Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Gaze behavior in autism

  • Fred R. Volkmar (a1) and Linda C. Mayes (a1)

Abstract

Gaze behavior was assessed in 20 autistic individuels and in an age- and mental-age-matched mentally retarded control group. A time-sample technique was used to collect frequency of gaze directed at staff, at task, and elsewhere (at other) in familiar educational settings as subjects interacted with familiar staff and engaged in familiar educational activities. Gaze behaviors were sampled in each of three interactional conditions defined by staff-subject ratio. Significant effects of the intensity of the interactional condition were observed for both groups. Overall autistic subjects were more likely to look elsewhere than the matched control cases and looked less at staff during one-to-one interaction. Relationships to age, developmental level, and other measures are discussed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address reprint requests to: Dr. Volkmar, Yale Child Study Center, P.O. Box 3333, New Haven, CT 06510.

References

Hide All
Bullowa, M. (Ed.) (1979). Before speech: The beginnings of interpersonal communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Churchill, D., & Bryson, C. Q. (1972). Looking and approach behavior of psychotic and normal children as a function of adult attention or preoccupation. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 13, 171177.
Cicchetti, D. V., & Sparrow, S. A. (1981). Developing criteria for establishing interrater reliability of specific items: Applications to the assessment of adaptive behavior. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 86, 127137.
Clark, P., & Rutter, M. (1981). Autistic children's responses to structure and to interpersonal demands. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 11, 201217.
Dawson, G., & Lewy, A. (1989). Arousal, attention, and the socioemotional impairments of individuals with autism. In Dawson, G. (Ed.), Autism: Nature, diagnosis, and treatment. New York: Guilford.
Fleiss, J. L. (1975). Measuring agreement between two judges on the presence or absence of a trait. Biometrics, 31, 651659.
Garvey, C., & Hogan, R. (1973). Social speech and social interaction. Egocentrism revisited. Child Development, 44, 562568.
Hermelin, B., & O'Conner, N. (1970). Psychological experiments with autistic children. Oxford: Pergamon.
Hobson, R. P. (1987). The autistic child's recognition of age- and sex-related characteristics of people. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 6379.
Hutt, C., & Hutt, S. J. (1976). Stereotypes and their relation to arousal: A study of autistic children. In Hutt, C. & Hutt, S. J. (Eds.), Behavior studies in psychiatry. New York: Pergamon.
Hutt, C., & Ounsted, C. (1966). The biological significance of gaze aversion with particular reference to the syndrome of infantile autism. Behavioral Science, 11, 346356.
Jennings, W. B. (1973). A study of the preference for affective cues in autistic children. Dissertation Abstract International, 743777.
Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 227250.
Kaye, K., & Fogel, A. (1980). The temporal structure of face-to-face communication between mother, and infants. Developmental Psychology, 16, 454464.
Kleinke, C. L. (1986). Gaze and eye contact: A research review. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 78100.
Krantz, M., George, S. W., and Hursh, K. (1983). Gaze and mutual gaze of preschool children in conversation. The Journal of Psychology, 113, 915.
Krug, D. A., Arick, J., & Almond, P. (1980). Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 221229.
Langdell, T. (1978). Recognition of faces: An approach to the study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 255268.
Lytton, H. (1973). Three approaches to the study of parent–child interaction: Ethological, interview, and experimental. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 14, 117.
Mayes, L. C., & Carter, A. S. (in press). Emerging social-regulatory capacities as seen in the still face situation. Child Development.
Messer, D. J., & Vietze, P. M. (1984). Timing and transitions in mother–infant gaze. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 167181.
Mirenda, P. L., Donnellan, A. M., & Yoder, D. E. (1983). Gaze behavior: A new look at an old problem. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 13, 397409.
Mueller, E. (1972). The maintenance of verbal exchanges between young children. Child Development, 43, 930938.
O'Conner, N., & Hermelin, B. (1967). The selective visual attention of autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 8, 167179.
Ornitz, E. M., Guthrie, D., & Farley, A. H. (1977). The early development of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 7, 207229.
Rutter, D. R., & Durkin, K. (1987). Turn-taking in mother–infant interaction: An examination of vocalizations and gaze. Developmental Psychology, 25, 5461.
Rutter, M. (1978). Diagnosis and definition. In Rutter, M. & Schopler, E. (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum.
Schaffer, H. R., Collins, G. M., & Parsons, G. (1977). Vocal interchange and visual regard in verbal and preverbal children. In Schaffer, H. R. (Ed.), Studies in mother–infant interaction. London: Academic.
Sigman, M., Mundy, P., Sherman, T., & Ungerer, J. (1986). Social interactions of autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children and their caregivers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 647656.
Sparrow, S., Balla, D., & Cicchetti, D. (1984). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Tinbergen, E. A., & Tinbergen, N. (1972). Early childhood autism: An ethological approach. Journal of Comparative Ethology (Suppl. 10).
Volkmar, F. R. (1987). Social Development. In Cohen, D. & Donnelan, A. (Eds.), Handbook of autism. New York: Wiley.
Volkmar, F. R., Hoder, E. L., & Cohen, D. J. (1985). Compliance, “negativism,” and the effects of treatment structure in autism: A naturalistic, behavioral study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 865877.
Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. S., Goudreau, D., Cicchetti, D. V. et al. , (1987). Social deficits in autism: An operational approach using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 156161.
Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. S., Rende, R. D., & Cohen, D. J. (1989). Facial perception in autism—An experimental study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 591598.
Wing, L. (1976). Early childhood autism. New York: Pergamon.
Winer, B. J. (1971). Statistical principles in experimental design. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed