Dresel, S. K. J., Krause, K. H., LaFougere, C., Brinkbaumer, K., Kung, H. F., Hahn, K., & Tatsch, K. (2000). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Binding of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 to the dopamine transporter before and after methylphenidate treatment. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine27, 15181524.

Duncan, J., Burgess, P., & Emslie, H. (1995). Fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia33, 261268.

Durston, S., Tottenham, N. T., Thomas, K. M., Davidson, M. C., Eigsti, I.-M., Yang, Y., Ulug, A. M., & Casey, B. J. (2003). Differential patterns of striatal activation in young children with and without ADHD. Biological Psychiatry53, 871878.

Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., Wever, W., & Russell, R. L. (1998). Psychiatric, neuropsychological, and psychosocial features of DSM-IV subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from a clinically referred sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry37, 185193.

Filipek, P. A., Semrud–Clikeman, M., Steingard, R. J., Renshaw, P. F., Kennedy, D. N., & Biederman, J. (1997). Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal controls. Neurology48, 589601.

Frick, P. J., Lahey, B. B., Applegate, B., Kerdyck, L., Ollendick, T., Hynd, G. W., Garfinkel, B., Greenhill, L., Biederman, J., Barkley, R. A., McBurnett, K., Newcorn, J., & Waldman, I. (1994). DSM-IV field trials for the disruptive behaviour disorders: Symptom utility estimates. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry33, 529539.

Fry, A. F., & Hale, S. (1996). Processing speed, working memory, and fluid intelligence: Evidence for a developmental cascade. Psychological Science7, 237241.

Gascon, G., Johnson, R., & Burd, L. (1986). Central auditory processing and attention deficit disorders. Journal of Child Neurology1, 2733.

Ghelani, K., Sidhu, R., Jain, U., & Tannock, R. (2004). Reading comprehension and reading related abilities in adolescents with reading disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Dyslexia10, 364384.

Gill, M., Daly, G., Heron, S., Hawl, Z., & Fitzgerald, M. (1997). Confirmation of association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and a dopamine transporter polymorphism. Molecular Psychiatry2, 311313.

Goldman–Rakic, P. S. (1987). Development of cortical circuitry and cognitive function. Child Development58, 601622.

Goodyear, P., & Hynd, G. (1992). Attention-deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: Behavioral and neuropsychological differentiation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology21, 273305.

Hale, T. S., Hariri, A. R., & McCracken, J. T. (2000). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Perspectives from neuroimaging. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities6, 214219.

Hamarman, S., Fossella, J., Ulger, C., Brimacombe, M., & Dermody, J. (2004). Dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4) 7-repeat allele predicts methylphenidate dose response in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A pharmacogenetic study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology14, 564574.

Hartman, C. A., Willcutt, E. G., Rhee, S. H., & Pennington, B. F. (2004). The relation between sluggish cognitive tempo and DSM-IV ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology32(5), 491503.

Heilman, K. M., Voeller, K. S., & Nadeau, S. E. (1991). A possible pathophysiologic substrate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Neurology6, 7681.

Hinshaw, S. P. (2002). Preadolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology70, 10861098.

Hitch, G. J., Towse, J. N., & Hutton, U. (2001). What limits children's working memory span? Theoretical accounts and applications for scholastic development. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General130, 184198.

Hynd, G., Nieves, N., Connor, R., Stone, P., Town, P., & Becker, M. (1989). Attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: Reaction time and speed of cognitive processing. Journal of Learning Disabilities22, 573580.

Hynd, G. W., Hern, K. L., Novey, E. S., Eliopulos, D., Marshall, R., Gonzalez, J. J., & Voeller, K. K. (1993). Attention deficit-hyperacitivity disorder and asymmetry of the caudate nucleus. Journal of Child Neurology8, 339347.

Hynd, G. W., Lorys, A. R., Semrud–Clikeman, M., Nieves, N., Huettner, M. I., & Lahey, B. B. (1991). Attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity: A distinct behavioral and neurocognitive syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology6, 3743.

Jucaite, A., Fernell, E., Halldin, C., Forssberg, H., & Farde, L. (2005). Reduced midbrain dopamine transporter binding in male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Association between striatal dopamine markers and motor hyperactivity. Biological Psychiatry57, 229238.

Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory. Psychological Review99, 122149.

Kail, R. (1992). Processing, speed, speech rate, and memory. Developmental Psychology28, 899904.

