Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Describing and predicting developmental profiles of externalizing problems from childhood to adulthood

  • Isaac T. Petersen (a1), John E. Bates (a1), Kenneth A. Dodge (a2), Jennifer E. Lansford (a2) and Gregory S. Pettit (a3)...

Abstract

This longitudinal study considers externalizing behavior problems from ages 5 to 27 (N = 585). Externalizing problem ratings by mothers, fathers, teachers, peers, and self-report were modeled with growth curves. Risk and protective factors across many different domains and time frames were included as predictors of the trajectories. A major contribution of the study is in demonstrating how heterotypic continuity and changing measures can be handled in modeling changes in externalizing behavior over long developmental periods. On average, externalizing problems decreased from early childhood to preadolescence, increased during adolescence, and decreased from late adolescence to adulthood. There was strong nonlinear continuity in externalizing problems over time. Family process, peer process, stress, and individual characteristics predicted externalizing problems beyond the strong continuity of externalizing problems. The model accounted for 70% of the variability in the development of externalizing problems. The model's predicted values showed moderate sensitivity and specificity in prediction of arrests, illegal drug use, and drunk driving. Overall, the study showed that by using changing, developmentally relevant measures and simultaneously taking into account numerous characteristics of children and their living situations, research can model lengthy spans of development and improve predictions of the development of later, severe externalizing problems.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Isaac T. Petersen, Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 East 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405; E-mail: itpeters@indiana.edu.

References

Hide All
Achenbach, T. M. (1991a). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Achenbach, T. M. (1991b). Manual for the Teacher's Report Form and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Achenbach, T. M. (1991c). Manual for the Youth Self-Report and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Achenbach, T. M. (1997). Manual for the Young Adult Self-Report and Young Adult Behavior Checklist. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Achenbach, T. M. (2005). Advancing assessment of children and adolescents: Commentary on evidence-based assessment of child and adolescent disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 541547. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3403_9
Achenbach, T. M., Howell, C. T., McConaughy, S. H., & Stanger, C. (1995). Six-year predictors of problems in a national sample: III. Transitions to young adult syndromes. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 658669. doi:10.1097/00004583-199505000-00018
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms and Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.
Ackerman, B. P., D'Eramo, K. S., Umylny, L., Schultz, D., & Izard, C. E. (2001). Family structure and the externalizing behavior of children from economically disadvantaged families. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 288300. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.15.2.288
Akobeng, A. K. (2007). Understanding diagnostic tests 3: Receiver operating characteristic curves. Acta Paediatrica, 96, 644647. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006.00178.x
Appleyard, K., Egeland, B., Van Dulmen, M. H. M., & Sroufe, L. A. (2005). When more is not better: The role of cumulative risk in child behavior outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 235245. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00351.x
Bates, J. E., & Bayles, K. (1984). Objective and subjective components in mothers' perceptions of their children from age 6 months to 3 years. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 30, 111130.
Bates, J. E., Marvinney, D., Kelly, T., Dodge, K. A., Bennett, D. S., & Pettit, G. S. (1994). Child care history and kindergarten adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 30, 690700. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.30.5.690
Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (in press). Temperament, parenting, and social development. In Grusec, J. & Hastings, P. D. (Eds.), Handbook of socialization. New York: Guildford Press.
Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A., & Ridge, B. (1998). Interaction of temperamental resistance to control and restrictive parenting in the development of externalizing behavior. Developmental Psychology, 34, 982995.
Bates, J. E., Schermerhorn, A. C., & Petersen, I. T. (2012). Temperament and parenting in developmental perspective. In Zentner, M. & Shiner, R. (Eds.), Handbook of temperament (pp. 425441). New York: Guilford Press.
Bauer, D. J. (2007). Observations on the use of growth mixture models in psychological research. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 757786.
Bauer, D. J., & Curran, P. J. (2003). Distributional assumptions of growth mixture models: Implications for overextraction of latent trajectory classes. Psychological Methods, 8, 338363. doi:10.1037/1082-989x.8.3.338
Bauer, D. J., & Reyes, H. L. M. (2010). Modeling variability in individual development: Differences of degree or kind? Child Development Perspectives, 4, 114122. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2010.00129.x
Beyers, J. M., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Neighborhood structure, parenting processes, and the development of youths' externalizing behaviors: A multilevel analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 3553. doi:10.1023/a:1023018502759
Bongers, I. L., Koot, H. M., Ende, J. v. d., & Verhulst, F. C. (2004). Developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviors in childhood and adolescence. Child Development, 75, 15231537.
Brame, B., Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2001). Developmental trajectories of physical aggression from school entry to late adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 503512. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00744
Broidy, L. M., Nagin, D. S., Tremblay, R. E., Bates, J. E., Brame, B., Dodge, K. A., et al. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: A six-site, cross-national study. Developmental Psychology, 39, 222245. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.39.2.222
Buehler, C., Anthony, C., Krishnakumar, A., Stone, G., Gerard, J., & Pemberton, S. (1997). Interparental conflict and youth problem behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6, 233247.
Burt, S. A., Donnellan, M. B., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2011). Age-of-onset or behavioral sub-types? A prospective comparison of two approaches to characterizing the heterogeneity within antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 633644. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9491-9
Caspi, A. (1998). Personality development across the life course. In Damon, W. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed., pp. 311388). New York: Wiley.
Coghill, D., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2012). Annual research review: Categories versus dimensions in the classification and conceptualisation of child and adolescent mental disorders: Implications of recent empirical study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 469489. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02511.x
Connell, A. M., & Frye, A. A. (2006). Growth mixture modelling in developmental psychology: Overview and demonstration of heterogeneity in developmental trajectories of adolescent antisocial behaviour. Infant & Child Development, 15, 609621. doi:10.1002/icd.481
Connell, A. M., & Goodman, S. H. (2002). The association between psychopathology in fathers versus mothers and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 746773. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.746
Cox, M. J., Mills-Koonce, R., Propper, C., & Gariépy, J.-L. (2010). Systems theory and cascades in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 497506. doi:10.1017/s0954579410000234
Curran, P. J., Hussong, A. M., Cai, L., Huang, W., Chassin, L., Sher, K. J., et al. (2008). Pooling data from multiple longitudinal studies: The role of item response theory in integrative data analysis. Developmental Psychology, 44, 365. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.44.2.365
Dallaire, D., & Wilson, L. (2010). The relation of exposure to parental criminal activity, arrest, and sentencing to children's maladjustment. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 404418. doi:10.1007/s10826-009-9311-9
Dawes, R. M., Faust, D., & Meehl, P. E. (1989). Clinical versus actuarial judgment. Science, 243, 16681674. doi:10.1126/science.2648573
Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1998). Multiple risk factors in the development of externalizing behavior problems: Group and individual differences. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 469493. doi:10.1017/S0954579498001709
Deegan, J. (1978). On the occurrence of standardized regression coefficients greater than one. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 38, 873888. doi:10.1177/001316447803800404
Derksen, S., & Keselman, H. J. (1992). Backward, forward and stepwise automated subset selection algorithms: Frequency of obtaining authentic and noise variables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 45, 265282. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8317.1992.tb00992.x
Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science, 250, 16781683. doi:10.1126/science.2270481
Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., & Lynam, D. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. In Damon, W., Lerner, R. M., & Eisenberg, N. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 719788). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Dodge, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Malone, P. S., & the Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2008). Testing an idealized dynamic cascade model of the development of serious violence in adolescence. Child Development, 79, 19071927. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01233.x
Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Miller, S., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2009). A dynamic cascade model of the development of substance-use onset (Vol. 74). Boston: Wiley–Blackwell.
Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1994). Socialization mediators of the relation between socioeconomic status and child conduct problems. Child Development, 65, 649665. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00774.x
Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Valente, E. (1995). Social information-processing patterns partially mediate the effect of early physical abuse on later conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 632643.
Eddy, J. M., Dishion, T. J., & Stoolmiller, M. (1998). The analysis of intervention change in children and families: Methodological and conceptual issues embedded in intervention studies. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 5369. doi:10.1023/a:1022634807098
Farrington, D. P. (2003). Key results from the first forty years of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. In Thornberry, T. P. & Krohn, M. D. (Eds.), Taking stock of felinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies (pp. 137183). New York: Springer.
Fergusson, D. M. (1998). Stability and change in externalising behaviours. European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 248, 4.
Gershoff, E. T., Lansford, J. E., Sexton, H. R., Davis-Kean, P., & Sameroff, A. J. (2012). Longitudinal links between spanking and children's externalizing behaviors in a national sample of white, black, hispanic, and asian american families. Child Development, 838843. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01732.x
Goodnight, J. A., Bates, J. E., Newman, J. P., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2006). The interactive influences of friend deviance and reward dominance on the development of externalizing behavior during middle adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 573583.
Goodnight, J. A., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Dodge, K. A. (2008). Parents' campaigns to reduce their children's conduct problems: Interactions with temperamental resistance to control. International Journal of Developmental Science, 2, 100119. doi:10.3233/dev-2008-21207
Goodnight, J. A., Bates, J. E., Staples, A. D., Pettit, G. S., & Dodge, K. A. (2007). Temperamental resistance to control increases the association between sleep problems and externalizing behavior development. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 3948. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.21.1.39
Graham, J., Olchowski, A., & Gilreath, T. (2007). How many imputations are really needed? Some practical clarifications of multiple imputation theory. Prevention Science, 8, 206213. doi:10.1007/s11121-007-0070-9
Grimm, K. J., Ram, N., & Hamagami, F. (2011). Nonlinear growth curves in developmental research. Child Development, 82, 13571371. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01630.x
Hayatbakhsh, M. R., Najman, J. M., Khatun, M., Al Mamun, A., Bor, W., & Clavarino, A. (2011). A longitudinal study of child mental health and problem behaviours at 14 years of age following unplanned pregnancy. Psychiatry Research, 185, 200204. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2010.05.019
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four Factor Index of Social Status. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University, Department of Sociology.
Honaker, J., & King, G. (2010). What to do about missing values in time-series cross-section data. American Journal of Political Science, 54, 561581. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2010.00447.x
Honaker, J., King, G., & Blackwell, M. (2011). Amelia II: A program for missing data. Journal of Statistical Software, 45, 147.
Hothorn, T., Hornik, K., & Zeileis, A. (2006). Unbiased recursive partitioning: A conditional inference framework. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 15, 651674. doi:10.1198/106186006X133933
Huesmann, L. R., Eron, L. D., Lefkowitz, M. M., & Walder, L. O. (1984). Stability of aggression over time and generations. Developmental Psychology, 20, 11201134. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.20.6.1120
Jeličić, H., Phelps, E., & Lerner, R. M. (2009). Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: The persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology. Developmental Psychology, 45, 11951199. doi:10.1037/a0015665
Keijsers, L., Loeber, R., Branje, S., & Meeus, W. (2012). Parent–child relationships of boys in different offending trajectories. A developmental perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 12221232. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02585.x
Keiley, M. K., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2000). A cross-domain growth analysis: Externalizing and internalizing behaviors during 8 years of childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 161179. doi:10.1023/A:1005122814723
Keiley, M. K., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2001). Effects of temperament on the development of externalizing and internalizing behaviors over 9 years. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.
Keiley, M. K., Howe, T. R., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2001). The timing of child physical maltreatment: A corss-domain growth analysis of impact on adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 891912.
Keiley, M. K., Lofthouse, N., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2003). Differential risks of covarying and pure components in mother and teacher reports of externalizing and internalizing behavior across ages 5 to 14. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 267283.
Kim, K. J., Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H. J., & Lorenz, F. O. (2003). Reciprocal influences between stressful life events and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Child Development, 74, 127143. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00525
Knight, G. P., & Zerr, A. A. (2010). Informed theory and measurement equivalence in child development research. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 2530. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00112.x
Kohlberg, L., LaCrosse, J., & Ricks, D. (1972). The predictability of adult mental health from childhood behavior. In Wolman, B. (Ed.), Manual of child psychopathology (pp. 12171284). New York: McGraw–Hill.
Kokko, K., Pulkkinen, L., Huesmann, L. R., Dubow, E. F., & Boxer, P. (2009). Intensity of aggression in childhood as a predictor of different forms of adult aggression: A two-country (Finland and the United States) analysis. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19, 934. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00579.x
Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Patrick, C. J., & Iacono, W. G. (2005). Externalizing psychopathology in adulthood: A dimensional-spectrum conceptualization and its implications for DSM-V. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 537550. doi:10.1037/0021-843x.114.4.537
Lansford, J. E., Malone, P. S., Castellino, D. R., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Trajectories of internalizing, externalizing, and grades for children who have and have not experienced their parents' divorce or separation. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 292301. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.20.2.292
Lansford, J. E., Malone, P. S., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2010). Developmental cascades of peer rejection, social information processing biases, and aggression during middle childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 593602. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000301
Leve, L. D., Kim, H. K., & Pears, K. C. (2005). Childhood temperament and family environment as predictors of internalizing and externalizing trajectories from ages 5 to 17. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 505520. doi:10.1007/s10802-005-6734-7
Lish, J. D., Weissman, M. M., Adams, P. B., Hoven, C. W., & Bird, H. (1995). Family psychiatric screening instrument for epidemiologic studies: pilot testing and validation. Psychiatry Research, 57, 169180. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(95)02632-7
Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
Little, T. D., Card, N. A., Preacher, K. J., & McConnell, E. (2009). Modeling longitudinal data from research on adolescence. In Lerner, R. M. & Steinberg, L. (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: Individual bases of adolescent development. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Lumley, T. (2010). Mitools: Tools for multiple imputation of missing data. R package version 2 [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/mitools/
Lussier, P., & Davies, G. (2011). A person-oriented perspective on sexual offenders, offending trajectories, and risk of recidivism: A new challenge for policymakers, risk assessors, and actuarial prediction? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 17, 530561. doi:10.1037/a0024388
Manganello, J. A., & Taylor, C. A. (2009). Television exposure as a risk factor for aggressive behavior among 3-year-old children. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 163, 10371045. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.193
Markon, K. E., & Krueger, R. F. (2005). Categorical and continuous models of liability to externalizing disorders: A direct comparison in NESARC. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 13521359. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.12.1352
Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradović, J., Riley, J. R., et al. (2005). Developmental cascades: Linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41, 733746. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.41.5.733
McArdle, J. J., Grimm, K. J., Hamagami, F., Bowles, R. P., & Meredith, W. (2009). Modeling life-span growth curves of cognition using longitudinal data with multiple samples and changing scales of measurement. Psychological Methods, 14, 126149. doi:10.1037/a0015857
McArdle, J. J., Hamagami, F., Meredith, W., & Bradway, K. P. (2000). Modeling the dynamic hypotheses of Gf–Gc theory using longitudinal life-span data. Learning and Individual Differences, 12, 53. doi:10.1016/S1041-6080(00)00036-4
Miller, J. L., Vaillancourt, T., & Boyle, M. H. (2009). Examining the heterotypic continuity of aggression using teacher reports: Results from a national Canadian study. Social Development, 18, 164180. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00480.x
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.100.4.674
Mott, F. L., Kowaleski-Jones, L., & Menaghan, E. G. (1997). Paternal absence and child behavior: Does a child's gender make a difference? Journal of Marriage and Family, 59, 103118.
Muthén, B. O., & Curran, P. J. (1997). General longitudinal modeling of individual differences in experimental designs: A latent variable framework for analysis and power estimation. Psychological Methods, 2, 371402. doi:10.1037/1082-989x.2.4.371
Muthén, B. O., & Muthén, L. K. (2000). The development of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems from ages 18 to 37 in a US national sample. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 61, 290.
Newman, D. L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Magdol, L., Silva, P. A., & Stanton, W. R. (1996). Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: Prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11–21. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 552562. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.64.3.552
Newman, J. P., Patterson, C. M., & Kosson, D. S. (1987). Response perseveration in psychopaths. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 145148. doi:10.1037/0021-843x.96.2.145
Nigg, J. T., & Huang-Pollock, C. L. (2003). An early-onset model of the role of executive functions and intelligence in conduct disorder/delinquency. In Lahey, B. B., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 227253). New York: Guilford Press.
Odgers, C. L., Moffitt, T. E., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., et al. (2008). Female and male antisocial trajectories: From childhood origins to adult outcomes. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 673716. doi:doi:10.1017/S0954579408000333
Olson, S. L., Bates, J. E., Sandy, J. M., & Lanthier, R. (2000). Early developmental precursors of externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 119133. doi:10.1023/A:1005166629744
Olson, S. L., Sameroff, A. J., Davis-Kean, P., Lansford, J. E., Sexton, H. R., Bates, J. E., et al. (2013). Deconstructing the externalizing spectrum: Growth patterns of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional behavior, impulsivity/inattention and emotion dysregulation between school entry and early adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 817842.
Olweus, D. (1979). Stability of aggressive reaction patterns in males: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 852875. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.86.4.852
Owens, E. B., & Shaw, D. S. (2003). Predicting growth curves of externalizing behavior across the preschool years. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 575590. doi:10.1023/a:1026254005632
Patterson, G. R. (1993). Orderly change in a stable world: The antisocial trait as a chimera. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 911919.
Petersen, I. T., Bates, J. E., D'Onofrio, B. M., Coyne, C. A., Lansford, J. E., Dodge, K. A., et al. (2013). Language ability predicts the development of behavior problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 542557. doi:10.1037/a0031963
Petersen, I. T., Bates, J. E., Goodnight, J. A., Dodge, K. A., Lansford, J. E., Pettit, G. S., et al. (2012). Interaction between serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and stressful life events in adolescents' trajectories of anxious/depressed symptoms. Developmental Psychology, 48, 14631475. doi:10.1037/a0027471
Petersen, I. T., Bates, J. E., & Staples, A. D. (in press). The role of language ability and self-regulation in the development of inattentive–hyperactive behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology.
Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (1997). Supportive parenting, ecological context, and children's adjustment: A seven-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 68, 908923. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1997.tb01970.x
Pettit, G. S., Keiley, M. K., Laird, R. D., Bates, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (2007). Predicting the developmental course of mother-reported monitoring across childhood and adolescence from early proactive parenting, child temperament, and parents' worries. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 206217. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.21.2.206
Peugh, J. L. (2010). A practical guide to multilevel modeling. Journal of School Psychology, 48, 85112. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2009.09.002
Pinheiro, J., Bates, D., DebRoy, S., Sarkar, D., & the R Core team. (2009). nlme: Linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R package version 3.1-93 [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/nlme/index.html
R Development Core Team. (2009). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved from http://www.R-project.org
Reitz, E., Deković, M., & Meijer, A. (2005). The structure and stability of externalizing and internalizing problem behavior during early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 577588. doi:10.1007/s10964-005-8947-z
Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York: Wiley.
Rutter, M., & Sroufe, L. A. (2000). Developmental psychopathology: Concepts and challenges. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 265296. doi:10.1017/S0954579400003023
Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (2003). Life-course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70*. Criminology, 41, 555592. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb00997.x
Schafer, J. L. (1997). Analysis of incomplete multivariate data (Vol. 72). New York: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
Schulenberg, J. E., & Maslowsky, J. (2009). Taking substance use and development seriously: Developmentally distal and proximal influences on adolescence drug use. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 74, 121130. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5834.2009.00544.x
Sheather, S. J. (2009). A modern approach to regression with R. New York: Springer Science + Business Media.
Siegel, R. A. (1978). Probability of punishment and suppression of behavior in psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 514522. doi:10.1037/0021-843x.87.5.514
Sing, T., Sander, O., Beerenwinkel, N., & Lengauer, T. (2005). ROCR: visualizing classifier performance in R. Bioinformatics, 21, 39403941.
Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modeling change and event occurrence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sitnick, S. L., Shaw, D. S., & Hyde, L. W. (2014). Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: Testing a developmental cascade model. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 125140. doi:10.1017/S0954579413000539
Snijders, T. A. B., & Bosker, R. J. (2011). Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. London: Sage.
Stoolmiller, M. (1995). Using latent growth curve models to study developmental processes. In Gottman, J. M. (Ed.), The analysis of change (pp. 103138). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Straus, M. A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales. Journal of Marriage and Family, 41, 7588. doi:10.2307/351733
Sutton, S. (1998). Predicting and explaining intentions and behavior: How well are we doing? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 13171338. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01679.x
Underwood, B. D. (1979). Law and the crystal ball: Predicting behavior with statistical inference and individualized judgment. Yale Law Journal, 88, 14081448.
Venables, W. N., & Ripley, B. D. (2002). Modern applied statistics with S (4th ed.). New York: Springer.
Wakschlag, L. S., Gordon, R. A., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Green, S. M., & Leventhal, B. L. (2000). Maternal age at first birth and boys' risk for conduct disorder. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10, 417441.
Walters, G. D. (2011). The latent structure of life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: Is Moffitt's developmental taxonomy a true taxonomy? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 96105. doi:10.1037/a0021519
Walters, G. D. (2012). Developmental trajectories of delinquent behavior: One pattern or several? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 11921203. doi:10.1177/0093854812443645
Walters, G. D., & Ruscio, J. (2013). Trajectories of youthful antisocial behavior: Categories or continua? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 653666. doi:10.1007/s10802-012-9700-1
Walton, K., Ormel, J., & Krueger, R. (2011). The dimensional nature of externalizing behaviors in adolescence: Evidence from a direct comparison of categorical, dimensional, and hybrid models. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 553561. doi:10.1007/s10802-010-9478-y
Wechsler, D. (1974). Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.
Widaman, K. F., Ferrer, E., & Conger, R. D. (2010). Factorial invariance within longitudinal structural equation models: Measuring the same construct across time. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 1018. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00110.x
Willett, J. B., Singer, J. D., & Martin, N. C. (1998). The design and analysis of longitudinal studies of development and psychopathology in context: Statistical models and methodological recommendations. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 395426. doi:10.1017/s0954579498001667

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Petersen Supplementary Material
Tables S1-S2

 Word (71 KB)
71 KB

Describing and predicting developmental profiles of externalizing problems from childhood to adulthood

  • Isaac T. Petersen (a1), John E. Bates (a1), Kenneth A. Dodge (a2), Jennifer E. Lansford (a2) and Gregory S. Pettit (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.