Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Als, H. (1982). The unfolding of behavioral organization in the face of biological violation. In Tronick, E. Z. (Ed.), Social interchange in infancy: Affect, cognition, and communication. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.
Bakeman, R., & Brown, J. V. (1980). Early interaction: Consequences for social and mental development at three years. Child Development, 51, 437–447.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., Pijlman, F. T. A., Mesman, J., & Juffer, F. (2008). Experimental evidence for differential susceptibility: Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) moderates intervention effects on toddlers' externalizing behavior in a randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology, 44, 293–300.
Bayley, N. (1993). Manual for the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Beauchaine, T. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray's motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183–214.
Belsky, J. (1997). Variation in susceptibility to environmental influences: An evolutionary argument. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 182–186.
Belsky, J. (2005). Differential susceptibility to rearing influences: An evolutionary hypothesis and some evidence. In Ellis, B. & Bjorklund, D. (Eds.), Origins of the social mind: Evolutionary psychology and child development (pp. 139–163). New York: Guilford Press.
Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., & van IJzendoorn, M. (2007). For better and for worse: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Current Directions in Psychological Research, 16, 300–304.
Belsky, J., Hsieh, K. H., & Crnic, K. (1998). Mothering, fathering, and infant negativity as antecedents of boys' externalizing problems and inhibition at age 3 years: Differential susceptibility to rearing experience? Development and Psychopathology, 10, 301–319.
Belsky, J., Jonassaint, C., Pluess, M., Stanton, M., Brummet, B., & Williams, R. (2009). Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes? Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 746–754.
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). The nature (and nurture?) of plasticity in early human development. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 4, 345–351.
Bhutta, A. T., Cleves, M. A., Casey, P. H., Cradock, M. M., & Anand, K. J. S. (2002). Cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children who were born preterm: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 728–737.
Blair, C. (2002). Early intervention for low birth weight, preterm infants: The role of negative emotionality in the specification of effects. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 311–332.
Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78, 647–663.
Bohlin, G., Hagekull, B., & Lindhagen, K. (1981). Dimensions of infant behavior. Infant Behavior and Development, 4, 83–96.
Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.
Bradley, R., & Corwyn, R. (2008). Infant temperament, parenting, and externalizing behavior in first grade: A test of the differential susceptibility hypothesis. Journal of Child Psychology, 49, 124–131.
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature–nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101, 568–586.
Brownell, C. A., & Kopp, C. B. (Eds.). (2007). Socioemotional development in the toddler years: Transitions and transformations. New York: Guilford Press.
Burchinal, M. R., Roberts, J. E., Hooper, S., & Zeisel, S. A. (2000). Cumulative risk and early cognitive development: A comparison of statistical risk models. Developmental Psychology, 36, 793–807.
Calkins, S. D. (1994). Origins and outcomes of individual differences in emotion regulation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(Serial No. 240).
Calkins, S. D., Dedmon, S. E., Gill, K. L., Lomax, L. E., & Johnson, L. M. (2002). Frustration in infancy: Implications for emotion regulation, physiological processes, and temperament. Infancy, 3, 175–197.
Calkins, S. D., & Fox, N. A. (2002). Self-regulatory processes in early personality development: A multilevel approach to the study of childhood social withdrawal and aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 477–498.
Carey, W. B., & McDevitt, S. C. (1978). Revision of the Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Pediatrics, 61, 735–739.
Caspi, A., Henry, B., McGee, R. O., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1995). Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: From age three to age fifteen. Child Development, 66, 55–68.
Clark, C. A., Woodward, L. J., Horwood, J. L., & Moor, S. (2008). Development of emotional and behavioral regulation in children born extremely preterm and very preterm: Biological and social influences. Child Development, 79, 1444–1462.
Clark, R. (1985). The Parent–Child Early Relational Assessment. Unpublished manuscript, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Department of Psychiatry.
Clark, R. (1999). The Parent–Child Early Relational Assessment: A factorial validity study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59, 821–846.
Clark, R., Hyde, J. S., Essex, M. J., & Klein, M. H. (1997). Length of maternity leave and quality of mother–infant interactions. Child Development, 68, 364–383.
Clark, R., Paulson, A., & Conlin, S. (1993). Assessment of developmental status and parent–infant relationships: The therapeutic process of evaluation. In Zeanah, C. (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (pp. 191–209). New York: Guilford Press.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Crockenberg, S., Leerkes, E., & Barrig-Jo, P. (2008). Predicting aggressive behavior in the third year from infant reactivity and regulation as moderated by maternal behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 37–54.
Crockenberg, S. C., & Leerkes, E. M. (2006). Infant and maternal behavior moderate reactivity to novelty to predict anxious behavior at 2.5 years. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 17–34.
Cusson, R. M. (2002). Factors influencing language development in preterm infants. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 32, 402–409.
Davis, D. W., & Burns, B. (2001). Problems of self-regulation: A new way to view deficits in children born prematurely. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 22, 305–323.
DiPietro, J. A., & Allen, M. C. (1991). Estimation of gestational age: Implications for developmental research. Child Development, 62, 1184–1199.
Dopkins Stright, A., Cranley Gallagher, K., & Kelley, K. (2008). Infant temperament moderates the relations between maternal parenting in early childhood and children's adjustment in first grade. Child Development, 79, 186–200.
Eckerman, C. O., Oehler, J. M., Hannan, T. E., & Molitor, A. (1995). The development prior to term age of very prematurely born newborns' responsiveness in en face exchanges. Infant Behavior and Development, 18, 283–297.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Guthrie, I. K., & Reiser, M. (2000). Dispositional emotionality and regulation: Their role in predicting quality of social functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 136–157.
Eisenberg, N., Guthrie, I. K., Fabes, R. A., Reiser, M., Murphy, B. C., Homgren, R., et al. (1997). The relations of regulation and emotionality to resiliency and competent social functioning in elementary school children. Child Development, 68, 295–311.
Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., & Clark, R. (2003). Breastfeeding, bonding, and the mother–infant relationship. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 49, 495–517.
Feldman, R. (2006). From biological rhythms to social rhythms: Physiological precursors of mother–infant synchrony. Developmental Psychology, 42, 175–188.
Feldman, R. (2009). The development of regulatory functions from birth to 5 years: Insights from premature infants. Child Development, 80, 544–561.
Feldman, R., Greenbaum, C. W., Mayes, L. C., & Erlich, H. S. (1997). Change in mother–infant interactive behavior: Relations to change in the mother, the infant, and the social context. Infant Behavior and Development, 20, 153–165.
Feldman, R., Greenbaum, C. W., & Yirmiya, N. (1999). Infant affect synchrony as an antecedent of the emergence of self-control. Developmental Psychology, 35, 223–231.
Fox, N. A., & Calkins, S. D. (1993). Pathways to aggression and social withdrawal: Interactions among temperament, attachment, and regulation. In Rubin, K. H. & Asendorpf, J. (Eds.), Social withdrawal, shyness, and inhibition in childhood (pp. 81–100). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Goldsmith, H. H., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Schmidt, N. L., Arneson, C. L., & Schmidt, C. K. (2007). Longitudinal analyses of affect, temperament, and childhood psychopathology. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10, 118–126.
Goldsmith, H. H., & Rothbart, M. K. (1996). The laboratory temperament assessment battery (LAB-TAB). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Halsey, C. L., Collin, M. F., & Anderson, C. L. (1996). Extremely low birth weight children and their peers: A comparison of preschool performance. Pediatrics, 91, 807–811.
Hamilton, B. E., Martin, J. A., & Ventura, S. J. (2007). Births: Preliminary data for 2006. National Vital Statistics Reports, 56, 1–103.
Harris, R. C., Robinson, J. B., Chang, F., & Burns, B. M. (2007). Characterizing preschool children's attention regulation in parent–child interactions: The roles of effortful control and motivation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 25–39.
Hsu, H. C., & Jeng, S. F. (2008). Two-month-olds' attention and affective response to maternal still face: A comparison between term and preterm infants in Taiwan. Infant Behavior & Development, 31, 194–206.
Klein Velderman, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Juffer, F., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2006). Effects of attachment-based interventions on maternal sensitivity and infant attachment: Differential susceptibility of highly reactive infants. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 266–274.
Kochanska, G. (1991). Socialization and temperament in the development of guilt and conscience. Child Development, 62, 1379–1392.
Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C., & Murray, K. T. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 1091–1111.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Coy, K. C. (1997). Inhibitory control as a contributor to conscience in childhood: From toddler to early school age. Child Development, 68, 263–277.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology, 36, 220–232.
Kopp, C. B. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 199–214.
Kopp, C. B. (1989). Regulation of distress and negative emotion: A developmental view. Developmental Psychology, 25, 343–354.
Langkamp, D. L., Kim, Y., & Pascoe, J. M. (1998). Temperament of preterm infants at 4 months of age: Maternal ratings and perceptions. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 19, 391–396.
Lawson, K., & Ruff, K. (2004). Focused attention predicts outcome for children born prematurely. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 25, 399–406.
Li-Grining, C. (2007). Effortful control among low-income preschoolers in three cities: Stability, change, and individual differences. Developmental Psychology, 43, 208–221.
Luoma, L., Herrgard, E., Martikainen, A., & Ahonen, T. (1998). Speech and language development of children born at ≤32 weeks' gestation: A 5-year prospective follow-up study. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 40, 380–387.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Zoll, D., Connell, D., & Grunebaum, H. U. (1986). The depressed mother and her one-year-old infant: Environment, interaction, attachment, and infant development. New Directions for Child Development, 34, 61–82.
Martel, M. M., & Nigg, J. T. (2006). Child ADHD and personality/temperament traits of reactive and effortful control, resiliency, and emotionality. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 1175–1183.
Martin, J. A. (1981). A longitudinal study of the consequences of early mother–infant interaction: A microanalytic approach. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 46(Serial No. 190), 1–58.
Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., Sutton, P. D., Ventura, S. J., Menacker, F., & Kirmeyer, S. (2006). Births: Final data for 2004. National Vital Statistics Reports, 55, 1–101.
McGrath, J. M., Records, K., & Rice, M. (2008). Maternal depression and infant temperament characteristics. Infant Behavior and Development, 31, 71–80.
Miles, M. S., Holditch-Davis, D., Schwartz, T. A., & Scher, M. (2007). Depressive symptoms in mothers of prematurely born infants. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 28, 36–44.
Murray, K. T., & Kochanska, G. (2002). Effortful control: Factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 503–514.
Park, S. Y., Belsky, J., Putnam, S., & Crnic, K. (1997). Infant emotionality, parenting, and 3-year inhibition: Exploring stability and lawful discontinuity in a male sample. Developmental Psychology, 33(22), 218–227.
Pedhazur, E., & Schmelkin, L. (1991). Measurement, design and analysis: An integrated approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2009). Differential susceptibility to rearing experience: The case of childcare. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 396–404.
Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2010). Differential susceptibility to parenting and quality child care. Developmental Psychology, 46, 379–390.
Poehlmann, J., Schwichtenberg, A. J. M., Shah, P., Shlafer, R., Hahn, E., & Maleck, S. J. (2010). The development of effortful control in children born preterm. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 522–536.
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427–441.
Pridham, K., Lin, C., & Brown, R. (2001). Mothers' evaluation of their caregiving for premature and full-term infants through the first year: Contributing factors. Research in Nursing & Health, 24, 157–169.
Pridham, K. F., Brown, R., Clark, R., Sondel, S., & Green, C. (2002). Infant and caregiving factors affecting weight-for-age and motor development of full-term and premature infants at 1 year post-term. Research in Nursing & Health, 25, 394–410.
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 3, 385–401.
Roberts, B. L., Marlow, N., & Cooke, R. W. (1989). Motor problems among children of very low birthweight. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52, 97–99.
Rosario, R. M., Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2005). The development of executive attention: Contributions to the emergence of self-regulation. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28, 573–594.
Rothbart, M., & Bates, J. (2006). Temperament. In Eisenberg, N., Damon, W., & Richard, L. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 99–166). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Rothbart, M. K. (1981). Measurement of infant temperament. Child Development, 52, 569–578.
Rothbaum, F., & Weisz, J. R. (1994). Parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior in nonclinical samples: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 55–74.
Saint Anne Dargassies, S. (1975). Long-term neurological study of 286 truly premature infants. Revue De Neuropsychiatrie Infantile et d'Hygiene Mentale De L'Enfrance, 23, 741–802.
Sajaniemi, N., Makela, J., Saolkorpi, T., von Wendt, L., Hamalainen, T., & Hakamies-Blomqvist, L. (2001). Cognitive performance and attachment patterns at four years of age in extremely low birth weight infants after early intervention. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 10, 122–129.
Sameroff, A. J., Bartko, W. T., Baldwin, A., Baldwin, C., & Seifer, R. (1998). Family and social influences on the development of child competence. In Lewis, M. & Feiring, C. (Eds.), Families, risk, and competence. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Stayton, D. J., Hogan, R., & Ainsworth, M. S. S. (1971). Infant obedience and maternal behavior: The origins of socialization reconsidered. Child Development, 42, 1057–1069.
Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Van den Boom, D. C. (1994). The influence of temperament and mothering on attachment and exploration: An experimental manipulation of sensitive responsiveness among lower class mothers with irritable infants. Child Development, 65, 1457–1477.
Van de Weijer-Bergsma, E. V., Wijnroks, L., & Jongmans, M. J. (2008). Attention development in infants and preschool children born preterm: A review. Infant Behavior & Development, 31, 333–351.
Vincer, M. J., Allen, A. C., Joseph, K. S., Stinson, D. A., Scott, H., & Wood, E. (2006). Increasing prevalence of cerebral palsy among very preterm infants: A population-based study. Pediatrics, 118, 1621–1626.
Wilson-Costello, D., Friedman, H., Minich, N., Fanaroff, A. A., & Hack, M. (2005). Improved survival rates with increased neurodevelopment disability for extremely low birth weight infants in the 1990s. Pediatrics, 115, 997–1003.
Yu, J. W., Buka, S. L., McCormick, M. C., Fitzmaurice, G. M., & Indurkhya, A. (2006). Behavioral problems and the effects of early intervention on eight-year-old children with learning disabilities. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 10, 329–338.