Kail, R., & Salthouse, T. A. (1994). Processing speed as a mental capacity. Acta Psychologica86, 199225.

Kane, M. J., Bleckley, M., Conway, A. R., & Engle, R. W. (2001). A controlled-attention view of working-memory capacity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General130, 169183.

Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2002). The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention, and general fluid intelligence: An individual-differences perspective. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review9, 637671.

Krause, K. H., Dresel, S. H., Krause, J., Kung, H. F., & Tatsch, K. (2000). Increased striatal dopamine transporter in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Effects of methylphenidate as measured by single photon emission computed tomography. Neuroscience Letters285, 107110.

Krause, K. H., Dresel, S. H., Krause, J., Kung, H. F., Tatsch, K., & Ackenheil, M. (2002). Stimulant-like action of nicotine on striatal dopamine transporter in the brain of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology5, 111113.

Krause, K.-H., Dresel, S. H., Krause, J., la Fougere, C., & Ackenheil, M. (2003). The dopamine transporter and neuroimaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews27, 605613.

LaBar, K. S., Gitelman, D. R., Parrish, T. B., & Mesulam, M. (1999). Neuroanatomic overlap of working memory and spatial attention networks: A functional MRI comparison within subjects. NeuroImage10, 695704.

Lahey, B. B., & Carlson, C. (1991). Validity of the diagnostic category of attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity: A review of the literature. Journal of Learning Disabilities24, 110120.

Lahey, B. B., Schaughency, E., Hynd, G., Carlson, C., & Niever, C. (1987). Attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: Comparison of behavioral characteristics of clinic referred children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry26, 718723.

Lang, A. E., & Johnson, K. (1987). Akathisia in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Neurology37, 477480.

Lipschutz, B., Kolinsky, R., Damhaut, P., Wikler, D., & Goldman, S. (2001). Attention-dependent changes of activation and connectivity in dichotic listening: Evidence from two studies. NeuroImage, 13, S327.

Lorch, E. P., Milich, R., Sanchez, R. P., van den Broek, P., Baer, S., Hooks, K., Hartung, C., & Welsh, R. (2000). Comprehension of televised stories in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and nonreferred boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology109, 321330.

Lou, H. C., Hendriksen, L., & Bruhn, P. (1984). Focal cerebral hypoperfusion in children with dysphasia and/or attention deficit disorder. Archives of Neurology41, 825829.

Lou, H. C., Hendriksen, L., Bruhn, P., Borner, H., & Nielsen, J. B. (1989). Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder. Archives of Neurology46, 4852.

Luman, M., Oosterlaan, J. A., & Sergeant, J. (2005). The impact of reinforcement contingencies on AD/HD: A review and theoretical appraisal. Clinical Psychology Review25, 183213.

Maedgen, J. W., & Carlson, C. L. (2000). Social functioning and emotional regulation in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology29, 3042.

Marshall, R. M., Hynd, G. W., Handwerk, M. J., & Hall, J. (1997). Academic underachievement in ADHD subtypes. Journal of Learning Disabilities30, 635642.

Mariani, M., & Barkley, R. A. (1997). Neuropsychological and academic functioning in preschool boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Neuropsychology13, 111129.

Mataro, M., Garcia–Sanchez, C., Junque, C., Estevez–Gonzalez, A., & Pujol, J. (1997). Magnetic resonance imaging measurement of the caudate nucleus in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and its relationship with neuropsychological and behavioural measures. Archives of Neurology54, 963968.

McInnes, A., Humphries, T., Hogg–Johnson, S., & Tannock, R. (2003). Listening comprehension and working memory are impaired in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder irrespective of language impairment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology31, 427443.

Meador–Woodruff, J. H., Damask, S. P., Wang, J., Haroutunian, V., Davis, K. L., & Watson, S. J. (1996). Dopamine receptor mRNA expression in human striatum and neocortex. Neuropsychopharmacology15, 1729.

Miles, C., Morgan, M. J., Milne, A. B., & Morris, E. D. M. (1996). Developmental and individual differences in visual memory span. Current Psychology15, 5367.

Milich, R. S., & Loney, J. (1979). The factor composition of the WISC for hyperkinetic/MBD males. Journal of Learning Disabilities12, 491495.

Morgan, S. T., Hansen, J. C., & Hillyard, S. A. (1996). Selective attention to stimulus location modulates the steady-state visual evoked potential. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences93, 47704774.

Nigg, J. T. (2000). On inhibition/disinhibition in developmental psychopathology: Views from cognitive and personality psychology and a working inhibition taxonomy. Psychological Bulletin126, 220246.

Nigg, J. T. (2001). Is ADHD an inhibitory disorder?Psychological Bulletin127, 571598.

Nigg, J. T., Blaskey, L. G., Huang–Pollock, C. L., & Rappley, M. D. (2002). Neuropsychological executive functions and DSM-IV ADHD subtypes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry41, 5966.

Owen, A. M. (1997). The functional organization of working memory processes within human lateral frontal cortex: The contribution of functional neuroimaging. European Journal of Neuroscience9, 13291339.

Pascual–Leone, J. A. (1970). A mathematical model for transition in Piaget's developmental stages. Acta Psychologia32, 301345.

Peers, P. V., Ludwig, C. J. H., Rorden, C., Cusack, R., Bonfiglioli, C., Bundesen, C., Driver, J., Antoun, N., & Duncan, J. (2005). Attentional functions of parietal and frontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex.

Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry37, 5187.

Petrides, M. (1995). Functional organization of the human frontal cortex for mnemonic processing: Evidence from neuroimaging studies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences769, 8596.

Petrides, M. (1996). Specialized systems for the processing of mnemonic information within the primate frontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London351, 14551462.

Pomerleau, C. S. (1997). Co-factors for smoking and evolutionary psychobiology. Addiction92, 397408.

Powell, K. B., & Voeller, K. K. (2004). Prefrontal executive function syndromes in children. Journal of Child Neurology19, 785797.

Pugzles Lorch, E., Milich, R., & Sanchez, R. P. (1998). Story comprehension in children with ADHD. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review1, 163178.

Ravizza, S. M., Delgado, M. R., Chein, J. M., Becker, J. T., & Fiez, J. A. (2004). Functional dissociations within the inferior parietal cortex in verbal working memory. NeuroImage22, 562573.

Riccio, C. A., Hynd, G. W., Cohen, M. J., Hall, J. (1994). Comorbidity of central auditory processing disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry33, 849857.

Rivera, S. M., Reiss, A. L., Eckert, M. A., & Menon, V. (2005). Developmental changes in mental arithmetic: Evidence for increased functional specialization in the left inferior parietal cortex. Cerebral Cortex.

Rowe, D. C., Stever, C., Giedinghagen, L. N., Gard, J. M., Cleveland, H. H., Terris, S. T., Mohr, J. H., Sherman, S., Abramowitz, A., & Waldman, I. D. (1998). Dopamine DRD4 receptor polymorphism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry3, 419426.

Rueckert, L., & Grafman, J. (1998). Sustained attention deficits in patients with lesions of posterior cortex. Neuropsychologia36, 653660.

Salthouse, T. A. (1992). Influence of processing speed on adult age differences in working memory. Acta Psychologica79, 155170.

Salthouse, T. A. (1993). Speed mediation of adult age differences in cognition. Developmental Psychology29, 722738.

Sanchez, R. P., Lorch, E. P., Milich, R., & Welsh, R. (1999). Comprehension of televised stories by preschool children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology28, 376385.

Schrimsher, G. W., Billingsley, R. L., Jackson, E. F., & Moore, B. D. (2002). Caudate nucleus volume asymmetry predicts attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology in children. Journal of Child Neurology17, 877884.

Seeman, P., & Madras, B. K. (1998). Anti-hyperactivity medication: Methylphenidate and amphetamine. Molecular Psychiatry3, 386396.

Sergeant, J. A., Geurts, H., Huijbregts, S., Scheres, A., & Oosterlaan, J. (2003). The top and the bottom of ADHD: A neuropsychological perspective. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews27, 583592.

Shue, K. L., & Douglas, V. I. (1992). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the frontal lobe syndrome. Brain and Cognition20, 104124.

Siegel, L. (1994). Working memory and reading: A lifespan perspective. International Journal of Behavioural Development17, 109124.

Simon, O., Mangin, J.-F., Cohen, L., Le Bihan, D., & Dehaene, S. (2002). Topographical layout of hand, eye, calculation, and language-related areas in the human parietal lobe. Neuron33, 475487.

Smith, E. E., & Jonides, J. (1999). Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes. Science283, 16571661.

Smith, E. E., Jonides, J., Marshuetz, C., & Koeppe, R. A. (1998). Components of verbal working memory: Evidence from neuroimaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences95, 876882.

Stanford, L. D., & Hynd, G. W. (1994). Congruence of behavioral symptomatology in children with ADD/H, ADD/WO, and learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities27, 243253.

Swanson, J. M., Flodman, P., Kennedy, J., Spence, M. A., Moyzis, R., Schuck, S., Murias, M., Moriarty, J., Barr, C., Smith, M., & Posner, M. (2000). Dopamine genes and ADHD. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews24.

Sykes, D. H., Douglas, V. I., Weiss, G., & Minde, K. (1971). Attention in hyperactive children and the effect of methylphenidate (Ritalin). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry12, 129139.

Teicher, M. H., Ito, Y., Glod, C. A., & Barber, N. I. (1996). Objective measurement of hyperactivity and attentional problems in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry35, 334342.

Tercyak, K. P., Lerman, C., & Audrain, J. (2002). Association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms with levels of cigarette smoking in a community sample of adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry41, 799805.

Vaidya, C. J., Austin, G., Kirkorian, G., Ridlehuber, H. W., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G. H., & Gabrieli, J. D. (1998). Selective effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A functional magnetic resonance study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America95, 1449414499.

van der Meere, J., & Sergeant, J. (1988). Acquisition of attentional skill in pervasively hyperactive children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry29, 301310.

van Honk, J., Schutter, D. J., Putman, P., de Haan, E. H., & d'Alfonso, A. A. (2003). Reductions in phenomenological, physiological and attentional indices of depressive mood after 2 Hz rTMS over the right parietal cortex in healthy human subjects. Psychiatry Research120, 95101.

Waldman, I. D., Rowe, D. C., Abramowitz, A., Kozel, S. T., Mohr, J. H., Sherman, S. L., Cleveland, H. H., Sanders, M. L., Gard, J. M., & Stever, C. (1998). Association and linkage of the dopamine transporter gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: Owing to diagnostic subtype and severity. American Journal of Human Genetics63, 17671776.

Warner–Rogers, J., Taylor, A., Taylor, E., & Sandberg, S. (2000). Inattentive behaviour in childhood: Epidemiology and implications for development. Journal of Learning Disabilities33, 520536.

Weiler, M. D., Holmes–Bernstein, J., Bellinger, D. C., & Waber, D. P. (2000). Processing speed in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type. Child Neuropsychology6, 218234.

Weiss, G., & Hechtman, L. (1979). The hyperactive child syndrome. Science205, 13481354.

Weiss, M., Worling, D., & Wasdell, M. (2003). A chart review study of the inattentive and combined types of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders7, 19.

Welsh, M. C., & Pennington, B. F. (1988). Assessing frontal lobe functioning in children: Views from developmental psychology. Developmental Neuropsychology4, 199230.

Westerberg, H., Hirvikoski, T., Forssberg, H., & Klingberg, T. (2004). Brief report-visuo-spatial working memory span: A sensitive measure of cognitive deficits in children with ADHD. Child Neuropsychology10, 155161.

Whalen, C., Jamner, L. D., Henker, B., Gehricke, J. G., & King, P. S. (2003). Is there a link between adolescent cigarette smoking and pharmacotherapy for ADHD?Psychology of Addictive Behaviors17, 332335.

Willcutt, E. G., & Pennington, B. F. (2000). Comorbidity of reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Differences by gender and subtype. Journal of Learning Disabilities33, 179191.

Wilson, B. A., Evans, J. J., Emslie, H., Alderman, N., & Burgess, P. (1998). The development of an ecologically valid test for assessing patients with a dysexecutive syndrome. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation8, 213228.

Wilson, J. T. L., Scott, J. H., & Power, K. G. (1987). Developmental differences in the span of visual memory for pattern. British Journal of Developmental Psychology5, 249255.

Zametkin, A., Liebenauer, L. L., Fitzgerald, G. A., King, A., Minkunas, D., Herscovitch, P., Yamada, E., & Cohen, R. (1993). Brain metabolism in teenagers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry50, 333340.

Zentall, S. S., & Smith, Y. S. (1993). Mathematical performance and behavior of children with hyperactivity with and without coexisting aggression. Behavior Research and Therapy.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 23
Total number of PDF views: 99 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 744 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.