AinsworthM. D. S. (1967). Infancy in Uganda: Infant care and the growth of love. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
AinsworthM. D. S., BellS. M., & StaytonD. F. (1974). Infant–mother attachment and social development: Socialization as a product of reciprocal responsiveness to signals. In Richards M. (Ed.), The integration of a child into a social world. New York: Cambridge University Press.
AinsworthM. D. S., BleharM. C., WatersE., & WallS. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
AmesE. W. (1997). Development of Romanian orphanage children adopted to Canada. Ottawa, Canada: Human Resources Development Office.
Bakermans-KranenburgM. J., SteeleH., ZeanahC. H., MuhamedrahimovR. J., VorriaP., Dobrova-KrolN. A., et al. (2011). Attachment and emotional development in institutional care: Characteristics and catch-up. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 76(Serial No. 201), 62–91.
BeckettC., BredenkampD., CastleJ., GroothuesC., O'ConnorT. G., RutterM., et al. (2002). Behavior problems associated with institutionalized deprivation: A study of children adopted from Romania. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 297–303.
BowlbyJ. (1969/82). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
BowlbyJ. (1988). A secure base: Parent–child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.
BruceJ., TarulloA. R., & GunnarM. R. (2009). Disinhibited social behavior among internationally adopted children. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 157–171. doi:10.1017/S0954579409000108
CarlsonE. A. (1998). A prospective longitudinal study of attachment disorganization/disorientation. Child Development, 69, 1107–1128. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06163.x
CarlsonE. A. (2002/2011). Attachment formation rating. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota.
CassidyJ., & MarvinR. S., with the MacArthur Working Group. (1992). Attachment organization in preschool children: Procedures and coding manual. Unpublished manuscript, University of Virginia.
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2012). Child maltreatment 2010: Summary of key findings. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Children's Bureau.
ChisholmK. (1998). A three year follow-up of attachment and indiscriminate friendliness in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Child Development, 69, 1092–1106. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06162.x
ChisholmK., CarterM. C., AmesE. W., & MorisonS. J. (1995). Attachment security and indiscriminately friendly behavior in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 283–294. doi:10.1017/s0954579400006507
CicchettiD. (2006). An ecological–transactional perspective on child maltreatment: Failure of the average expectable environment and its influence on child development. In Cicchetti D. & Cohen D. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (2nd ed., pp. 129–201). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
CicchettiD., & CarlsonV. (Eds.). (1989). Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect. New York: Cambridge University Press.
ClarkS., & SymonsD. (2000). A longitudinal study of Q-Sort attachment security and self-processes at age five. Infant and Child Development, 9, 91–104.
De BellisM. D. (2005). The psychobiology of neglect. Child Maltreatment, 10, 150–172.
Dobrova-KrolN. A., Bakermans-KranenburgM. J., van IJzendoornM. H., & JufferF. (2010). The importance of quality of care: Effects of perinatal HIV infection and early institutional rearing on preschoolers' attachment and indiscriminate friendliness. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 1368–1376. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02243.x
GjerdeP. F. (1986). The interpersonal structure of family interaction settings: Parent–adolescent relations in dyads and triads. Developmental Psychology, 22, 297–304.
GoldfarbW. (1945). Psychological privation in infancy and subsequent adjustment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 15, 247–255. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1945.tb04938.x
HarlowH. F., & SuomiS. J. (1970). Induced psychopathology in monkeys. Engineering and Sciences, 33, 8–14.
HawkB., & McCallR. B. (2010). CBCL behavior problems of post-institutionalized international adoptees. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13, 199–211. doi:10.1007/s10567-010-0068.x
HodgesJ., & TizardB. (1989). Social and family relationships of ex-institutional adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 77–97. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00770.x
InselT. R. (1997). A neurological basis of social attachment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 726–735.
Jaffari-BimmelN., JufferF., van IJzendoornM. H., Bakermans-KranenburgM. J., & MooijaartA. (2006). Social development from infancy to adolescence: Longitudinal and concurrent factors in an adoption sample. Developmental Psychology, 42, 1143–1153. doi:10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1993
JufferF., PalaciosJ., LeMareL., Sonuga-BarkeE., TiemanW., Bakermans-KranenburgM. J., et al. (2011). Development of adopted children with histories of early adversity. Monographs of the Society for Research of Child Development, 76, 31–61.
MacLeanK. (2003). The impact of institutionalization on child development. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 853–884. doi:10.1017/S0954579403000415
MainM., & HesseE. (1990). Parents' unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status: Is frightened and/or frightening parental behavior the linking mechanism? In Greenberg M. T., Cicchetti D., & Cummings E. M. (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years (pp. 161–182). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
MainM., & SolomonJ. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth strange situation. In Greenberg M. T., Cicchetti D., & Cummings E. M. (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years (pp. 121–160). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
MarcovitchS., GoldbergS., GoldA., WashingtonJ., WassonC., KrekewichK., et al. (1997). Determinants of behavioural problems in Romanian children adopted in Ontario. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 20, 17–31. doi:10.1080/016502597385414
O'ConnorT. G., MarvinR. S., RutterM., OlrickJ. T., & BritnerP. A. (2003). Child–parent attachment following early institutional deprivation. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 19–38. doi:10.1017/S0954579403000026.
ParkK. A., & WatersE. (1989). Security of attachment and preschool friendships. Child Development, 60, 1076–1081.
RutterM., ColvertE., KreppnerJ., BeckettC., CastleJ., GroothuesC., et al. (2007). Early adolescent outcomes for institutionally-deprived and non-deprived adoptees: I. Disinhibited attachment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 17–30. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01688.x
RutterM., & the ERA Study Team. (1998). Developmental catch-up, and deficit, following adoption after severe global early privation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 465–476. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00343
SmykeA. T., ZeanahC. H., FoxN. A., NelsonC. A., & GuthrieD. (2010). Placement in foster care enhances quality of attachment among young institutionalized children. Child Development, 81, 212–223. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01390.x
SroufeL. A., & WatersE. (1977). Attachment as an organizational construct. Child Development, 48, 1184–1199.
StamsG. J. M., JufferF., & van IJzendoornM. H. (2002). Maternal sensitivity, infant attachment, and temperament predict adjustment in middle childhood: The case of adopted children and their biologically unrelated parents. Developmental Psychology, 38, 806–821. doi:10.1037//0012-16188.8.131.526
SteeleM., SteeleH., JinX., ArcherM., & HerrerosF. (2009). Effects of lessening the level of deprivation in Chinese orphanage settings: Decreasing disorganization and increasing security. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, CO.
StovallK. C., & DozierM. (2000). The development of attachment in new relationships: Single subject analyses for ten foster infants. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 133–156.
Stovall-McCloughK. C., & DozierM. (2004). Forming attachments in foster care: Infant attachment behaviors during the first 2 months of placement. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 253–271. doi:10.1017/S0954579404044505
St. Petersburg–USA Orphanage Research Team. (2008). The effects of early social emotional and relationship experience on the development of young orphanage children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 73, 1–262.
SymonsD., ClarkS., IsaksenC., & MarshallJ. (1998). Stability of Q-Sort attachment security from age two to five. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 785–791.
TinbergenN. (1951/1974). The study of instinct. New York: Oxford University Press.
TizardB., & HodgesJ. (1978). The effect of early institutional rearing on the development of eight year old children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 99–118. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1978.tb00453.x
TizardB., & ReesJ. (1974). A comparison of the effects of adoption, restoration to the natural mother, and continued institutionalization on the cognitive development of four-year-old children. Child Development, 45, 92–99.
TizardB., & ReesJ. (1975). The effect of early institutional rearing on the behavior problems and affectional relationships of four-year-old children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 16, 61–73. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1975.tb01872.x
van den DriesL., JufferF., van IJzendoornM. H., & Bakermans-KranenburgM. J. (2009). Fostering security? A meta-analysis of attachment in adopted children. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 410–421. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2008.09.008
van den DriesL., JufferF., van IJzendoornM. H., Bakermans-KranenburgM. J., & AlinkL. R. A. (2012). Infants' responsiveness, attachment, and indiscriminate friendliness after international adoption from institutions or foster care in China: Application of Emotional Availability Scales to adoptive families. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 49–64. doi:10.1017/S0954579411000654
van IJzendoornM. H., & Sagi-SchwartzA. (2008). Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: Universal and contextual dimensions. In Shaver P. R. & Cassidy J. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical application (pp. 890–905). New York: Guilford Press.
van IJzendoornM. H., VereijkenC. M. J. L., Bakermans-KranenburgM. J., & Riksen-WalravenJ. M. (2004). Assessing attachment security with the Attachment Q Sort: Meta-analytic evidence for the validity of the observer AQS. Child Development, 75, 1188–1213. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00733.x
VorriaP., PapaligouraZ., DunnJ., van IJzendoornM. H., SteeleH., KontopoulouA., et al. (2003). Early experiences and attachment relationships of Greek infants raised in residential group care. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 1208–1220. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00202
VorriaP., RutterM., PicklesA., WolkindS., & HobsbaumA. (1998). A comparative study of Greek children in long-term residential group care and in two-parent families: I. Social, emotional, and behavioural differences. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 225–236. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00316
WamplerK. S., HalversonC. F.Jr., MooreJ. J., & WaltersL. H. (1989). The Georgia Family Q-Sort: An observational measure of family functioning. Family Process, 28, 223–238.
WatersE., & DeaneK. E. (1985). Defining and assessing individual differences in attachment relationships: Q-Methodology and the organization of behavior in infancy and early childhood. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50(1–2, Serial No. 209), 41–65.
WatersE., Kondo-IkemuraK., PosadaG., & RichtersJ. (1991). Learning to love: Mechanisms and milestones. In Gunnar M. & Sroufe L. A. (Eds.), Minnesota symposia on child psychology: Vol. 23. Self-processes and development (pp. 217–255). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wismer FriesA. B., & PollakS. D. (2004). Emotion understanding in postinstitutionalized Eastern European children. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 355–369. doi:10.10170S0954579404044554
ZeanahC. H., SmykeA. T., & DumitrescuA. (2002). Attachment disturbances in young children: II. Indiscriminate behavior and institutional care. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 983–989.
ZeanahC. H., SmykeA. T., KogaS. F., CarlsonE. A., & the BEIP Group. (2005). Attachment in institutionalized and community children in Romania. Child Development, 76, 1015–1528. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00894.x