Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Biologically flavored perspectives on Garmezian resilience

  • Daniel R. Hanson (a1) (a2) and Irving I. Gottesman (a2)
Abstract

Norman Garmezy devoted the better part of four decades developing and promoting the construct of resilience for developmental psychopathology. He proposed resilience as a paradigm to guide the understanding of how people can transcend adversity and go on to live healthy, productive lives. This tribute to Norman starts with a look at the early context for his work during his distinguished tenure in the Department of Psychology at the University of Minnesota. Resilience constructs are then compared from interdisciplinary perspectives across a variety of biological and physical sciences. All of these perspectives lead to similar conclusions: resilience is not a thing but a process. Furthermore, the processes are the product of energy-hungry systems. Finally, these insights are applied to difficult to modify maladaptive behaviors raising the question of a dark side to resilience.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Daniel R. Hanson, Marshfield Clinic, Riverview Center, 1000 Starr Avenue, Eau Claire, WI 54703; E-mail: hanson.daniel@marshfieldclinic.org or drhanson@umn.edu.
References
Hide All
Adamski, A. J., & Westrum, R. (2003). Requisite imagination. The fine art of anticipating what might go wrong. In Hollnagel, E. (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive task design (pp. 193220). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Campbell, D., & Fiske, D. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait–multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81105.
Cannon, W. B. (1935). The wisdom of the body. New York: Norton.
Chang, J. J., Chen, J. J., & Brownson, R. C. (2003). The role of repeat victimization in adolescent delinquent behaviors and recidivism. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32, 272280.
Chavda, N., Kantharia, N. D., & Jaykaran, . (2011). Effects of fluoxetine and escitalopram on C-reactive protein in patients of depression. Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 2, 1116.
Cicchetti, D. (2010). Resilience under conditions of extreme stress: A multilevel perspective. World Psychiatry, 9, 145154.
Cicchetti, D. (2011). Allostatic load. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 723724.
Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281302.
Dalziell, E. P., & McManus, S. T. (2004). Resilience, vulnerability, and adaptive capacity: Implications for system performance. Paper presented at the 1st International Forum for Engineering Decision Making (IFED), Stoos, Switzerland. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10092/2809
Danese, A., Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Milne, B. J., Polanczyk, G., Pariante, C. M., et al. (2009). Adverse childhood experiences and adult risk factors for age-related disease: Depression, inflammation, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163, 11351143.
De Meyer, T., (2011). Telomere length integrates psychological factors in the successful aging story, but what about the biology? Psychosomatic Medicine, 73, 524527.
Epel, E., Daubenmier, J., Moskowitz, J. T., Folkman, S., & Blackburn, E. (2009). Can meditation slow rate of cellular aging? Cognitive stress, mindfulness, and telomeres. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1172, 3453.
Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2007). Poly-victimization: A neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 726.
Flatt, T. (2005). The evolutionary genetics of canalization. Quarterly Review of Biology, 80, 287316.
Ford, J. D., Elhai, J. D., Connor, D. F., & Frueh, B. C. (2010). Poly-victimization and risk of posttraumatic, depressive, and substance use disorders and involvement in delinquency in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 545552.
Garmezy, N., & Masten, A. S. (1986). Stress, competence, and resilience: Common frontiers for therapist and psychopathologist. Behavior Therapy, 17, 500521.
Garmezy, N., Masten, A. S., & Tellegan, A. (1984). The study of stress and competence in children: A building block of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 97111.
Garmezy, N., & Rutter, M. (1983). Stress, coping, and development in children. New York: McGraw–Hill.
Garmezy, N., & Streitman, S. (1974). Children at risk: The search for the antecedents of schizophrenia. Part I. Conceptual models and research methods. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 8, 1490.
Gottesman, I. I. (1974). Developmental genetics and ontogenetic psychology: Overdue detente and propositions from a matchmaker. In Pick, A. D. & Pick, H. L. Jr. (Eds.), Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 5580). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Gottesman, I. I., & Bertelsen, A. (1989). Confirming unexpressed genotypes for schizophrenia. Risks in the offspring of Fischer's Danish identical and fraternal discordant twins. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 867872.
Gottesman, I. I., & Hanson, D. R. (2005). Human development: Biological and genetic processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 263286.
Gottesman, I. I., & Hanson, D. R. (2007). Choreographing genetic, epigenetic, and stochastic steps in the dances of developmental psychopathology. In Masten, A. S. (Ed.), Multilevel dynamics in developmental psychopathology: Pathways to the future. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 34, pp. 2744). Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum.
Hanson, D. R., & Gottesman, I. I. (2005). Theories of schizophrenia: A genetic–inflammatory–vascular synthesis. BMC Medical Genetics, 6. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2350/1476/1477
Haro, J. M., Novick, D., Bertsch, J., Karagianis, J., Dossenbach, M., & Jones, P. B. (2011). Cross-national clinical and functional remission rates: Worldwide Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (W-SOHO) study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 199, 194201.
Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. (1943). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (rev. ed.). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Herrman, H., Stewart, D. E., Diaz-Granados, N., Berger, E. L., Jackson, B., & Yuen, T. (2011). What is resilience? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56, 258265.
Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4, 123.
Hollnagel, E., & Woods, D. D. (2006). Epilogue: Resilience engineering precepts. In Hollnagel, E.Woods, D. D., & Leveson, N. (Eds.), Resilience engineering: Concepts and precepts (pp. 347358). Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
Ideker, T., Galitski, T., & Hood, L. (2001). A new approach to decoding life: Systems biology. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 2, 343372.
Jarrett, T. (2008). Warrior resilience training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, 3238.
Jurgens, H. A., & Johnson, R. W. (2012). Dysregulated neuronal-microglial cross-talk during aging, stress and inflammation. Experimental Neurology, 233, 4048.
Kaminsky, Z. A., Tang, T., Wang, S. C., Ptak, C., Oh, G. H., Wong, A. H., et al. (2009). DNA methylation profiles in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Nature Genetics, 41, 240245.
Khairova, R. A., Machado-Vieira, R., Du, J., & Manji, H. K. (2009). A potential role for pro-inflammatory cytokines in regulating synaptic plasticity in major depressive disorder. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 12, 561578.
Kuipers, S. D., Trentani, A., Den Boer, J. A., & Ter Horst, G. J. (2003). Molecular correlates of impaired prefrontal plasticity in response to chronic stress. Journal of Neurochemistry, 85, 13121323.
Li, X., McGue, M., & Gottesman, II. (2012). Two sources of genetic liability to depression: Interpreting the relationship between stress sensitivity and depression under a multifactorial polygenic model. Behavior Genetics, 42, 268277.
Lin, J., Epel, E., & Blackburn, E. (2012). Telomeres and lifestyle factors: Roles in cellular aging. Mutation Research, 730, 8589.
Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543562.
Masten, A. S. (2011). Resilience in children threatened by extreme adversity: Frameworks for research, practice, and translational synergy. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 493506.
McGorry, P. (2011). Transition to adulthood: The critical period for pre-emptive, disease-modifying care for schizophrenia and related disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37, 524530.
Miller, A. H., Maletic, V., & Raison, C. L. (2009). Inflammation and its discontents: The role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 732741.
Muller, N., & Schwarz, M. J. (2010). Immune system and schizophrenia. Current Immunology Reviews, 6, 213220.
Niendam, T. A., Jalbrzikowski, M., & Bearden, C. E. (2009). Exploring predictors of outcome in the psychosis prodrome: Implications for early identification and intervention. Neuropsychology Review, 19, 280293.
O'Donovan, A., Pantell, M. S., Puterman, E., Dhabhar, F. S., Blackburn, E. H., Yaffe, K., et al. (2011). Cumulative inflammatory load is associated with short leukocyte telomere length in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. PLoS One, 6, e19687.
Pianta, R. C., & Walsh, D. J. (1998). Applying the construct of resilience in schools: Cautions from a developmental systems perspective. School Psychology Review, 27, 407417.
Polusny, M. A., Erbes, C. R., Murdoch, M., Arbisi, P. A., Thuras, P., & Rath, M. B. (2010). Prospective risk factors for new-onset post-traumatic stress disorder in National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq. Psychological Medicine, 41, 687698.
Robins, L. E., & Regier, D. A. (1991). Psychiatric disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. New York: Free Press.
Rolf, J., Masten, A. S., Cicchetti, D., Nuechterlein, K. & Weintraub, S. (Eds.). (1990). Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rutter, M. (2000). Resilience reconsidered: Conceptual considerations, empirical findings, and policy implications. In Shonkoff, J. P. & Meisels, S. J. (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (2nd ed., pp. 651682). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rutter, M. (2006). Implications of resilience concepts for scientific understanding. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 112.
Schmalhausen, I. (1949 (reprinted 1986)). Factors of evolution: The theory of stabilizing selection. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Schofield, W., & Balian, L. (1959). A comparative study of the personal histories of schizophrenic and nonpsychiatric patients. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59, 216225.
Seery, M. D. (2011). Resilience: A silver lining to experiencing adverse live events? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 390394.
Siegal, M. L., & Bergman, A. (2002). Waddington's canalization revisited: Developmental stability and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 1052810532.
Slavich, G. M., O'Donovan, A., Epel, E. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2010). Black sheep get the blues: A psychobiological model of social rejection and depression. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 3945.
Slavich, G. M., Way, B. M., Eisenberger, N. I., & Taylor, S. E. (2010). Neural sensitivity to social rejection is associated with inflammatory responses to social stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 1481714822.
Sparkman, N. L., & Johnson, R. W. (2008). Neuroinflammation associated with aging sensitizes the brain to the effects of infection or stress. Neuroimmunomodulation, 15, 323330.
Stearns, S. C. (2002). Progress on canalization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 1022910230.
van Os, J., Burns, T., Cavallaro, R., Leucht, S., Peuskens, J., Helldin, L. et al. (2006). Standardized remission criteria in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113, 9195.
Varadhan, R., Seplaki, C. L., Xue, Q. L., Bandeen-Roche, K., & Fried, L. P. (2008). Stimulus-response paradigm for characterizing the loss of resilience in homeostatic regulation associated with frailty. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 129, 666670.
Waddington, C. H. (1942). Canalization of development and the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Nature, 150, 563565.
Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., & Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 9, Article 5.
Waller, N. G., Yonce, L. J., Meehl, P. E., Grove, W. E., Faust, D., & Lenzenweger, M. F. (2006). A Paul Meehl reader: Essays on the practice of scientific psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Watt, N. F., Anthony, J., & Wynne, L. C. (Eds.). (1984). Children at risk for schizophrenia: A longitudinal perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 13
Total number of PDF views: 73 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 218 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.