Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Contextual risk and promotive processes in Puerto Rican youths' internalizing trajectories in Puerto Rico and New York

  • María A. Ramos-Olazagasti (a1), Patrick E. Shrout (a1), Hirokazu Yoshikawa (a2), Glorisa J. Canino (a3) and Héctor R. Bird (a4)...
Abstract

Research on ethnic-minority youths' mental health has rarely examined developmental trajectories for the same ethnic group in contexts where they are a minority versus where they are the majority or mechanisms accounting for differences in trajectories across such contexts. This study examines Puerto Rican youth residing in two contexts, one in which they are in their home culture of Puerto Rico and one in which they are a minority group, in New York. We explore the relationship among social context, minority status, risk, resilience, and trajectories of internalizing symptoms after adjusting for factors related to migration. We found that youths' reports of internalizing symptoms declined over time. Youths in New York had higher levels of internalizing symptoms than did youths in Puerto Rico, but they had similar trajectories. Differences in internalizing symptoms across the two social contexts were accounted for by experiences of discrimination and exposure to violence. Parental monitoring was associated with fewer internalizing symptoms across the two sites, although this effect diminished over time. Contrary to what was expected, family religiosity was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms. This association was stronger in New York than in the Puerto Rico site.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: María A. Ramos-Olazagasti, Child Study Center, NYU Langone Medical Center, One Park Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016; E-mail maria.ramos@nyumc.org.
References
Hide All
Alegría, M., Mulvaney-Day, N., Torres, M., Polo, A., Cao, Z., & Canino, G. (2007). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders across Latino subgroups in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 6875.
Anderson, E. R., & Mayes, L. C. (2010). Race/ethnicity and internalizing disorders in youth: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 338348.
Beiser, M., Hou, F., Hyman, I., & Tousignant, M. (2002). Poverty, family process and the mental health of immigrant children in Canada. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 220227.
Beyers, J. M., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Neighborhood structure, parenting processes, and the development of youths' externalizing behavior: A multilevel analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 3553.
Bird, H. R., Canino, G. J., Davies, M., Duarte, C. S., Febo, V., Ramírez, R., et al. (2006). A study of disruptive behavior disorders in Puerto Rican youth: I. Background, design, and survey methods. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 10321041.
Bird, H. R., Shrout, P. E., Davies, M., Canino, G., Duarte, C., Shen, S., et al. (2007). Longitudinal development of antisocial behaviors in young and early adolescent Puerto Rican children in two sites. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 514.
Bongers, I. L., Koot, H. M., van der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2003). The normative development of child and adolescent problem behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 179192.
Bravo, M., Woodbury-Farina, M., Canino, G. J., & Rubio-Stipec, M. (1993). The Spanish translation and cultural adaptation of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) in Puerto Rico. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 17, 329344.
Breton, J. J., Bergeron, L., Valla, J. P., Lepine, S., Houde, L., & Gaudet, N. (1995). Do children aged 9 to 11 years understand the DISC version 2.25 questions? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 946954.
Brody, G. H., Chen, Y., McBride Murry, V., Ge, X., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., et al. (2006). Perceived discrimination and the adjustment of African-American youths: A five-year longitudinal analysis with contextual moderation effects. Child Development, 77, 11701189.
Carlson, K. T. (2006). Poverty and youth violence exposure: Experiences in rural communities. Children & Schools, 28, 87.
Cervantes, R. C., Padilla, A. M., & Desnyder, N. S. (1990). Reliability and validity of the Hispanic Stress Inventory. Hispanic Journal for the Behavioral Sciences, 12, 7682.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1998). The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 53, 221241.
Cole, D. A., Tram, J. M., Martin, J. M., Hoffman, K. B., Ruiz, M. D., Jacquez, F. M., et al. (2002). Individual differences in the emergence of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: A longitudinal investigation of parent and child reports. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 156165.
Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (1995). Epidemiology. In March, J. S. (Ed.), Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 109124). New York: Guilford Press.
D'Agostino, R. B., (1998). Tutorial in biostatistics: Propensity score methods for bias reduction in the comparison of a treatment to a nonrandomized control group. Statistics in Medicine, 17, 22652281.
Dollahite, D. C., Marks, L. D., & Goodman, M. (2004). Religiosity and families: Relational and spiritual linkages in a diverse and dynamic cultural context. In Coleman, M. J. & Ganong, L. H. (Eds.), The handbook of contemporary families: Considering the past, contemplating the future (pp. 411431). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Duchesne, S., Vitaro, F., Larose, S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2008). Trajectories of anxiety during elementary-school years and the prediction of high school non-completion. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 37, 11341146.
Elder, G. H., Eccles, J. S., Ardelt, M., & Lord, S. (1995). Inner-city parents under economic pressure: Perspectives on the strategies of parenting. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 771784.
Ellison, C. G. (1995). Race, religious involvement and depressive symptomatology in a southeastern U.S. community. Social Science and Medicine, 140, 15611572.
Ellison, C. G., Boardman, J. D., Williams, D. R., & Jackson, J. S. (2001). Religious involvement, stress, and mental health: Findings from the 1995 Detroit Area Study. Social Force, 80, 215249.
Escobar, J. I. (1998). Immigration and mental health: Why are immigrants better off? Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 781782.
Fröjd, S. A., Nissinen, E. S., Pelkonen, M. U. I., Marttunen, M. J., Koivisto, A., & Kaltiala-Heino, R. (2008). Depression and school performance in middle adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 485498.
Fuller, B., & García Coll, C. (2010). Contexts, families, and child development in motion. Developmental Psychology, 46, 559565.
Garber, J., Keiley, M. K., & Martin, N. C. (2002). Developmental trajectories of adolescents' depressive symptoms: Predictors of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 7995.
García Coll, C., Lamberty, G., Jenkins, R., McAdoo, H. P., Crnic, K., Wasik, B. H., et al. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67, 18911914.
Gluszek, A., & Dovidio, J. F. (2010). The way they speak: A social psychological perspective on the stigma of nonnative accents in communication. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14, 214237.
Gorman-Smith, D., & Tolan, P. (1998). The role of exposure to community violence and developmental problems among inner-city youth. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 101116.
Graber, J. A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1996). Transitions and turning points: Navigating the passage from childhood through adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 32, 768776.
Graber, J. A., & Sontag, L. M. (2009). Internalizing problems during adolescence. In Lerner, R. M. & Steinberg, L. (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 642682). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Gipson, P. Y. (2004). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Measurement issues and prospective effects. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 412425.
Gregorich, S. E. (2006). Do self-report instruments allow meaningful comparisons across diverse population groups? Testing measurement invariance using the confirmatory factor analysis framework. Medical Care, 44, S78S94.
Gutman, L. M., Sameroff, A. J., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). The academic achievement of African American students during early adolescence: An examination of multiple risk, promotive, and protective factors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 367399.
Harker, K. (2001). Immigrant generation, assimilation, and adolescent psychological well-being. Social Forces, 79, 9691004.
Herrera, A. P., Lee, J. W., Nanyonjo, R. D., Laufman, L. E., & Torres-Vigil, I. (2009). Religious coping and caregiver well-being in Mexican-American families. Aging and Mental Health, 13, 8491.
Hoffman, L., & Stawski, R. S. (2009). Persons as contexts: Evaluating between-person and within-person effects in longitudinal analyses. Research in Human Development, 6, 97120.
Hudson, W. W. (1982). Methodological observations on applied behavioral science: A measurement package for clinical workers. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 18, 229238.
Hwang, W., & Goto, S. (2008). The impact of perceived racial discrimination on the mental health of Asian American and Latino college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 326335.
Jensen, P., Bird, H. R., Canino, G. J., Dulcan, M., Rae, D., Richters, J., et al. (1993). Attenuation of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.1): Sex, age, and IQ relationships. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 884.
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., & Kasen, S. (2009). Minor depression during adolescence and mental health outcomes during adulthood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 195, 264265.
Kasinitz, P., Mollenkopf, J. H., Waters, M. C., & Holdaway, J. (2008). Inheriting the city: The children of immigrants come of age. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Kessler, R. C., Amminger, P., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Lee, S., & Ustun, T. B. (2007). Age of onset of mental disorders: A review of recent literature. Current Opinions in Psychiatry, 20, 359364.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
Koenig, H. G., McCullough, M. E., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Handbook of religion and health. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kraatz Keiley, M., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2000). A cross-domain growth analysis: Externalizing and internalizing behaviors during 8 years of childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 28, 161179.
Krause, N., Ellison, C., & Wulff, K. (1998). Church-based emotional support, negative interaction, and psychological well-being. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 725741.
Lee, R. M., & Liu, H. T. (2001). Coping with intergenerational family conflict: Comparison of Asian American, Hispanic, and European American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 410419.
Lerner, R. M., & Galambos, N. L. (1998). Adolescent development: Challenges and opportunities for research, programs, and policies. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 413446.
Leve, L. D., Kim, H. K., & Pears, K. C. (2005). Childhood temperament and family environment as predictors of internalizing and externalizing trajectories from ages 5 to 17. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 505520.
Marks, L. (2005). Religion and bio-psycho-social health: A review and conceptual model. Journal of Religion and Health, 44, 173186.
Masten, A. S., Best, K. M., & Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome diversity. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425444.
Mazza, J. J., Fleming, C.B., Abbott, R. D., Haggerty, K. P., & Catalano, R. F. (2010). Identifying trajectories of adolescents' depressive phenomena: An examination of early risk factors. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 39, 579593.
McLeod, V. D. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185204.
Miller, L. S., Wasserman, G. A., Neugebauer, R., Gorman-Smith, D., & Kamboukos, D. (1999). Witnessed community violence and antisocial behavior in high-risk, urban boys. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 211.
Mrug, S., Loosier, P. S., & Windle, M. (2008). Violence exposure across multiple contexts: Individual and joint effects on adjustment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 78, 7084.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2010). Mplus user's guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.
Muuss, R. E. (1996). Theories of adolescence. New York: McGraw Hill.
Nooney, J., & Woodrum, E. (2002). Religious coping and church-based social support as predictors of mental health outcomes: Testing a conceptual model. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41, 359368.
Oh, S. S., & Yoshikawa, H. (2011). Examining spiritual capital across ecological systems: Developmental implications for children and adolescents in diverse immigrant families. In García-Coll, C. (Ed.), The impact of immigration on child development (pp. 7798). Basel: Karger.
Okagaki, L., & Frensch, P. A. (1998). Parenting and children's school achievement: A multi-ethnic perspective. American Educational Research Journal, 25, 123144.
Ozer, E. J., & McDonald, K. L. (2006). Exposure to violence and mental health among Chinese American urban adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39, 7379.
Pargament, K. I., Smith, B. W., Koenig, H. G., & Perez, L. M. (1998). Patterns of positive and negative religious coping with major life stressors. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 710724.
Patterson, G. R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1984). The correlation of family management practices and delinquency. Child Development, 55, 12991307.
Perez, G. M. (2004). The near northwest side story: Migration, displacement, and Puerto Rican families. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Piacentini, J., Roper, M., Jensen, P., Lucas, C., Fisher P., Bird, H., et al. (1999). Informant-based determinants of symptom attenuation in structured child psychiatric interviews. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 417428.
Portes, A. (1997). Immigration theory for a new century: Some problems and opportunities. International Migration Review, 31, 799825.
Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001). Legacies: The story of the immigrant second generation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P. (1993). The NIMH community violence project: I. Children as victims of and witnesses to violence. Psychiatry, 56, 721.
Rohde, P., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1996). Psychiatric comorbidity with problematic alcohol use in high school students. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 101109.
Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1985). Constructing a control group using multivariate matched sampling methods that incorporate the propensity score. American Statistician, 39, 3338.
Rubin, D. B. (1997). Estimating causal effects from large data sets using propensity scores. Annals of Internal Medicine, 127, 757763.
Rubin, D. B., & Thomas, N. (2000). Combining propensity score matching with additional adjustment for prognostic covariates. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 95, 573585.
Rutter, M. (1990). Psychological resilience and protective mechanisms. In Rolf, J., Masten, A. S., Cicchetti, D., Nuechterlein, K. H., & Weintraub, S. (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 181235). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sameroff, A. J. (2000). Developmental systems and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 297312.
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M. K., & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): Description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 2838.
Shakib, S., Mouttapa, M., Johnson, C. A., Ritt-Olson, A., Trinidad, D. R., Gallaher, P. E., et al. (2003). Ethnic variation in parenting characteristics and adolescent smoking. Journal of Adolescent Health, 33, 8897.
Shields, M. K., & Behrman, R. E. (2004). Children of immigrant families: Analysis and recommendations. Future of Children, 14, 415.
Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modeling change and event occurrence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Smokowski, P. R., Rose, A. R., & Bacallao, M. (2010). Influence of risk factors and cultural assets on Latino adolescents' trajectories of self-esteem and internalizing symptoms. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41, 133155.
Stepick, A. (2005). God is apparently not dead: The obvious, the emergent, and the still unknown in immigration and religion. In Leonard, K., Stepick, A., Vasquez, M. A., & Holdaway, J. (Eds.), Immigrant faiths: Transforming religious life in America (pp. 1138). Lanham, MD: Alta Mira Press.
Stevens, G. W. J. M., & Vollebergh, W. A. M. (2008). Mental health in migrant children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 276294.
Suárez-Orozco, C., & Suárez-Orozco, M. (1995). Transformations: Immigration, family life, and achievement motivation among Latino adolescents. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Suárez-Orozco, C., & Suárez-Orozco, M. M. (2001). Children of immigrants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Suárez-Orozco, C., Suárez-Orozco, M. M., & Todorova, I. (2008). Learning a new land. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Szalacha, L. A., Erkut, S., García Coll, C., Alarcón, O., Fields, J. P., & Ceder, I. (2003). Discrimination and Puerto Rican children's and adolescents' mental health. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9, 141155.
Twenge, J. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2002). Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort differences on the Children's Depression Inventory: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 578588.
Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2007). Latino adolescents' mental health: Exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 549567.
US Census Bureau. (2001). The Hispanic population: Census 2000 brief. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-3.pdf
Vega, W. A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (1991). Ethnic minorities and mental health. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 351383.
Weissman, M. M., Wolk, S., Goldstein, R. B., Moreau, D., Adams, P., Greenwald, S., et al. (1999). Depressed adolescents grown up. Journal of the American Medical Association, 281, 17071713.
Willett, J. B., & Sayer, A. G. (1996). Cross-domain analyses of change over time: Combining growth modeling and covariance structure analysis. In Schumacher, R. & Marcoulides, G. (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling techniques (pp. 125157). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (2008). Racial/Ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 98(Suppl.), 2937.
Wong, Y. J., Rew, L., & Slaikeu, B. A. (2006). A systematic review of recent research on adolescent religiosity/spirituality and mental health. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 27, 161183.
Wright Berton, M., & Stabb, S. D. (1996). Exposure to violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in urban adolescents. Adolescence, 31, 489498.
Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2007). Emotional and cognitive changes during adolescence. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 17, 251257.
Zahn-Waxler, C., Klimes-Gougan, B., & Slattery, M. J. (2000). Internalizing problems in childhood and adolescence: Prospects, pitfalls, and progress in understanding the development of anxiety and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 443466.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed