To improve the health and well-being of individuals, it has become
clear that scientific discoveries must be translated into practical
applications (Insel & Fernald, 2004; Moses,
Dorsey, Matheson, & Thier, 2005).
Historically, such discoveries, particularly in the health sciences, have
begun at “the bench,” with basic research at the molecular or
cellular level progressing to the “bedside” or clinical venue.
Increasingly, both basic researchers and those who are involved directly
in patient care recognize that the bench–bedside approach to
translational research is best conceptualized as reciprocal in nature
(Cicchetti & Hinshaw, 2002; Ialongo et al.,
2006). That is, basic scientists can develop new
tools for utilization with patients, and clinical researchers and
clinicians can make novel assessments about the nature and progression of
disease that can stimulate further basic research investigations
(Zerhouni, 2005). This bidirectional process is
consistent with one of the central tenets of developmental
psychopathology, where knowledge on normative and atypical development is
considered to be mutually informative (Cicchetti, 1993; Cicchetti & Toth, 1998, 2006; Rutter &
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