Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Emotion regulation processes linking peer victimization to anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence

  • Molly Adrian (a1), Jessica L. Jenness (a1), Kevin S. Kuehn (a2), Michele R. Smith (a2) and Katie A. McLaughlin (a3)...

Abstract

Difficulties with emotion regulation can take many forms, including increased sensitivity to emotional cues and habitual use of maladaptive cognitive or behavioral regulation strategies. Despite extensive research on emotion regulation and youth adjustment, few studies integrate multiple measures of emotion regulation. The present study evaluated the underlying structure of emotion regulation processes in adolescence using both task- and survey-based measures and determined whether differences in these emotion regulation latent factors mediated the association between peer victimization and internalizing psychopathology. Adolescents aged 16–17 years (n = 287; 55% female; 42% White) recruited in three urban centers in the United States completed baseline and follow-up assessments 4 months apart. Three models of emotion regulation were evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis. A three-factor model fit the data best, including cognitive regulation, behavioral regulation, and emotional reactivity latent factors. Task-based measures did not load onto these latent factors. Difficulties with behavioral regulation mediated the association between peer victimization and depression symptoms, whereas cognitive regulation difficulties mediated the association with anxiety symptoms. Findings point to potential targets for intervention efforts to reduce risk for internalizing problems in adolescents following experiences of peer victimization.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Molly Adrian, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, 6200 NE 74th St., Ste. 110, Seattle, WA 98115; E-mail: adriam@uw.edu

References

Hide All
Abela, J. R. Z., Brozina, K., & Haigh, E. P. (2002). An examination of the response styles theory of depression in third- and seventh-grade children: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 515527. doi:10.1023/A:1019873015594
Abela, J. R. Z., & Hankin, B. L. (2011). Rumination as a vulnerability factor to depression during the transition from early to middle adolescence: A multiwave longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 259271. doi:10.1037/a0022796
Adrian, M., & Berk, M. (2018). Behavioral assessment of emotion dysregulation. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Crowell, S. E. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of emotion dysregulation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Aldao, A., Gee, D. G., Reyes, A. D. L., & Seager, I. (2016). Emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic factor in the development of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology: Current and future directions. Development and Psychopathology, 28(4, Pt. 1), 927946. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000638
Beauchaine, T. P. (2015). Future directions in emotion dysregulation and youth psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44, 875896. doi:10.1080/15374416.2015.1038827
Berg, J. M., Latzman, R. D., Bliwise, N. G., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2015). Parsing the heterogeneity of impulsivity: A meta-analytic review of the behavioral implications of the UPPS for psychopathology. Psychological Assessment, 27, 11291146. doi:10.1037/pas0000111
Carver, C. S., Johnson, S. L., & Joormann, J. (2008). Serotonergic function, two-mode models of self-regulation, and vulnerability to depression: What depression has in common with impulsive aggression. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 912.
Carver, C. S., Johnson, S. L., & Timpano, K. R. (2017). Toward a functional view of the p factor in psychopathology. Clinical Psychological Science, 5, 880889.
Cicchetti, D., Ackerman, B. P., & Izard, C. E. (1995). Emotions and emotion regulation in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 110. doi:10.1017/S0954579400006301
Cole, P. M., Hall, S. E., & Hajal, N. J. (2017). Emotion dysregulation as a vulnerability to psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (3rd ed., pp. 346386). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Compas, B. E., Jaser, S. S., Bettis, A. H., Watson, K. H., Gruhn, M. A., Dunbar, J. P., … Thigpen, J. C. (2017). Coping, emotion regulation, and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analysis and narrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 939991. doi:10.1037/bul0000110
Daughters, S. B., Sargeant, M. N., Bornovalova, M. A., Gratz, K. L., & Lejuez, C. W. (2008). The relationship between distress tolerance and antisocial personality disorder among male inner-city treatment seeking substance users. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22, 509524.
Deater-Deckard, K. (2001). Annotation: Recent research examining the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42, 565579. doi:10.1017/S0021963001007272
Doyle, S. T., & Sullivan, T. N. (2017). Longitudinal relations between peer victimization, emotion dysregulation, and internalizing symptoms among early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 37, 165191. doi:10.1177/0272431615594458
Egner, T., Etkin, A., Gale, S., & Hirsch, J. (2008). Dissociable neural systems resolve conflict from emotional versus nonemotional distracters. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 14751484. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm179
Enkavi, A. Z., Eisenberg, I. W., Bissett, P. G., Mazza, G. L., Mackinnon, D. P., & Marsch, L. A. (2019). A large-scale analysis of test-retest reliabilities of self-regulation measures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 116, 54725477. doi:10.31234/osf.io/x5pm4
Etkin, A., Egner, T., Peraza, D. M., Kandel, E. R., & Hirsch, J. (2006). Resolving emotional conflict: A role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron, 51, 112.
Etkin, A., & Schatzberg, A. F. (2011). Common abnormalities and disorder-specific compensation during implicit regulation of emotional processing in generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 968978.
Fang, A., & Asnaani, A. (2012). Emotion dysregulation model of mood and anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 409416.
Gronwall, D. M. A. (1977). Paced Auditory Serial-Addition Task: A measure of recovery from concussion. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 44, 367373. doi:10.2466/pms.1977.44.2.367
Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271299. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271
Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39(3), 281291.
Gross, J. J. (2014). Emotion regulation: Conceptual and empirical foundations. In Gross, J. J. (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed., pp. 320). New York: Guilford Press.
Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In Gross, J. J. (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation. New York: Guilford Press.
Gyurak, A., Gross, J. J., & Etkin, A. (2011). Explicit and implicit emotion regulation: A dual-process framework. Cognition & Emotion, 25, 400412. doi:10.1080/02699931.2010.544160
Hawker, D. S. J., & Boulton, M. J. (2000). Twenty years’ research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: A meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 441455. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00629
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Hedge, C., Powell, G., & Sumner, P. (2018). The reliability paradox: Why robust cognitive tasks do not produce reliable individual differences. Behavior Research Methods, 50, 11661186. doi:10.3758/s13428-017-0935-1
Holdwick, D. J., & Wingenfeld, S. A. (1999). The subjective experience of PASAT testing. Does the PASAT induce negative mood? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 14, 273284.
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Journal of Business Research Methods, 6, 5360.
Hunsley, J., & Meyer, G. J. (2003). The incremental validity of psychological testing and assessment: conceptual, methodological, and statistical issues. Psychological assessment, 15(4), 446.
Iverson, K. M., Follette, V. M., Pistorello, J., & Fruzzetti, A. E. (2012). An investigation of experiential avoidance, emotion dysregulation, and distress tolerance in young adult outpatients with borderline personality disorder symptoms. Personality Disorders, 3, 415422. doi:10.1037/a0023703
Jacob, M. L., Suveg, C., & Whitehead, M. R. (2014). Relations between emotional and social functioning in children with anxiety disorders. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 45(5), 519532.
Jankowski, K. F., Batres, J., Scott, H., Smyda, G., Pfeifer, J. H., & Quevedo, K. (2018). Feeling left out: Depressed adolescents may atypically recruit emotional salience and regulation networks during social exclusion. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 13, 863876.
Kashdan, T. B., & Rottenberg, J. (2010). Psychological flexibility as a fundamental aspect of health. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 865878.
Kim, J., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Longitudinal pathways linking child maltreatment, emotion regulation, peer relations, and psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 706716.
Kim-Spoon, J., Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2013). A longitudinal study of emotion regulation, emotion lability-negativity, and internalizing symptomatology in maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Child development, 84(2), 512527.
King, K. M., Feil, M. C., & Halvorson, M. A. (2018). Negative urgency is correlated with the use of reflexive and disengagement emotion regulation strategies. Clinical Psychological Science, 6, 822834. doi:10.1177/2167702618785619
King, K. M., McLaughlin, K. A., Silk, J., & Monahan, K. C. (2018). Peer effects on self-regulation in adolescence depend on the nature and quality of the peer interaction. Development and Psychopathology, 30, 13891401. doi:10.1017/S0954579417001560
Klemanski, D. H., Curtiss, J., McLaughlin, K. A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2017). Emotion regulation and the transdiagnostic role of repetitive negative thinking in adolescents with social anxiety and depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41, 206219. doi:10.1007/s10608-016-9817-6
Kovacs, M. (1992). Children's Depression Inventory. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.
Kring, A. M., & Sloan, D. M. (2009). Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.
Lambert, H. K., King, K. M., Monahan, K. C., & Mclaughlin, K. A. (2017). Differential associations of threat and deprivation with emotion regulation and cognitive control in adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 929940. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000584
Lejuez, C., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). A modified computer version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) as a laboratory-based stressor. Behavior Therapist, 26, 290293.
Leyro, T. M., Zvolensky, M. J., & Bernstein, A. (2010). Distress tolerance and psychopathological symptoms and disorders: A review of the empirical literature among adults. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 576600. doi:10.1037/a0019712
MacLeod, C. M. (1991). Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: an integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 109(2), 163.
Mahady Wilton, M. M., Craig, W. M., & Pepler, D. J. (2000). Emotional regulation and display in classroom victims of bullying: Characteristic expressions of affect, coping styles and relevant contextual factors. Social Development, 9, 226245. doi:10.1111/1467-9507.00121
March, J. (1997). Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children. Toronto: Multihealth Systems.
McHugh, R. K., Daughters, S. B., Lejuez, C. W., Murray, H. W., Hearon, B. A., Gorka, S. M., & Otto, M. W. (2011). Shared variance among self-report and behavioral measures of distress intolerance. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 266275.
McLaughlin, K. A., Garrad, M. C., & Somerville, L. H. (2015). What develops during emotional development? A component process approach to identifying sources of psychopathology risk in adolescence. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 17, 403410.
McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Hilt, L. M. (2009). Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking peer victimization to internalizing symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 894904. doi:10.1037/a0015760
McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Mennin, D. S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: A prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 544554. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2011.06.003
McLaughlin, K. A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Rumination as a transdiagnostic factor in depression and anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(3), 186193.
Michl, L. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Shepherd, K., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2013). Rumination as a mechanism linking stressful life events to symptoms of depression and anxiety: Longitudinal evidence in early adolescents and adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 339.
Miller, A. B., Prinstein, M. J., Munier, E., Machlin, L. S., & Sheridan, M. A. (2018). Emotion reactivity and regulation in adolescent girls following an interpersonal rejection. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 31, 249261. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_01351
Morelen, D., Southam-Gerow, M., & Zeman, J. (2016). Child emotion regulation and peer victimization: The moderating role of child sex. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 19411953. doi:10.1007/s10826-016-0360-6
Moyal, N., Henik, A., & Anholt, G. E. (2014). Cognitive strategies to regulate emotions-current evidence and future directions. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 1019. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.01019
Naragon-Gainey, K., McMahon, T. P., & Chacko, T. P. (2017). The structure of common emotion regulation strategies: A meta-analytic examination. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 384427. doi:10.1037/bul0000093
Nock, M. K., Wedig, M. M., Holmberg, E. B., & Hooley, J. M. (2008). The emotion reactivity scale: Development, evaluation, and relation to self-injurious thoughts and behaviors. Behavior Therapy, 39, 107116. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2007.05.005
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 504511.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Stice, E., Wade, E., & Bohon, C. (2007). Reciprocal relations between rumination and bulimic, substance abuse, and depressive symptoms in female adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 198207.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400424.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Watkins, E. R. (2011). A heuristic for developing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology: Explaining multifinality and divergent trajectories. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(6), 589609.
Olatunji, B. O., Naragon-Gainey, K., & Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B. (2013). Specificity of rumination in anxiety and depression: A multimodal meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 20, 225257. doi:10.1111/cpsp.12037
Pine, D. S., Cohen, P., & Brook, J. S. (2001). Emotional reactivity and risk for psychopathology among adolescents. CNS Spectrums, 6, 2735.
Prinstein, M. J., Boergers, J., & Vernberg, E. M. (2001). Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: Social–psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 479491. doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3004_05
Rosen, P. J., Milich, R., & Harris, M. J. (2012). Dysregulated negative emotional reactivity as a predictor of chronic peer victimization in childhood. Aggressive Behavior, 38, 414427.
Rosseel, Y. (2012). lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 136.
Rouder, J. N., & Haaf, J. M. (2018). A psychometrics of individual differences in experimental tasks. PsyArXiv. doi:10.31234/osf.io/f3h2k
Rudolph, K. D., Miernicki, M. E., Troop-Gordon, W., Davis, M. M., & Telzer, E. H. (2016). Adding insult to injury: Neural sensitivity to social exclusion is associated with internalizing symptoms in chronically peer-victimized girls. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11, 829842.
Rudolph, K. D., Troop-Gordon, W., & Granger, D. A. (2011). Individual differences in biological stress responses moderate the contribution of early peer victimization to subsequent depressive symptoms. Psychopharmacology, 214, 209219.
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147177.
Schloss, H. M., & Haaga, D. A. F. (2011). Interrelating behavioral measures of distress tolerance with self-reported experiential avoidance. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 29, 5363. doi:10.1007/s10942-011-0127-3
Schoeler, T., Duncan, L., Cecil, C. M., Ploubidis, G. B., & Pingault, J.-B. (2018). Quasi-experimental evidence on short- and long-term consequences of bullying victimization: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 144, 12291246. doi:10.1037/bul0000171
Schwartz, D. (2000). Subtypes of victims and aggressors in children's peer groups. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 181192.
Schwartz, D., & Proctor, L. J. (2000). Community violence exposure and children's social adjustment in the school peer group: The mediating roles of emotion regulation and social cognition. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 670683.
Settles, R. E., Fischer, S., Cyders, M. A., Combs, J. L., Gunn, R. L., & Smith, G. T. (2012). Negative urgency: A personality predictor of externalizing behavior characterized by neuroticism, low conscientiousness, and disagreeableness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 160172. doi:10.1037/a0024948
Shapero, B. G., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B. (2016). Emotional reactivity and internalizing symptoms: Moderating role of emotion regulation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40, 328340. doi:10.1007/s10608-015-9722-4
Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Parental maltreatment and emotion dysregulation as risk factors for bullying and victimization in middle childhood. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 30, 349363.
Shields, A., Ryan, R. M., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Narrative representations of caregivers and emotion dysregulation as predictors of maltreated children's rejection by peers. Developmental Psychology, 37, 321337.
Smith, G. T., & Cyders, M. A. (2016). Integrating affect and impulsivity: The role of positive and negative urgency in substance use risk. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 163(Suppl. 1), S3S12. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.08.038
Sobanski, E., Banaschewski, T., Asherson, P., Buitelaar, J., Chen, W., Franke, B., … Stringaris, A. (2010). Emotional lability in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): clinical correlates and familial prevalence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(8), 915923.
Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(6), 643.
Stroud, L. R., Foster, E., Papandonatos, G. D., Handwerger, K., Granger, D. A., Kivlighan, K. T., & Niaura, R. (2009). Stress response and the adolescent transition: Performance versus peer rejection stressors. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 4768. doi:10.1017/S0954579409000042
Thompson, R. A. (2001). Childhood anxiety disorders from the perspective of emotion regulation. In Vasey, M. W. & Dadds, M. R. (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 160182). New York: Oxford University Press.
Tombaugh, T. N. (2006). A comprehensive review of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21, 5376. doi:10.1016/j.acn.2005.07.006
Tone, E., Garn, C. L., & Pine, D. S. (2016). Anxiety regulation: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In Cicchetti, D. (Ed.), Developmental psychopathology (3rd ed., Vol. 2). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Weafer, J., Baggott, M. J., de Wit, H., & de Wit, H. (2013). Test-retest reliability of behavioral measures of impulsive choice, impulsive action, and inattention. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 21, 475481. doi:10.1037/a0033659
Zapolski, T. C. B., Stairs, A. M., Settles, R. F., Combs, J. L., & Smith, G. T. (2010). The measurement of dispositions to rash action in children. Assessment, 17, 116125. doi:10.1177/1073191109351372

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Adrian et al. supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (32 KB)
32 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed