Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Brain development, infant communication, and empathy disorders: Intrinsic factors in child mental health

  • Colwyn Trevarthen (a1) and Kenneth J. Aitken (a1) (a2)

Disorders of emotion, communication, and learning in early childhood are considered in light of evidence on human brain growth from embryo stages. We cite microbehavioral evidence indicating that infants are born able to express the internal activity of their brains, including dynamic “motive states” that drive learning. Infant expressions stimulate the development of imitative and reciprocal relations with corresponding dynamic brain states of caregivers. The infant's mind must have an “innate self-with-other representation” of the inter-mind correspondence and reciprocity of feelings that can be generated with an adult.

Primordial motive systems appear in subcortical and limbic systems of the embryo before the cerebral cortex. These are presumed to continue to guide the growth of a child's brain after birth. We propose that an “intrinsic motive formation” is assembled prenatally and is ready at birth to share emotion with caregivers for regulation of the child's cortical development, on which cultural cognition and learning depend.

The intrinsic potentiality for “intersubjectivity” can be disorganized if the epigenetic program for the infant's brain fails. Indeed, many psychological disorders of childhood can be traced to faults in early stages of brain development when core motive systems form.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Prof. Colwyn Trevarthen, Dept. of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh EII8 9JZ, Scotland, UK.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M. Abvitbol , C. Menini , A.-L. Delezoide , T. Rhyner , M. Vekemans , & J. Mallet (1993). Nucleus basalis magnocellularis and hippocampus are the major sites of FMR-1 expression in the human fetal brain. Nature Genetics, 4, 147153.

L. Adamson , & R. Bakeman (1985). Affect and attention: Infants observed with mothers and peers. Child Development, 56, 582593.

J. P. Aggleton (1993). The contribution of the amygdala to normal and abnormal emotional states. Trends in the Neurosciences, 16, 328333.

M. D. S. Ainsworth , & S. Bell (1970). Attachment, exploration, and separation illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Child Development, 41, 4967.

K. J. Aitken (1991c). Diagnostic issues in autism: Are we measuring the emperor for another suit of clothes? Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 33, 10151020.

S. Akbarian , W. E. Bunney , S.G- Potkin , S. B. Wigal , J. O. Hagerman , C. A. Sandman , & E. G. Jones (1993). Altered distribution of nicotinamideadenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase cells in frontal lobe of schizophrenics implies disturbance of cortical development. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 169177.

S. Akbarian , A. Vinuela , J. J. Kim , S. G. Potkin , W. E. Bunney , & E. G. Jones (1993). Distorted distribution of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase neurons in temporal lobe of schizophrenics implies anomalous cortical development. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 178187.

J. Bachevalier (1994). Medial temporal lobe structures and autism: A review of clinical and experimental findings. Neuropsychologia, 32, 627648.

R. Bakeman , & L. B. Adamson (1984). Coordinating attention to people and objects in mother-infant and peer-infant interaction. Child Development, 55, 12781289.

S. Baron-Cohen (1989). The autistic child's theory of mind: A case of specific developmental delay. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 30, 285297.

M. Barrett (1981). The communicative functions of early child language. Linguistics, 19, 273305.

E. Bates (1979). The emergence of symbols: Cognition and communication in infancy. New York: Academic Press.

M. F. Beal , B. T. Hyman , & W. Koroshetz (1993). Do defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism underlie the pathology of neuro-degenerative diseases? Trends in the Neurosciences, 16, 125131.

M. A. Bell , & N. A. Fox (1992). The relations between frontal brain electrical activity and cognitive development during infancy. Child Development, 63, 11421163.

J. Berger (1990). Interactions between parents and their infants with Down syndrome. In D. Cicchetti & M. Beeghly (Eds.), Children with Down syndrome: A developmental perspective (pp. 101146). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

D. V. M. Bishop , T. North , & C. Donlan (1994). Genetic basis of specific language impairment: Evidence from a twin study. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 37, 5671.

P. Bolton , H. Macdonald , A. Pickles , P. Rios , S. Goode , M. Crowson , A. Bailey , & M. Rutter (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 35, 877900.

J. L. Bradshaw , & N. C. Nettleton (1983). The nature of hemispheric specialization in man. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 4, 5191.

S. Braten (1988). Dialogic mind: The infant and adult in protoconversation. In M. Cavello (Ed.), Nature cognition and system (pp. 187205). Dordrecht: Klewer Academic Publications.

I. Bretherton , & E. Bates (1979). The emergence of intentional communication. In I. C. Uzgiris (Ed.), New directions for child development (Vol. 4). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

E. Brodtkorb , G. Nilson , O. Smevic , & P. A. Rinck (1992). Epilepsy and anomalies of neural migration: MRI and clinical aspects. Acta Neurological Scandinavica, 86, 2432.

W. T. Brown , E. C. Jenkins , I. L. Cohen , G. S. Fisch , E. G. Wolf-Schen , A. Gross , L. Waterhouse , D. Fein , A. Mason-Brothers , E. Ritvo , B. A. Ruttenberg , W. Bentley , & S. Castells (1986). Fragile-X and autism: A nulticenter survey. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 23, 341352.

J.-P. Changeux , T. Heidmann , & P. Patter (1984). Learning by selection. In P. Marler & H. S. Terrace (Eds.), The biology oj'learning (pp. 115133). Dahlem Konferenzem. Life Sciences Research Report 29. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

O. Chisaka , T. S. Musci , & M. R. Capecchi (1993). Developmental defects of the ear, cranial nerves and hindbrain resulting from targetted disruption of the mouse homeobox gene Hox 1.6. Nature (London), 355, 516520.

D. Cicchetti (1987). Developmental psychopathology in infancy: Illustration from the study of maltreated youngsters. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 55, 837845.

D. Cicchetti (1993). Developmental psychopathology: Reactions, reflections, projections. Developmental Review, 13, 471502.

D. Cicchetti , F. A. Rogosch , M. Lynch , & K. D. Holt (1993). Resilience in maltreated children: Processes leading to adaptive outcome. Development & Psychopathology, 5, 629647.

D. Cicchetti , & L. A. Sroufe (1978). An organizational view of affect: Illustration from the study of Down's syndrome infants. In M. Lewis & L. A. Rosenblum (Eds.), The development of affect (pp. 309350). New York: Plenum.

G. Cioni , & A. M. Castellaci (1990). Development of fetal and neonatal motor activity: Implications for neurology. In H. Block & B. Bertenthal (Eds.), Sensory-motor organizaion and development in infancy and early childhood. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

A. S. Clark , & P. S. Goldman-Rakic (1989). Gonadal hormones influence the emergence of cortical function in non-human primates. Behavioral Neuroscience, 103, 12871295.

J. F. Cohn , S. B. Campbell , & S. Ross (1991). Infant response in the still face paradigm at 6 months predicts avoidant and secure attachment at 12 months. Development & Psychopathology, 3, 367376.

E. Courchense , J. Townsend , & O. Saito (1993). The brain in infantile autism: Posterior fossa structures are abnormal. Neurology, 44, 214223.

J. L. Cummings (1993). Frontal-subcortical circuits and human behavior. Archives of Neurology, 50, 873880.

A. R. Damasio , & R. G. Maurer (1978). A neurological model for childhood autism. Archives of Neurology, 35, 777786.

C. Darwin (1872). The expression of emotions in man and animals. London: Murray.

R. J. Davidson , & N. A. Fox (1982). Asymmetric brain activity discriminates between positive and negative affective stimuli in human infants. Science, 218, 12351237.

G. Dawson , L. Grofer Klinger , H. Panagiotides , S. Spieker , & K. Frey (1992). Infants of mothers with depressive symptoms: Electroencephalographic and behavioural findings related to attachment status. Development & Psychopathology, 4, 6780.

G. Dawson , S. Phillips , L. Galpert , & C. Finley (1986). Hemispheric specialization and the language abilities of autistic children. Child Development, 57, 14401453.

A. J. De Casper , & A. A. Carstens (1981). Contingencies of stimulation; effects on learning and emotion in neonates. Infant Behavior & Development, 4, 1935.

A. J. De Casper , & W. P. Fifer (1980). Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mother's voices. Science, 208, 11741176.

A. J. De Casper , & M. J. Spence (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior & Development, 9, 133150.

M. C. Diamond (1987). Asymmetry in the cerebral cortex: Development, estrogen receptors, neuron/glial ratios, immune deficiency and enrichment/overcrowding. In D. Ottoson (Ed.), Duality and unity of the brain (pp. 3752). Wenner-Gren International Symposium Series, No. 47, London: Macmillan.

Y. Echelard , D. J. Epstein , B. St-Jaques , L. Shen , J. Mohler , J. A. McMahon , & A. P. McMahon (1993). Sonic hedgehog, a member of a family of putative signaling molecules, is implicated in the regulation of CNS polarity. Cell, 75, 14171430.

G. M. Edelman (1984, 04). Cell-adhesion molecules: A molecular basis for animal form. Scientific American, 250, 8091.

P. D. Eimas , E. R. Siqueland , P. Jusczyk , & J. Vigorito (1971). Speech perception in infants. Science, 171, 303306.

P. Ekman (1993). Facial expression & emotion. American Psychologist, 48, 384392.

R. N. Emde , Z. Biringen , R. B. Clyman , & D. Oppenheim (1991). The moral self in infancy: Affective core and procedural knowledge. Developmental Review, 11, 251270.

N. L. Etcoff (1984). Perceptual and conceptual organization of facial emotions: Hemispheric differences. Brain & Cognition, 3, 385412.

A. Fernald (1989). Intonation and communicative interest in mother's speech to infants: Is the melody the message? Child Development, 60, 14971510.

A. Fernald , T. Taeschner , J. Dunn , M. Papousek , B. de Boysson-Bardies , & I. Fukui (1989). A cross-language study of prosodic modifications in mothers' and fathers' speech to preverbal infants. Journal of Child Language, 16, 477501.

T. M. Field (1977). Effect of early separation, interactive deficits and experimental manipulations on infant-mother face-to-face interactions. Child Development, 48, 763771.

T. M. Field (1981). Infant arousal, attention, and affect during early interactions. In L. Lipsitt (Ed.), Advances in infant development (Vol. 1). Nor-wood, NJ: Ablex.

T. M. Field (1992). Infants of depressed mothers. Development & Psychopathology, 4, 4966.

T. M. Field , B. Healy , S. Goldstein , S. Perry , D. Bendall , S. Schanberg , E. Zimmerman , & C. Kuhn (1988). Infants of depressed mothers show “depressed” behavior even with non-depressed adults. Child Development, 59, 15691579.

T. M. Field , R. Woodson , R. Greenberg , & D. Cohen (1982). Discrimination and imitation of facial expressions by neonates. Science, 218, 179181.

B. Fish , J. Marcus , S. L. Hans , J. G. Auerbach , & S. Perdue (1992). Infants at risk for schizophrenia: Sequelae of a genetic neurointegrative defect. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 221235.

P. Fonagy , M. Steele , H. Steele , A. Higgitt , & M. Target (1994). The Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture 1992. The theory and practice of resilience. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 35, 231257.

P. Fonagy , M. Steele , N. Steele , G. S. Moran , & A. C. Higgitt (1991). The capacity for understanding mental states: The reflective self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 12(3), 201218.

E. A. Franzen , & R. E. Myers (1973). Neural control of social behavior: Prefrontal and anterior cortex lesions. Neuropsychologia, 11, 141157.

G. Gainotti (1987). Disorders of emotional behavior and of automatic arousal resulting form unilateral brain damage. In D. Ottoson (Ed.), Duality and unity of the brain (pp. 161179). Wenner-Gren International Symposium Series, No. 47. London: Macmillan.

G. Gainotti , C. Caltagirone , & P. Zoccolotti (1993). Left/right and cortical/subcortical dichotomies in the neuropsychological study of human emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 7, 7193.

I. Gerendai (1987). Laterality and the neuroendocrine system. In D. Ottoson (Ed.), Duality and unity of the brain (pp. 1728). Wenner-Gren International Symposium Series, No. 47. London: Macmillan.

N. Geschwind , & A. S. Galaburda (1985). Cerebral lateralization —Biological mechanisms, associations and pathology: I, II, III: A hypothesis and program for research. Archives of Neurology, 42, 428459, 521562, 635654.

C. Gillberg (1991). The Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture: Autism and autistic-like conditions: Subclasses among disorders of empathy. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 33, 813842.

P. S. Goldman-Rakic (1987). Development of cortical circuitry and cognitive function. Child Development, 58, 601622.

P. S. Goldman-Rakic (1992). Dopamine mediated mechanisms of the prefrontal cortex. Seminars in the Neurosciences, 4, 149160.

P. S. Goldman-Rakic , & R. M. Brown (1982). Post-natal development of monoamine content and synthesis in the cerebral cortex of rhesus monkeys. Developmental Brain Research, 4, 339349.

R. Goodman (1989a). Infantile autism: A syndrome of multiple primary deficits? Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 19, 409424.

R. Goodman (1989b). Neural misconnection and psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 292299.

D. L. Grieser , & P. K. Kuhl (1988). Maternal speech to infants to a tonal language: Support for universal prosodic features in motherese. Developmental Psychology, 24, 1420.

J. P. Grigsby , M. B. Kemper , & R. J. Hagerman (1987). Developmental Gerstmann syndrome without aphasia in fragile-X syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 25, 881891.

P. L. Harris (1994). The child's understanding of emotion: Developmental change and family environment. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 35, 328.

M. E. Hasselmo , E. T. Rolls , & G. C. Bayliss (1989). The role of expression and identity in the face-selective responses of neurons in the temporal visual cortex of the monkey. Behavioral Brain Research, 32, 203218.

D. F. Hay (1994). Prosocial development. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 35, 2972.

P. G. Haydon , D. P. McCobb , & S. B. Kater (1984). Serotonin selectively inhibits growth-cone mobility and synaptogenesis of specific identified neurons. Science, 226, 561564.

B. H. Herman , & J. Panksepp (1978). Evidence for opiate mediation of social affect. Pharmacological Biochemistry & Behavior, 9, 213220.

P. Hubley , & C. Trevarthen (1979). Sharing a task in infancy. In I. Uzgiris (Ed.), Social interaction during infancy, new directions for child development (Vol. 4, pp. 5780). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

G. M. Innocenti (1986). General organization of the callosal connections in the cerebral cortex. In E. G. Jones & A. Peters (Eds.), Cerebral cortex (Vol. 5, pp. 291353). New York: Plenum Press.

R. Joseph (1982). The right cerebral hemisphere: Emotion, music, visuo-spatial skills, body-image, dreams and awareness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 630673.

U. Jürgens (1979). Neural control of vocalization in non-human primates. In H. D. Steklis & M. J. Raleigh (Eds.), Neurobiology of social communication in primates: An evolutionary perspective (pp. 1144). New York: Academic Press.

J. Kagan (1982). The emergence of self. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 23, 363381.

C. Kasari , M. Sigman , P. Mundy , & N. Yirmiya (1990). Affective sharing in the context of joint attention interactions of normal, autistic and mentally retarded children. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 20, 87101.

D. Kimura (1992). Sex differences in the brain. Scientific American, 267, 119125.

G. W. Kraemer (1992). A psychobiological theory of attachment. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 15(3), 493541.

H. G. J. M. Kuypers (1958). Corticobulbar connections to the pons and lower brain stem in man. Brain, 81, 364388.

J. H. Langlois , L. A. Roggman , & L. A. Rieser-Danner (1990). Infant's differential social responses to attractive and unattractive faces. Developmental Psychology, 26, 153159.

J. M. Lauder , & H. Krebs (1986). Do neurotransmitters, neurohumors, and hormones specify critical periods? In W. T. Greenough & J. M. Juraska (Eds.), Developmental neuropsychobiology (pp. 119174). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

J. E. LeDoux (1992). Brain mechanisms of emotion and emotional learning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2, 191197.

A. M. Leslie (1987). Pretence and representation: The origins of “theory of mind.” Psychological Review, 94, 412426.

P. Levitt , P. Rakic , & P. Goldman-Rakic (1984). Region-specific distribution of chatecholamine afferents in primate cerebral cortex: A flourescence histochemical analysis. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 227, 2336.

D. A. Lewis , & J. H. Morrison (1989). Noradrenergic innervation of the monkey prefrontal cortex: A dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunohistochemical study. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 282, 317330.

M. Lewis , C. Feiring , C. McGuffog , & J. Jaskir (1984). Predicting psychopathology in six-year-olds from early social relations. Child Development, 55, 123136.

P. F. Liddle (1992). PET scanning and schizophrenia: What progress? Psychological Medicine, 22, 557560.

K. S. MacKain , M. Studdert-Kennedy , S. Spieker , & D. N. Stern (1983). Infant intermodal speech perception is a left hemisphere function. Science, 219, 13471349.

P. D. MacLean (1972). Cerebral evolution and emotional processes: New findings on the striatal complex. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 193, 137149.

P. F. MacNeilage , M. G. Studdert-Kennedy , & B. Lindblom (1987). Primate handedness reconsidered. Behavioral & Brain Science, 10, 247303.

M. Main , & R. Goldwyn (1984). Predicting rejection of her infants from mother's representation of her own experience. Implications for the abused-abusing intergenerational cycle. International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, 8, 203217.

M. Main , N. Kaplan , & J. Cassidy (1985). Security in infancy, childhood and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. In I. Bretherton & E. Waters (Eds.), Growing points in attachment theory and research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (1–2, Serial No. 209). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

J. B. Martin (1993). Molecular genetics in neurology. Annals of Neurology, 34, 757773.

A. N. Meltzoff , & M. H. Moore (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, 198, 7578.

A. N. Meltzoff , & M. K. Moore (1992). Early imitation within a functional framework: The importance of personal identity, movement and development. Infant Behavior & Development, 15, 479505.

R. Y. Moore (1982). Catecholamine neuron systems in the brain. Annals of Neurology, 12, 321327.

R. J. Morecraft , C. Geula , & M.-M. Mesulam (1993). Architecture of connectivity within a cingulo-fronto-paraietal neurocognitive network for directed attention. Archives of Neurology, 50, 279284.

F. Müller , & R. O'Rahilly (1990a). The human brain at stages 18–20, including the choroid plexuses and the amygdaloid and septal nuclei. Anatomy & Embryology, 182, 285306.

F. Müller , & R. O'Rahilly (1990b). The human brain at stages 21–23, with particular reference to the cerebral cortical plate and to the development of the cerebellum. Anatomy & Embryology, 182, 375400.

P. Mundy , C. Kasari , & M. Sigman (1992). Nonverbal communication, affecting sharing, and inter-subjectivity. Infant Behavior & Development, 15, 377381.

P. Mundy , M. Sigman , J. Ungerer , & T. Sherman (1986). Defining the social deficits of autism. The contribution of non-verbal communication measures. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 27, 657669.

L. Murray (1992). The Impact Of Postnatal Depression On Infant Development. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 33(3), 543561.

L. Murray , C. Kempton , M. Woolgar , & R. Hooper (1993). Depressed mothers' speech to their infants and its relation to infant gender and cognitive development. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 34(1), 10831101.

L. Murray , & C. Trevarthen (1986). The infant's role in mother-infant communication. Journal of Child Language, 13, 1529.

S. Nakano , & Y. Kanaya (1993). The effects of mothers' teasing: Do Japanese infants read their mothers' play intention in teasing? Early Development & Parenting, 2, 717.

W. J. H. Nauta , & V. B. Domesick (1982). Neural associations of the limbic system. In A. L. Beckman (Ed.), The neural basis of behavior (pp. 175206). New York: SP Medical and Scientific Books.

J. B. Nielsen , L. Friberg , H. Lou , N. A. Lassen , & I. L. Sam (1990). Immature pattern of brain activity in Rett syndrome. Archives of Neurology, 47, 982986.

Y. Nomura , M. Segawa , & M. Higurashi (1985). Rett syndrome —An early catecholamine and indolamine deficient disorder? Brain & Development, 7(3), 334341.

D. J. Nordeen , & P. Yahr (1982). Hemispheric asymmetries in the behavioral and sexual differentiation in the mammal brain. Science, 218, 391394.

A. Oke , R. Keller , I. Mefford , & R. N. Adams (1978). Lateralization of norepinephrine in human thalamus. Science, 200, 14111413.

A. Oliverio , C. Castellano , & S. Puglisi-Allegra (1984). Psychobiology of opioids. International Review of Neurobiology, 25, 277337.

R. W. Oppenheim (1984). Cellular interactions and the survival and maintenance of neurons during development. In S. C. Sharma (Ed.), Organizing principles of neural development (pp. 4980). New York: Plenum Press.

R. O'Rahilly , F. Muller , G. M. Hutchins , & G. W. Moore (1984). Computer ranking of the sequence of appearance of 100 features of the brain and related structures in staged human embryos during the first five weeks of development. The American Journal of Anatomy, 171, 243257.

E. M. Ornitz (1983). The functional anatomy of infantile autism. International Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 85124.

J. D. Osofsky , & B. Danzger (1974). Relationship between neonatal characteristics and mother-infant interaction. Developmental Psychology, 10, 11241130.

D. N. Pandya , & E. H. Yeterian (1985). Architecture and connections of the cortical association areas. In A. Peters & E. G. Jones (Eds.), Cerebral cortex: Vol. 4. Association and auditory cortices. New York: Plenum Press.

J. Panksepp (1992). A critical role for “affective neuroscience” in resolving what is basic about basic emotions. Psychological Review, 99, 554560.

D. Ploog (1992). Neuroethological perspectives on the human brain: From the expression of emotions to intentional signing and speech. In A. Harrington (Ed.), So human a brain (pp. 313). Boston: Birkhauser.

M. Radke-Yarrow , E. M. Cummings , L. Kuczynski , & M. Chapman (1985). Patterns of attachment in two- and three-year-olds in normal families and families with parental depression. Child Development, 56, 884893.

P. Rakic (1988). Specification of cerebral cortical areas. Science, 241, 170176.

R. D. Riddle , R. L. Johnson , E. Laufer , & C. Tabin (1993). Sonic hedgehog mediates the polarizing activity of the ZPA. Cell, 75, 14011418.

H. H. C. van de Rijt-Plooij , & F. X. Plooij (1993). Distinct periods of mother-infant conflict in normal development: Sources of progress and germs of pathology. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 34, 229245.

R. J. Robinson (1991). Causes and associations of severe and persistent specific speech and language disorders in children. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 33, 943962.

K. S. Robson (1967). The role of eye-to-eye contact in maternal-infant attachment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 8, 1325.

S. J. Rogers , S. Ozonoff , & C. Maslin-Cole (1993). Developmental aspects of attachment behaviour in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 12741282.

S. J. Rogers , & B. F. Pennington (1991). A theoretical approach to the deficits in infantile autism. Development & Psychopathology, 3, 137163.

E. T. Rolls (1990). A theory of emotion, and its application to understanding the neural basis of emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 4, 161190.

G. D. Rosen , G. F. Sherman , & A. M. Galaburda (1989). Interhemispheric connections differ between symmetrical and asymmetrical brain regions. Neuroscience, 33, 525533.

C. A. Ross , M. G. McLnnis , R. L. Margolis , & S.-H. Li (1993). Genes with triplet repeats: Candidate mediators of neuropsychiatric disorders. Trends in the Neurosciences, 16, 254260.

M. Rutter (1991). Autism as a genetic disorder. In P. McGuffin & R. Murray (Eds.), The new genetics of mental illness. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

S. M. Schanberg , & T. M. Field (1987). Sensory deprivation, stress and supplemental stimulation in the rat pup and preterm human neonate. Child Development, 58, 14311447.

W. Singer (1986). The brain as a self-organizing system. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 236, 49.

W. Singer , F. Tretter , & W. Yinon (1982). Central gating of developmental plasticity in kitten visual cortex. Journal of Physiology, 324, 221237.

S. L. Smalley , P. E. Tanguay , M. Smith , & G. Guitierrez (1992). Autism and tuberous sclerosis. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 22, 339355.

R. W. Sperry (1982). Some effects of disconnecting the cerebral hemispheres (Nobel lecture). Science, 217, 12231226.

L. A. Sroufe , N. E. Fox , & V. R. Pancake (1983). Attachment and dependency in developmental perspective. Child Development, 54, 16151627.

L. A. Sroufe , & M. Rutter (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 1729.

L. A. Sroufe , & E. Waters (1976). The ontogenesis of smiling and laughter: A perspective on the organization of development in infancy. Psychological Reviews, 83, 173189.

C. D. Stern , & R. J. Keyes (1988). Spatial patterns of homeobox gene expression in the developing mammalian CNS. Trends in theNeurosciences, 11, 190192.

D. N. Stern , S. Spieker , & K. MacKain (1982). Intonation contours as signals in maternal speech to prelinguistic infants. Developmental Psychology, 18, 727735.

J. Szentagothai (1948). The representation of the face and scalp muscles in the facial nucleus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 88, 207220.

R. W. Thatcher , R. A. Walker , & S. Giudice (1987). Human cerebral hemispheres develop at different rates and ages. Science, 236, 11101113.

S. J. Thorpe , E. T. Rolls , & S. Maddison (1983). The orbitofrontal cortex: Neuronal activity in the behaving monkey. Experimental Brain Research, 49, 93115.

D. Toigo (1992). Autism: Integrating a personal perspective with music therapy practice. Music Therapy Perspectives, 10, 1320.

M. Tomasello (1988). The role of joint attentional processes in early language development. Language Sciences, 10, 6988.

M. Tomasello , & M. J. Farrar (1986). Joint attention and early language. Child Development, 57, 14541463.

M. Tomasello , A. C. Kruger , & H. H. Ratner (1993). Cultural learning. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 16(3), 495552.

S. E. Trehub , L. J. Trainer , & A. M. Unyk (1993). Music and speech processing in the first year of life. Advances in Child Development & Behaviour, 24, 135.

C. Trevarthen (1980). Functional organization of the human brain. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), The brain and psychology. New York: Academic Press.

C. Trevarthen (1987a). Sharing makes sense: Inter-subjectivity and the making of an infant's meaning. In R. Steele & T. Threadgold (Eds.), Language topics: Essays in honour of Michael Halliday (pp. 177199). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

C. Trevarthen (1987b). Sub-cortical influences on cortical processing in “split” brains. In D. Ottoson (Ed.), Duality and unity of the brain (pp. 382415). Wenner-Gren International Symposium Series, Vol. 47. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan.

C. Trevarthen (1989a). Development of early social interactions and the affective regulation of brain growth. In C. von Euler , H. Forssberg , & H. Lagercrantz (Eds.), Neurobiology of early infant behaviour (pp. 191216). Wenner-Gren International Symposium Series, Vol. 55. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan/New York: Stockton Press.

C. Trevarthen , & H. Marwick (1986). Signs of motivation for speech in infants, and the nature of a mother's support for development of language. In B. Lindblom & R. Zetterstrom (Eds.), Precursors of early speech (pp. 279308). Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan.

E. Z. Tronick , H. Als , L. Adamson , S. Wise , & T. B. Brazelton (1978). The infant's response to entrapment between contradictory messages in face-to-face interaction. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 17, 113.

E. Z. Tronick , & J. F. Cohn (1989). Infant-mother face-to-face interaction: Age and gender differences in coordination and occurrence of miscoordination. Child Development, 60, 8592.

E. Z. Tronick , & T. Field (Eds.). (1986). Maternal depression and infant disturbance. New directions for child development (No. 34). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

D. M. Tucker , & P. A. Williamson (1984). Asymmetric neural control systems in human self-regulation. Psychological Reviews, 91, 185215.

D. R. Weinberger (1987). Implications of normal development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 660669.

D. R. Weinberger , D. J. Luchins , J. Morihisa , & R. J. Wyatt (1982). Asymmetrical volumes of right and left frontal and occipital regions of the human brain. Annals of Neurology, 11, 97100.

S. Weis , H. Haug , B. Holoubek , & H. Orun (1989). The cerebral dominances: Quantitative morphology of the human cerebral cortex. International Journal of Neuroscience, 47, 165168.

J. G. Wishart (1991). Taking the initiative in learning; a developmental investigation of infants with Down syndrome. International Journal of Disability, Development & Education, 38, 2744.

W. Wittling , & M. Pfluger (1990). Neuroendocrine hemisphere asymmetries: Salivary cortisol secretion during lateralized viewing of emotion-related and neutral films. Brain & Cognition, 14, 243265.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 78 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1477 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.