Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 332
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Arpawong, Thalida E. Lee, Jinkook Phillips, Drystan F. Crimmins, Eileen M. Levine, Morgan E. and Prescott, Carol A. 2016. Effects of Recent Stress and Variation in the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Depressive Symptoms: A Repeated-Measures Study of Adults Age 50 and Older. Behavior Genetics, Vol. 46, Issue. 1, p. 72.

    Baptista, Joana Belsky, Jay Mesquita, Ana and Soares, Isabel 2016. Serotonin transporter polymorphism moderates the effects of caregiver intrusiveness on ADHD symptoms among institutionalized preschoolers. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,

    Belsky, Jay and Pluess, Michael 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.

    Black, Maureen M. Tilton, Nicholas Bento, Samantha Cureton, Pamela and Feigelman, Susan 2016. Recovery in Young Children with Weight Faltering: Child and Household Risk Factors. The Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 170, p. 301.

    Bøe, Tormod Hysing, Mari and Zachrisson, Henrik Daae 2016. Low Family Income and Behavior Problems in Norwegian Preschoolers. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, Vol. 37, Issue. 3, p. 213.

    Boyce, W Thomas 2016. Differential Susceptibility of the Developing Brain to Contextual Adversity and Stress. Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 41, Issue. 1, p. 142.

    Brüne, Martin 2016. Borderline Personality Disorder. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Vol. 2016, Issue. 1, p. 52.

    Burkhouse, Katie L. Woody, Mary L. Owens, Max McGeary, John E. Knopik, Valerie S. and Gibb, Brandon E. 2016. Sensitivity in detecting facial displays of emotion: Impact of maternal depression and oxytocin receptor genotype. Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 275.

    Bush, Nicole R. and Boyce, W. Thomas 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.

    Chaby, Lauren E. 2016. Why are there lasting effects from exposure to stress during development? An analysis of current models of early stress. Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 164, p. 164.

    Cicchetti, Dante and Toth, Sheree L. 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.

    Cicchetti, Dante 2016. Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment. Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 67, Issue. 1, p. 187.

    Cole, Pamela M. 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.

    Davies, Patrick T. Martin, Meredith J. and Sturge-Apple, Melissa L. 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.

    Del Giudice, Marco 2016. The evolutionary future of psychopathology. Current Opinion in Psychology, Vol. 7, p. 44.

    Dinsdale, Natalie Mokkonen, Mikael and Crespi, Bernard 2016. The ‘extreme female brain’: increased cognitive empathy as a dimension of psychopathology. Evolution and Human Behavior, Vol. 37, Issue. 4, p. 323.

    Dyer, W. Justin Blocker, Daniel J. Day, Randal D. and Bean, Roy A. 2016. Parenting Style and Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia. Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 78, Issue. 4, p. 1149.

    Ehrlich, Katherine B. Miller, Gregory E. and Chen, Edith 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.

    Euser, Saskia Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J. van den Bulk, Bianca G. Linting, Mariëlle Damsteegt, Rani C. Vrijhof, Claudia I. van Wijk, Ilse C. Crone, Eveline A. and van IJzendoorn, Marinus H. 2016. Efficacy of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline in Twin Families (VIPP-Twins): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychology, Vol. 4, Issue. 1,

    Fearon, R. M. Pasco Groh, Ashley M. Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J. van IJzendoorn, Marinus H. and Roisman, Glenn I. 2016. Developmental Psychopathology.


Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory

  • Bruce J. Ellis (a1), W. Thomas Boyce (a2), Jay Belsky (a3), Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (a4) and Marinus H. van Ijzendoorn (a4)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 24 January 2011

Two extant evolutionary models, biological sensitivity to context theory (BSCT) and differential susceptibility theory (DST), converge on the hypothesis that some individuals are more susceptible than others to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environmental conditions. These models contrast with the currently dominant perspective on personal vulnerability and environmental risk: diathesis stress/dual risk. We review challenges to this perspective based on emerging theory and data from the evolutionary, developmental, and health sciences. These challenges signify the need for a paradigm shift in conceptualizing Person × Environment interactions in development. In this context we advance an evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory, based on DST and BSCT, of the role of neurobiological susceptibility to the environment in regulating environmental effects on adaptation, development, and health. We then outline current thinking about neurogenomic and endophenotypic mechanisms that may underpin neurobiological susceptibility, summarize extant empirical research on differential susceptibility, and evaluate the evolutionary bases and implications of BSCT and DST. Finally, we discuss applied issues including methodological and statistical considerations in conducting differential susceptibility research; issues of ecological, cultural, and racial–ethnic variation in neurobiological susceptibility; and implications of differential susceptibility for designing social programs. We conclude that the differential susceptibility paradigm has far-reaching implications for understanding whether and how much child and adult development responds, for better and for worse, to the gamut of species-typical environmental conditions.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Bruce J. Ellis, John and Doris Norton School of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Arizona, McClelland Park, 650 North Park Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0078; E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A. Alkon , S. Lippert , N. Vujan , M. E. Rodriquez , W. T. Boyce , & B. Eskenazi (2006). The ontogeny of autonomic measures in 6- and 12-month-old infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 48, 197208.

E. Aron , & A. Aron (1997). Sensory-processing sensitivity and its relation to introversion and emotionality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 345368.

E. Aron , A. Aron , & K. M. Davies (2005). Adult shyness: The interaction of temperamental sensitivity and an adverse childhood environment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 181197.

K. H. Astrin , D. F. Bishop , J. G. Wetmur , B. Kaul , B. Davidow , & R. J. Desnick (1987). Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase isozymes and lead toxicity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 514, 2329.

M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , & M. H. van IJzendoorn (2007). Genetic vulnerability or differential susceptibility in child development: The case of attachment [Research review]. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 11601173.

M. J. Bakermans–Kranenburg , & M. H. van IJzendoorn (2010). Parenting matters: Family science in the genomic era. Family Science, 1, 2535.

M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , & M. H. van IJzendoorn (2011). Differential susceptibility to rearing environment depending on dopamine-related genes: New evidence and a meta-analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 3952.

M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , M. H. van IJzendoorn , & F. Juffer (2008). Earlier is better: A meta-analysis of 70 years of intervention improving cognitive development in institutionalized children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 73, 279293.

M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , M. H. van IJzendoorn , J. Mesman , L. R. Alink , & F. Juffer (2008). Effects of an attachment-based intervention on daily cortisol moderated by dopamine receptor D4: A randomized control trial on 1- to 3-year-olds screened for externalizing behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 805820.

M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , M. H. van IJzendoorn , F. T. A. Pijlman , J. Mesman , & F. Juffer (2008). Experimental evidence for differential susceptibility: Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) moderates intervention effects on toddlers' externalizing behavior in a randomized trial. Developmental Psychology, 44, 293300.

C. S. Barr , T. K. Newman , M. L. Becker , C. C. Parker , M. Champoux , K. P. Lesch , (2003). The utility of the non-human primate model for studying gene by environment interactions in behavioral research. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 2, 336340.

C. S. Barr , T. K. Newman , C. Shannon , C. Parker , R. L. Dvoskin , M. L. Becker , (2004). Rearing condition and rh5-HTTLPR interact to influence limbic–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response to stress in infant macaques. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 733738.

J. Belsky (1997a). Variation in susceptibility to rearing influences: An evolutionary argument. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 182186.

J. Belsky (1997b). Theory testing, effect-size evaluation, and differential susceptibility to rearing influence: The case of mothering and attachment. Child Development, 68, 598600.

J. Belsky (2000). Conditional and alternative reproductive strategies: Individual differences in susceptibility to rearing experience. In J. Rodgers , D. Rowe , & W. Miller (Eds.), Genetic influences on human fertility and sexuality: Theoretical and empirical contributions from the biological and behavioral sciences (pp. 127146). Boston: Kluwer.

J. Belsky , M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , & M. H. van IJzendoorn (2007). For better and for worse: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 300304.

J. Belsky , K. Hsieh , & K. Crnic (1998). Mothering, fathering, and infant negativity as antecedents of boys' externalizing problems and inhibition at age 3: Differential susceptibility to rearing influence? Development and Psychopathology, 10, 301319.

J. Belsky , & M. Pluess (2009a). Beyond diathesis–stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influence. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885908.

J. Belsky , & M. Pluess (2009b). The nature (and nurture?) of plasticity in early human development. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 4, 345351.

J. Belsky , C. Jonassaint , M. Pluess , M. Stanton , B. Brummett , & R. Williams (2009). Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes? Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 746754.

J. Belsky , L. Steinberg , & P. Draper (1991). Childhood experience, interpersonal development and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development, 62, 647670.

C. Blair (2002). Early intervention for low birth weight preterm infants: The role of negative emotionality in the specification of effects. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 311332.

W. T. Boyce , M. Chesney , A. Alkon , J. M. Tschann , S. Adams , B. Chesterman , (1995). Psychobiologic reactivity to stress and childhood respiratory illnesses: Results of two prospective studies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 411422.

W. T. Boyce , & B. J. Ellis (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary–developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271301.

W. T. Boyce , M. J. Essex , A. Alkon , H. H. Goldsmith , H. C. Kraemer , & D. J. Kupfer (2006). Early father involvement moderates biobehavioral susceptibility to mental health problems in middle childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 15101520.

W. T. Boyce , J. Quas , A. Alkon , N. Smider , M. Essex , & D. J. Kupfer (2001). Autonomic reactivity and psychopathology in middle childhood. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 144150.

N. N. Boutros , M. W. Torello , B. A. Barker , P. A. Tueting , S. C. Wu , & H. A. Nasrallah (1995). The P50 evoked potential component and mismatch detection in normal volunteers: Implications for the study of sensory gating. Psychiatry Research, 57, 8388.

G. H. Brody , S. R. Beach , R. A. Philibert , Y. F. Chen , & V. M. Murry (2009). Prevention effects moderate the association of 5-HTTLPR and youth risk behavior initiation: Gene × Environment hypotheses tested via a randomized prevention design. Child Development, 80, 645661.

J. B. Bubier , D. A. Drabick , & T. Breiner (2009). Autonomic functioning moderates the relations between contextual factors and externalizing behaviors among inner-city children. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 500510.

J. J. Bull (1987). Evolution of phenotypic variance. Evolution, 41, 303315.

M. Burmeister , M. G. McInnis , & S. Zollner (2008). Psychiatric genetics: Progress amid controversy. Nature Reviews Genetics, 9, 527540.

N. M. Cameron , F. A. Champagne , C. Parent , E. W. Fish , K. Osaki-Kuroda , & M. J. Meaney (2005). The programming of individual differences in defensive responses and reproductive strategies in the rat through variations in maternal care. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review, 29, 843865.

N. M. Cameron , A. Del Corpo , J. Diorio , K. Mackallister , S. Sharma , & M. J. Meaney (2008). Maternal programming of sexual behavior and hypothalamic–pituitary gonadal function in the female rat. PLoS ONE, 3, 112.

A. Caspi , J. McClay , T. Moffitt , J. Mill , J. Martin , I. Craig , (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851854.

A. Caspi , & T. E. Moffitt (2006). Gene–environment interactions in psychiatry: Joining forces with neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 583590.

A. Caspi , K. Sugden , T. E. Moffitt , A. Taylor , I. W. Craig , H. Harrington , (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5 HTT gene. Science, 301, 386389.

J. Cassidy , S. S. Woodhouse , L. J. Sherman , B. Stupica , & C. W. Lejuez (2011). Enhancing infant attachment security: An examination of treatment efficacy and differential susceptibility. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 131148.

D. L. Champagne , R. C. Bagot , F. van Hasselt , G. Ramakers , M. J. Meaney , R. E. de Kloet , (2008). Maternal care and hippocampal plasticity: Evidence for experience-dependent structural plasticity, altered synaptic functioning, and differential responsiveness to glucocorticoids and stress. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 60376045.

C. Chen , M. Burton , E. Greenberger , & J. Dmitrieva (1999). Population migration and the variation of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) allele frequencies around the globe. Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 309324.

J. S. Chisholm (1999). Death, hope and sex: Steps to an evolutionary ecology of mind and morality. New York: Cambridge University Press.

D. Cicchetti (1993). Developmental psychopathology—Reactions, reflections, projections. Developmental Review, 13, 471502.

D. Cicchetti , & N. Garmezy (1993). Prospects and promises in the study of resilience. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 497502.

A. J. Crean , & D. J. Marshall (2009). Coping with environmental uncertainty: Dynamic bet hedging as a maternal effect. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 364, 10871096.

K. Deater-Deckard , J. E. Bates , K. A. Dodge , & G. S. Pettit (1996). Physical discipline among African American and European American mothers: Links to children's externalizing behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 32, 10651072.

N. A. Dobrova-Krol , M. H. van IJzendoorn , M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , & F. Juffer (2010). Effects of perinatal HIV infection and early institutional rearing on physical and cognitive development of children in Ukraine. Child Development, 81, 237251.

A. Dopkins Stright , K. Cranley Gallagher , & K. Kelley (2008). Infant temperament moderates relations between maternal parenting in early childhood and children's adjustment in first grade. Child Development, 79, 186200.

T. C. Eley , K. Sugden , A. Corsico , A. M. Gregory , P. Sham , P. McGuffin , (2004). Gene–environment interaction analysis of serotonin system markers with adolescent depression. Molecular Psychiatry, 9, 908915.

B. J. Ellis (2004). Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: An integrated life history approach. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 920958.

B. J. Ellis , & W. T. Boyce (2008). Biological sensitivity to context. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 183187.

B. J. Ellis , M. J. Essex , & W. T. Boyce (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: II. Empirical explorations of an evolutionary–developmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 303328.

B. J. Ellis , A. J. Figueredo , B. H. Brumbach , & G. L. Schlomer (2009). Fundamental dimensions of environmental risk: The impact of harsh versus unpredictable environments on the evolution and development of life history strategies. Human Nature, 20, 204268.

B. J. Ellis , J. J. Jackson , & W. T. Boyce (2006). The stress response systems: Universality and adaptive individual differences. Developmental Review, 26, 175212.

B. J. Ellis , E. A. Shirtcliff , W. T. Boyce , J. Deardorff , & M. J. Essex (2011). Quality of early family relationships and the timing and tempo of puberty: Effects depend on biological sensitivity to context. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 8599.

M. J. Essex , J. M. Armstrong , L. R. Burk , H. H. Goldsmith , & W. T. Boyce (2011). Biological sensitivity to context moderates the effects of the early teacher–child relationship on the development of mental health by adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 149161.

A. Feder , E. J. Nestler , & D. S. Charney (2009). Psychobiology and molecular genetics of resilience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 446457.

L. Gannon , J. Banks , D. Shelton , & T. Luchetta (1989). The mediating effects of psychophysiological reactivity and recovery on the relationship between environmental stress and illness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 33, 167175.

J. Gelernter , J. F. Cubells , J. R. Kidd , A. J. Pakstis , & K. K. Kidd (1999). Population studies of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter protein gene. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 88, 6166.

P. D. Gluckman , M. A. Hanson , C. Cooper , & K. L. Thornburg (2008). Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 359, 6173.

I. I. Gottesman , & J. Shields (1967). A polygenic theory of schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 58, 199205.

M. R. Gross (1996). Alternative reproductive strategies and tactics: Diversity within sexes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 11, 9298.

M. Gunnar , & K. Quevedo (2007). The neurobiology of stress and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 145173.

M. R. Gunnar , K. Frenn , S. S. Wewerka , & M. J. Van Ryzin (2009). Moderate versus severe early life stress: Associations with stress reactivity and regulation in 10-12-year-old children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 6275.

A. R. Hariri , E. M. Drabant , K. E. Munoz , B. S. Kolachana , V. S. Mattay , M. F. Egan , (2005). A susceptibility gene for affective disorders and the response of the human amygdala. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 146152.

H. Hartmann (1958). Ego psychology and the problem of adaptation. New York: International Universities Press.

R. Hinde , & J. Stevenson-Hinde (1990). Attachment: Biological, cultural and individual desiderata. Human Development, 33, 6272.

S. B. Hrdy (1999). Mother nature: A history of mothers, infants and natural selection. New York: Pantheon.

M. Jokela , T. Lehtimaki , & L. Keltikangas-Jarvinen (2007). The serotonin receptor 2A gene moderates the influence of parental socioeconomic status on adulthood harm avoidance. Behavior Genetics, 37, 567574.

J. Kagan , J. S. Reznick , & N. Snidman (1988). Biological bases of childhood shyness. Science, 240, 167171.

J. K. Kern , M. H. Trivedi , B. D. Grannemann , C. R. Garver , D. G. Johnson , A. A. Andrews , (2007). Sensory correlations in autism. Autism, 11, 123134.

M. Klein Velderman , M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , F. Juffer , & M. H. van IJzendoorn (2006). Effects of attachment-based interventions on maternal sensitivity and infant attachment: Differential susceptibility of highly reactive infants. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 266274.

H. C. Kraemer , E. Stice , A. Kazdin , D. Offord , & D. Kupfer (2001). How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, independent, overlapping and proxy-risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 848856.

S. R. Leekam , C. Nieto , S. J. Libby , L. Wing , & J. Gould (2007). Describing the sensory abnormalities of children and adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 894910.

L. J. Lengua (2008). Anxiousness, frustration, and effortful control as moderators of the relation between parenting and adjustment in middle-childhood. Social Development, 17, 554577.

S. J. Lupien , B. S. McEwen , M. R. Gunnar , & C. Heim (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 434445.

D. T. Lykken , M. McGue , A. Tellegen , & T. J. Bouchard Jr. (1992). Emergenesis. Genetic traits that may not run in families. American Psychologist, 47, 15651577.

S. Macrì , & H. Würbel (2006). Developmental plasticity of HPA and fear responses in rats: A critical review of the maternal mediation hypothesis. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 667680.

M. Main (1990). Cross-cultural studies of attachment organization: Recent studies, changing methodologies, and the concept of conditional strategies. Human Development, 33, 4861.

S. B. Manuck (2009). The reaction norm in Gene × Environment interaction. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 881882.

J. B. Mason (2009). Folate, cancer risk, and the Greek god, Proteus: A tale of two chameleons. Nutrition Reviews, 67, 206212.

A. S. Masten , & J. Obradović (2006). Competence and resilience in development. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1094, 1327.

G. H. McClelland , & C. M. Judd (1993). Statistical difficulties in detecting interactions and moderator effects. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 376390.

D. A. McCormick , & T. Bal (1994). Sensory gating mechanisms of the thalamus. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 4, 550556.

B. S. McEwen (2007). Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: Central role of the brain. Physiological Reviews, 87, 873904.

P. O. McGowan , M. J. Meaney , & M. Szyf (2008). Diet and the epigenetic (re)programming of phenotypic differences in behavior. Brain Research, 1237, 1224.

V. C. McLoyd (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185204.

L. Mealey (1995). The sociobiology of sociopathy: An integrated evolutionary model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 523541.

W. R. Mills-Koonce , C. B. Propper , J. L. Gariepy , C. Blair , P. Garrett-Peters , & M. J. Cox (2007). Bidirectional genetic and environmental influences on mother and child behavior: The family system as the unit of analyses. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 10731087.

S. M. Monroe , & A. D. Simons (1991). Diathesis–stress theories in the context of life stress research: Implications for the depressive disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 406425.

D. Mulvihill (2005). The health impact of childhood trauma: An interdisciplinary review, 1997–2003. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 28, 115136.

M. R. Munafo , C. Durrant , G. Lewis , & J. Flint (2009). Gene × Environment interactions at the serotonin transporter locus. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 211219.

C. A. Nelson , C. H. Zeanah , N. A. Fox , P. J. Marshall , A. Smyke , & D. Guthrie (2007). Cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Science, 318, 19371940.

J. Obradović , N. R. Bush , & W. T. Boyce (2011). The interactive effect of marital conflict and stress reactivity on externalizing and internalizing symptoms: The role of laboratory stressors. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 101114.

J. Obradović , N. R. Bush , J. Stamperdahl , N. E. Adler , & W. T. Boyce (2010). Biological sensitivity to context: The interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socio-emotional behavior and school readiness. Child Development, 81, 270289.

C. T. Palmer , & C. F. Tilley (1995). Sexual access to females as a motivation for joining gangs: An evolutionary approach. Journal of Sex Research, 32, 213217.

L. Penke , J. Jaap , A. Dennissen , & G. F. Miller (2007). The evolutionary genetics of personality. European Journal of Personality, 21, 549587.

R. A. Philibert , A. Madan , A. Anderson , R. Cadoret , H. Packer , & H. Sandhu (2007). Serotonin transporter mRNA levels are associated with the methylation of an upstream CpG island. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 144B, 101105.

T. Philippi , & J. Seger (1989). Hedging one's evolutionary bets, revisited. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 4, 4144.

M. Pigliucci (2005). Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: Where are we going now? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20, 481486.

R. Plomin , & D. Daniels (1987). Why are children in the same family so different from each other? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 116.

M. Pluess , & J. Belsky (2009). Differential susceptibility to rearing experience: The case of childcare. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 396404.

M. Pluess , & J. Belsky (2010). Differential susceptibility to parenting and quality child care. Developmental Psychology, 46, 379390.

M. Pluess , & J. Belsky (2011). Prenatal programming of postnatal plasticity? Development and Psychopathology, 23, 2938.

S. D. Pollak (2008). Mechanisms linking early experience and the emergence of emotions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 370375.

J. A. Quas , A. Bauer , & W. T. Boyce (2004). Physiological reactivity, social support, and memory in early childhood. Child Development, 75, 797814.

A. C. J. Ravelli , J. H. P. van der Meulen , R. P. J. Michels , C. Osmond , D. J. P. Barker , C. N. Hales , (1998). Glucose tolerance in adults after prenatal exposure to famine. Lancet, 351, 173177.

N. Risch , R. Herrell , T. Lehner , K. Liang , L. Eaves , J. Hoh , (2009). Interaction between the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), stressful life events, and risk of depression. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301, 24622471.

D. C. Rowe (2000). Environmental and genetic influences on pubertal development: Evolutionary life history traits? In J. L. Rodgers , D. C. Rowe , & W. B. Miller (Eds.), Genetic influences on human fertility and sexuality: Recent empirical and theoretical findings (pp. 147168). Boston: Kluwer.

D. C. Rowe , A. T. Vazsonyi , & A. J. Figueredo (1997). Mating-effort in adolescence: A conditional or alternative strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 105115.

M. Rutter , L. Andersen-Wood , C. Beckett , D. Bredenkamp , J. Castle , J. Dunn , (1998). Developmental catch-up, and deficit, following adoption after severe global early privation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 465476.

M. Rutter , A. Thapar , & A. Pickles (2009). Gene–environment interactions: Biologically valid pathway or artifact? Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 12871289.

A. Sadeh , H. Guterman , M. Gersani , & O. Ovadia (2009). Plastic bet-hedging in an amphicarpic annual: An integrated strategy under variable conditions. Evolutionary Ecology, 23, 373388.

B. E. Sheese , P. M. Voelker , M. K. Rothbart , & M. I. Posner (2007). Parenting quality interacts with genetic variation in dopamine receptor D4 to influence temperament in early childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 10391046.

J. P. Shonkoff , W. T. Boyce , & B. S. McEwen (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: Building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301, 22522259.

J. Tabery (2009). From a genetic predisposition to an interactive predisposition: Rethinking the ethical implications of screening for gene–environment interactions. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 34, 2748.

S. E. Taylor , B. M. Way , W. T. Welch , C. J. Hilmert , B. J. Lehman , & N. I. Eisenberger (2006). Early family environment, current adversity, the serotonin transporter polymorphism, and depressive symptomatology. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 671676.

E. Turkheimer , & M. Waldron (2000). Nonshared environment: A theoretical, methodological, and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 78108.

R. Uher , & P. McGuffin (2008). The moderation by the serotonin transporter gene of environmental adversity in the aetiology of mental illness: Review and methodological analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 13, 131146.

R. Uher , & P. McGuffin (2010). The moderation by the serotonin transporter gene of environmental adversity in the etiology of depression: 2009 update. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 1822.

M. H. Van IJzendoorn , M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , & J. Mesman (2008). Dopamine system genes associated with parenting in the context of daily hassles. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 7, 403410.

M. H. Van IJzendoorn , K. Caspers , M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , S. R. H. Beach , & R. Philibert (2010). Methylation matters: Interaction between methylation density and 5HTT genotype predicts unresolved loss or trauma. Biological Psychiatry.

J. Van Buskirk , & R. A. Relyea (1998). Selection for phenotypic plasticity in Rana sylvatica tadpoles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 65, 301328.

J. Van Zeijl , J. Mesman , M. N. Stolk , L. R. Alink , M. H. van IJzendoorn , M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , (2007). Differential susceptibility to discipline: The moderating effect of child temperament on the association between maternal discipline and early childhood externalizing problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 626636.

T. Wachs , & M. Gandour (1983). Temperament, environment and six-month cognitive–intellectual development: A test of the organismic-specificity hypothesis. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 6, 135152.

T. D. Wachs , & R. Plomin (1991). Conceptualization and measurement of organism-environment interaction synopsis. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

I. C. Weaver , N. Cervoni , F. A. Champagne , A. C. D'Alessio , S. Sharma , J. R. Seckl , (2004). Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 847854.

C. S. Widom , & L. M. Brzustowicz (2006). MAOA and the “cycle of violence”: Childhood abuse and neglect, MAOA genotype, and risk for violent and antisocial behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 684689.

R. B. Williams , D. A. Marchuk , K. M. Gadde , J. C. Barefoot , K. Grichnik , M. J. Helms , (2003). Serotonin-related gene polymorphisms and central nervous system serotonin function. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28, 533541.

D. S. Wilson , & J. Yoshimura (1994). On the coexistence of specialists and generalists. American Naturalist, 144, 692707.

M. Wolf , G. S. van Doorn , & F. J. Weissing (2008). Evolutionary emergence of responsive and unresponsive personalities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 1582515830.

M. Zuckerman (1999). Vulnerability to psychopathology: A biosocial model. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

G. Kochanska , N. Aksan , & M. E. Joy (2007). Children's fearfulness as a moderator of parenting in early socialization. Developmental Psychology, 43, 222237.

M. H. Van IJzendoorn , M. P. C. M. Luijk , & F. Juffer (2008). IQ of children growing up in children's homes: A meta-analysis on IQ delays in orphanages. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 54, 341366.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *