Skip to main content

Incorporating hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis measures into preventive interventions for adolescent depression: Are we there yet?

  • Emma K. Adam (a1), Jonathan M. Sutton (a1), Leah D. Doane (a1) and Susan Mineka (a1)

Altered functioning of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is a robust correlate of major depression in adults, and to a lesser extent, in adolescents. Premorbid differences in HPA axis function have been found to prospectively predict the onset of adolescent depression. To what extent might our knowledge of HPA axis function in adolescents with, or at risk for, depression, help guide efforts to prevent depression in this age group? We review evidence regarding the role of the HPA axis in the development of adolescent depression, and examine whether and which HPA axis measures might be useful in guiding prevention efforts as (a) as a criterion by which to select youth at risk for depression, (b) as a predictor of which youth will be most responsive to prevention efforts, and (c) as an indicator of whether prevention/intervention efforts are working. We conclude that our current understanding of the HPA axis, and its measurement, in adolescent depression are not sufficiently precise to be of immediate practical use in improving prevention efforts. Incorporating HPA axis measures into prevention studies, however, would be immensely useful in clarifying the role of the HPA axis in adolescent depression, such that future prevention efforts might more confidently rely on HPA axis information.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Emma K. Adam, Program on Human Development and Social Policy, School of Education and Social Policy and Cells to Society Center, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, 2120 Campus Drive, Room 201, Evanston, IL 60208; E-mail:
Hide All

This research was supported by Grant R01 MH65652 (Richard E. Zinbarg, Susan Mineka, Michelle G. Craske, Principal Investigators) and by a William T. Grant Foundation Scholars Award (to E.K.A.). The writing of this manuscript was supported by a Scholars Award (to E.K.A.) and by an Institute for Policy Research Graduate Fellowship (to L.D.D.). We thank Jennifer Cueto for her assistance with the editing of this manuscript and the participants of the Youth Emotion Project/Sleep and Stress Study.

Hide All
Abramson, L. Y., Alloy, L. B., Hankin, B. L., Haeffel, G. J., MacCoon, D. G., & Gibb, B. E. (2002). Cognitive vulnerability-stress models of depression in self-regulatory and psychobiological context. In Gotlieb, I. H. & Hammen, C. L. (Eds.), Handbook of depression (pp. 268294). New York: Guilford Press.
Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358372.
Adam, E. K. (2006). Transactions among adolescent trait and state emotion and diurnal and momentary cortisol activity in naturalistic settings. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 664679.
Adam, E. K., Doane, L. D., Mendelsohn, K. A., Griffith, J. W., Mineka, S., Zinbarg, R., et al. . (2007). Diurnal cortisol patterns, stressful life events, momentary negative emotion and the development of emotional disorders in late adolescents. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston.
Adam, E. K., Hawkley, L. C., Kudielka, B. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2006). Day-to-day dynamics of experience–cortisol associations in a population-based sample of older adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 1705817063.
Adam, E. K., Klimes-Dougan, B., & Gunnar, M. R. (2007). Social regulation of the adrenocortical response to stress in infants, children and adolescents: Implications for psychopathology and education. In Coch, D., Dawson, G., & Fischer, K. (Eds.), Human behavior, learning, and the developing brain: Atypical development (pp. 264304). New York: Guilford Press.
Angold, A. (2003). Adolescent depression, cortisol, and DHEA. Psychological Medicine, 33, 573581.
Antonijevic, I. A. (2006). Depressive disorders—Is it time to endorse different pathophysiologies? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 115.
Arnarson, E. Ö., & Craighead, W. E. (2006, October). Prevention of depression among Icelandic adolescents. Paper presented at the Prevention of Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents Symposium, Fourth World Conference: The Promotion of Mental Health and Prevention of Mental and Behavioural DisordersOslo.
Beck, A. T. (1987). Cognitive models of depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1, 538.
Birmaher, B., & Heydl, P. (2001). Biological studies in depressed children and adolescents. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 4, 149157.
Bremner, J. D. (2000). Hippocampal volume reduction in major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 115117.
Bremner, J. D., & Vermetten, E. (2001). Stress and development: Behavioral and biological consequences. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 473489.
Broderick, J. E., Arnold, D., Kudielka, B. M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2004). Salivary cortisol sampling compliance: Comparison of patients and healthy volunteers. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 636650.
Burke, J. D., Burke, K. C., & Rae, D. S. (1994). Increased rates of substance abuse and dependence after onset of mood or anxiety disorders in adolescence. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45, 451455.
Burke, K. C., Burke, J. D., Regier, D. A., & Rae, D. S. (1990). Age of onset of selected mental disorders in five community populations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 511518.
Chrousos, G. P., & Gold, P. W. (1992). The concepts of stress and stress system disorders. Overview of physical and behavioral homeostasis. Journal of American Medical Association, 267, 12441252.
Clarke, G. N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M., Sheeber, L. B., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1995). Targeted prevention of unipolar depressive disorder in an at-risk sample of high school adolescents: A randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 312321.
Clarke, G. N., Hornbrook, M., Lynch, F., Polen, M., Gale, J., & Beardslee, W. (2001). A randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention for preventing depression in adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 11271134.
Clow, A., Thorn, L., Evans, P., & Hucklebridge, F. (2004). The awakening cortisol response: Methodological issues and significance. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 7, 2937.
Colomina, M. T., Canals, J., Carbajo, G., & Domingo, J. L. (1997). Salivary cortisol in a young population: Relation with psychopathological disorders. Research Communications in Biological Psychology and Psychiatry, 22, 110.
Compas, B. E., Connor-Smith, J., & Jaser, S. (2004). Temperament, stress reactivity, and coping: Implications for depression in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 33, 2131.
Costello, E. J., Pine, D. S., Hammen, C., March, J. S., Plotsky, P. M., Weissman, M. M., et al. (2002). Development and natural history of mood disorders. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 529542.
Dahl, R. E. (2002). The regulation of sleep–arousal, affect, and attention in adolescence: Some questions and speculations. In Carskadon, M. A. (Ed.), Adolescent sleep patterns: Biological, social and psychological influences (pp. 269284). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dahl, R. E., Ryan, N., Puig-Antich, J., Nguyen, N., Al-Shabbout, M., Meyer, V., & Perel, J. (1991). 24-Hour cortisol measures in adolescents with major depression: A controlled study. Biological Psychiatry, 30, 2536.
Dahl, R. E., & Ryan, N. D. (1996). The psychobiology of adolescent depression. In Cicchetti, D. & Toth, S. L. (Eds.), Adolescence: Opportunities and challenges. Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology (Vol. 7, pp. 197232). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
de Kloet, E. R. (1991). Brain corticosteroid receptor balance and homeostatic control. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 12, 95164.
de Kloet, E. R., & Derijk, R. (2004). Signaling pathways in brain involved in predisposition and pathogenesis of stress-related disease: Genetic and kinetic factors affecting the MR/GR balance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 1434.
de Kloet, E. R., Joels, M., & Holsboer, F. (2005). Stress and the brain: From adaptation to disease. Nature Neuroscience Reviews, 6, 463475.
de Kloet, E. R., Vreugdenhil, E., Oitzl, M., & Joels, A. (1998). Brain corticosteroid receptor balance in health and disease. Endocrine Reviews, 19, 269301.
Depue, R. A., & Iacono, W. G. (1989). Neurobehavioral aspects of affective disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 10, 457492.
Doane, L. D., Adam, E. K., Mineka, S., Zinbarg, R., & Craske, M. (2008). Flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms as a scar marker of past depressive episodes in a community sample of adolescents. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Lindhiem, O., Gordon, M. K., Manni, M., Sepulveda, S., et al. (2006). Developing evidence-based interventions for foster children: An example of a randomized clinical trial with infants and toddlers (Vol. 62, pp. 767785). Oxford: Blackwell.
Edwards, S., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F., & Clow, A. (2001). Association between time of awakening and diurnal cortisol secretory activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 613622.
Ehlert, U., Gaab, J., & Heinrichs, M. (2001). Psychoneuroendocrinological contributions to the etiology of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and stress-related bodily disorders: The role of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis. Biological Psychology, 57, 141152.
Ellenbogen, M. A., Hodgins, S., Walker, C.-D., Couture, S., & Adam, S. (2006). Daytime cortisol and stress reactivity in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 11641180.
Essex, M. J., Klein, M. H., Cho, E., & Kalin, N. H. (2002). Maternal stress beginning in infancy may sensitize children to later stress exposure: Effects on cortisol and behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 776784.
Fisher, P. A., Gunnar, M. R., Dozier, M., Bruce, J., & Pears, K. C. (2006). Effects of therapeutic interventions for foster children on behavioral problems, caregiver attachment, and stress regulatory neural systems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 215225.
Fisher, P. A., Stoolmiller, M., Gunnar, M. R., & Burraston, B. O. (in press). Effects of a therapeutic intervention for foster preschoolers on diurnal cortisol activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology.
Fries, E., Hesse, J., Hellhammer, J., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2005). A new view on hypocortisolism. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 10101016.
Gaab, J., Blattler, N., Menzi, T., Pabst, B., Stoyer, S., & Ehlert, U. (2003). Randomized controlled evaluation of the effects of cognitive–behavioral stress management on cortisol responses to acute stress in healthy subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28, 767779.
Gaab, J., Sonderegger, L., Scherrer, S., & Ehlert, U. (2006). Psychoneuroendocrine effects of cognitive–behavioral stress management in a naturalistic setting—A randomized controlled trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 428438.
Garber, J., & Horowitz, J. L. (2002). Depression in children. In Gotlib, I. & Hammen, C. (Eds.), Handbook of depression (pp. 510540). New York: Guilford Press.
Gillham, J. E., Hamilton, J., Freres, D. R., , Patton, & Gallop, R. (2006). Prevention depression among early adolescents in the primary care setting: A randomized controlled study of the Penn Resiliency Program. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 203219.
Gispen-de Wied, C., Jansen, L., Duyx, J., Thijessen, J., & Engeland, H. (2000). Pituitary–adrenal function in adolescent psychiatric patients: Impact of depressive symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 59, 7179.
Gold, P. W., & Chrousos, G. P. (2002). Organization of the stress system and its dysregulation in melancholic and atypical depression: High vs low CRH/NE states. Molecular Psychiatry, 7, 254275.
Gold, P. W., Licinio, J., Wong, M. L., & Chrousos, G. P. (1995). Corticotropin releasing hormone in the pathophysiology of melancholic and atypical depression and in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 771, 716.
Goodman, S. H. (2002). Depression and early adverse experiences. In Gotlib, I. H. & Hammen, C. L. (Eds.), Handbook of depression (pp. 245267). New York: Guilford Press.
Goodyer, I. M., Herbert, J., & Tamplin, A. (2000). First-episode major depression in adolescents: Affective, cognitive and endocrine characteristics of risk status and predictors of onset British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 142149.
Goodyer, I. M., Herbert, J., & Altham, P. M. (1998). Adrenal steroid secretion and major depression in 8- to 16-year-olds, III: Influence of cortisol/DHEA ratio at presentation on subsequent rates of disappointing life events and persistent major depression. Psychological Medicine, 28, 265273.
Goodyer, I. M., Herbert, J., Tamplin, A., & Altham, P. M. E. (2000). Recent life events, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone and the onset of major depression in high-risk adolescents. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 499504.
Gould, M. S., Greenberg, T., Velting, D. M., & Shaffer, D. (2003). Youth suicide risk and preventive interventions: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 386405.
Granger, D. A., Weisz, J. R., McCracken, J. T., Ikeda, S. C., & Douglas, P. (1996). Reciprocal influences among adrenocortical activiation, psychosocial processes, and the behavioral adjustment of clinic-referred children. Child Development, 67, 32503262.
Greenberg, P. E., Kessler, R. C., Birnbaum, H. G., Leong, S. A., Lowe, S. W., Berglund, P. A., et al. (2003). The economic burden of depression in the United States: How did it change between 1990 and 2000. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 14651475.
Gunnar, M., & Vazquez, D. M. (2001). Low cortisol and a flattening of the expected daytime rhythm: Potential indices of risk in human development. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 515538.
Halligan, S. L., Herbert, J., Goodyer, I., & Murray, L. (2007). Disturbances in morning cortisol secretion in association with maternal postnatal depression predict subsequent depressive symptomatology in adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 4046.
Halligan, S. L., Herbert, J., Goodyer, I. M., & Murray, L. (2004). Exposure to postnatal depression predicts elevated cortisol in adolescent offspring. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 376381.
Hammen, C. L. (1991). Generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 555561.
Hammen, C. L. (2005). Stress and depression. In Annual review of clinical psychiatry (Vol. 1, pp. 293319). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
Hammerfald, K., Eberle, C., Grau, M., Kinsperger, A., Zimmermann, A., & Ehlert, U. (2006). Persistent effects of cognitive–behavioral stress management on cortisol responses to acute stress in healthy subjects—A randomized controlled trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 333339.
Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y. (2001). Development of gender differences in depression: An elaborated cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 773796.
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., & McGee, R. (1998). Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1, 128140.
Harris, T. O., Borsanyi, S., Messari, S., Stanford, K., Brown, G. W., Cleary, S. E., et al. (2000). Morning cortisol as a risk factor for subsequent major depressive disorder in adult women. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 505510.
Heim, C., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2001). The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: Preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 10231039.
Heim, C., Plotsky, P. M., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2004). Importance of studying the contributions of early adverse experience to neurobiological findings in depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 641648.
Heinrichs, M., Baumgartner, T., Kirschbaum, C., & Ehlert, U. (2003). Social support and oxytocin interact to suppress cortisol and subjective responses to psychosocial stress. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 13891398.
Herman, J. P., & Cullinan, W. E. (1997). Neurocircuitry of stress: Central control of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenocortical axis. Trends in Neurosciences, 20, 7884.
Holsboer, F. (2000). The corticosteroid receptor hypothesis of depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 23, 477501.
Holsboer, F. (2001). Stress, hypercortisolism and corticosteroid receptors in depression: implicatons for therapy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 62, 7791.
Horowitz, J. L., & Garber, J. (2006). The prevention of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 401415.
Jaycox, L. H., Reivich, K. J., Gillham, J., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1994). Prevention of depressive symptoms in school children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 801816.
Johnson, E. O., Kamilaris, T. C., Chrousos, G. P., & Gold, P. W. (1992). Mechanisms of stress: A dynamic overview of hormonal and behavioral homeostatis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 16, 115130.
Kaslow, N. J., Deering, C. G., & Racusin, G. R. (1994). Depressed children and their families. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 3959.
Kaufman, J., & Charney, D. (2001). Effects of early stress on brain structure and function: Implications for understanding the relationship between child maltreatment and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 451471.
Kaufman, J., Martin, A., King, R. A., & Charney, D. (2001). Are child-, adolescent-, and adult-onset depression one and the same disorder? Biological Psychiatry, 49, 9801001..
Kenny, F. M., Gancayo, G., Heald, F. P., & Hung, W. (1966). Cortisol production rate in adolescent males at different stages of sexual maturation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology, 26, 12321236.
Kenny, F. M., Preeasambat, C., & Migeon, C. J. (1966). Cortisol production rate: II Normal infants, children and adults. Pediatrics, 37, 3442.
Kessler, R. C. (1997). The effects of stressful life events on depression. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 191214.
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593602.
Kiess, W., Meidert, A., Dressendorfer, R. A., Schriever, K., Kessler, U., Konig, A., et al. (1995). Salivary cortisol levels throughout childhood and adolescence: Relation with age, pubertal stage, and weight. Pediatric Research, 37, 502506.
Kirschbaum, C., & Helhammer, D. (2000). Salivary cortisol. In Fink, G. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of stress (Vol. 3, pp. 379383). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Kirschbaum, C., Klauer, T., Filipp, S. H., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1995). Sex-specific effects of social support on cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychological stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 2331.
Klein, D. N., Durbin, C. E., Shankan, S. A., & Santiago, N. J. (2002). Depression and personality. In Gotlib, E. H. & Hammen, C. L. (Eds.), Handbook of depression and its treatment. New York: Guilford Press.
Klimes-Dougan, B., Hastings, P. D., Granger, D. A., Usher, B. A., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2001). Adrenocortical activity in at-risk and normally developing adolescents: Individual differences in salivary cortisol basal levels, diurnal variation, and responses to social challenges. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 695719.
Kudielka, B. M., Broderick, J. E., & Kirschbaum, C. (2003). Compliance with saliva sampling protocols: Electronic monitoring reveals invalid cortisol daytime profiles in noncompliant subjects. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 313319.
Kudielka, B. M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2003). Awakening cortisol responses are influenced by health status and awakening time but not by menstrual cycle phase. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28, 3547.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.
Lewinsohn, P. M., Allen, N. B., Seeley, J. R., & Gottlib, I. H. (1999). First onset versus recurrence of depression: Differential processes of psychosocial risk. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 483489.
Lewinsohn, P. M., & Essau, C. A. (2002). Depression in adolescents. In Gotlib, I. H. & Hammen, C. L. (Eds.), Handbook of depression (pp. 541559). New York: Guilford Press.
Lewinsohn, P. M., Solomon, A., Seeley, J. R., & Zeiss, A. (2000). Clinical implications of “subthreshold” depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 345351.
Lovallo, W., & Thomas, T. (2000). Stress hormones in psychophysiological research. In Cacioppo, J., Tassinary, L., & Bernston, G. (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (2nd ed., pp. 342367). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lupien, S. J., Gillin, C. J., & Hauger, R. L. (1999). Working memory is more sensitive than declarative memory to the acute effects of corticosteroids: A dose–response study in humans. Behavioral Neuroscience, 113, 420430.
Lupien, S. J., King, S., Meaney, M. J., & McEwen, B. S. (2001). Can poverty get under your skin? Basal cortisol levels and cognitive function in children from low and high socioeconomic status. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 653676.
Lupien, S. J., & McEwen, B. S. (1997). The acute affects of corticosteroids on cognition: integration of animal and human model studies. Brain Research Review, 24, 127.
McBurnet, K., Lahey, B. B., Rathouz, P. J., & Loeber, R. (2000). Low salivary cortisol and persistent aggression in boys referred for disruptive behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 3853.
Merry, S., McDowell, H., Hetrick, S., Bir, J., & Muller, N. (2004). Psychological and/or educational interventions for the prevention of depression in children and adolescents. Cochrane Library (Vol. 2). Chichester: Wiley.
Meyer, S., Chrousos, G. P., & Gold, P. W. (2001). Major depression and the stress system: A life span perspective. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 565580.
Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Zhou, E. S. (2007). If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 2545.
Miller, G. E., Cohen, S., & Ritchey, A. K. (2002). Chronic psychological stress and the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines: A glucocorticoid-resistance model. Health Psychology, 21, 531541.
Mommersteeg, P. M., Keijsers, G. P., Heijnen, C. J., Verbraak, M. J., & van Doornen, L. J. (2006). Cortisol deviations in people with burnout before and after psychotherapy: A pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 243248.
Monroe, S. M., & Hadjiyannakis, K. (2002). The social environment and depression: Focusing on severe life stress. In Gotlib, I. H. & Hammen, C. L. (Eds.), Handbook of depression (p. 314340). New York: Guilford Press.
Monroe, S. M., & Harkness, K. L. (2005). Life stress, the “kindling” hypothesis, and the recurrence of depression: Considerations from a life stress perspective. Psychological Review, 112, 417445.
Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (Eds.). (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Mufson, L., Gallagher, T., Dorta, K. P., & Young, J. F. (2004). A group adaptation of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 58, 220237.
Muñoz, R. F., Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (1996). Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental disorders. American Psychologist, 51, 11161122.
National Institute of Mental Health. (2002, April). Depression research at the National Institute of Mental Health: Fact sheet (Vol. 00-4501). Bethesda, MD: Author.
National Institute of Mental Health. (2006). Suicide in the U.S.: Statistics and prevention. Bethesda, MD: Author.
Pajer, K., Gardener, W., Rubin, R., Perel, J., & Neal, S. (2001). Decrease cortisol levels in adolescent girls with conduct disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 297302.
Petronis, K. R., Samuels, J. F., Moscicki, E. K., & Anthony, J. C. (1990). An epidemiological investigation of the potential risk factors for suicide attempts. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 25, 193199.
Pickles, A., Rowe, R., Simonoff, E., Foley, D., Rutter, M., & Silberg, J. (2001). Child psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial impairment: Relationship and prognostic significance. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 230235.
Pruessner, J. C., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (1999). Burnout, perceived stress and cortisol responses to awakening. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 197204.
Pruessner, J. C., Wolf, O. T., Hellhammer, D. H., Buske-Kirschbaum, A., von Auer, K., Jobst, S., et al. (1997). Free cortisol levels after awakening: A reliable biological marker for the assessment of adrenocortical activity. Life Sciences, 61, 25392549.
Rao, U., Dahl, R. E., & Ryan, N. D. (1996). The relationship between longitudinal clinical course, sleep and cortisol changes in adolescent depression. Biological Psychiatry, 40, 474484.
Reinherz, H. Z., Giaconia, R. M., Hauf, A. M., Wasserman, M. S., & Silverman, A. B. (1999). Major depression in the transition to adulthood: Risks and impairments. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 500510.
Reynolds, W. M., & Coats, J. I. (1986). A comparison of cognitive–behavioral therapy and relaxation training for the treatment of depression in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 653660.
Roberts, A. D. L., Wessely, S., Chalder, T., Papadopoulos, A., & Cleare, A. J. (2004). Salivary cortisol response to awakening in chronic fatigue syndrome. Britsh Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 136141.
Sanchez, M. (2006). The impact of early adverse care of HPA axis development: Nonhuman primate models. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 623631.
Sapolsky, R. (1996). Why stress is bad for your brain. Science, 273, 749750.
Sapolsky, R., Krey, L., & McEwen, B. (1986). The neuroendocrinology of stress and aging: The glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis. Endocrine Reviews, 7, 284301.
Schulz, P., Kirschbaum, C., Pruessner, J., & Hellhammer, D. (1998). Increased free cortisol secretion after awakening in chronically stressed individuals because of work overload. Stress Medicine, 14, 9197.
Seligman, M. E. P., Schulman, P., DeRubeis, R. J., & Hollon, S. D. (1999). The prevention of depression and anxiety. Prevention & Treatment, 2. Retrieved June 27, 2005, from
Seligman, M. E. P., Schulman, P., & Tryon, A. M. (2007). Group prevention of depression and anxiety symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 11111126.
Seroczynski, A. D., Jacquez, F. M., & Cole, D. A. (2003). Depression and suicide during adolescence. In Adams, G. R. & Berzonsky, M. D. (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of adolescence. Oxford: Blackwell.
Sheffield, J. K., Spence, S. H., Rapee, R. M., Kowalenko, N., Wignall, A., Davis, A., et al. (2006). Evaluation of universal, indicated, and combined cognitive–behavioral approaches to the prevention of depression among adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 6679.
Shirtcliff, E. A., Granger, D., Booth, A., & Johnson, D. (2005). Low salivary cortisol levels and externalizing behavior problems in youth. Development and Psychopathology 17, 167184.
Smider, N. A., Essex, M. J., Kalin, N. H., Buss, K. A., Klein, M. H., Davidson, R. J., et al. (2002). Salivary cortisol as a predictor of socioemotional adjustment during kindergarten: A prospective study. Child Development, 73, 7592.
Steptoe, A., Owen, N., Kunz-Ebrecht, S. R., & Brydon, L. (2004). Loneliness and neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory stress responses in middle-aged men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 593611.
Stetler, C., & Miller, G. E. (2005). Blunted cortisol response to awakening in mild to moderate depression: Regulatory influences of sleep patterns and social contacts. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 697705.
Stones, A., Groome, D., Perry, D., Hucklebridge, F., & Evans, P. (1999). The effect of stress on salivary cortisol in panic disorder patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 52, 197201.
Susman, E. J. (1997). Modeling developmental complexity in adolescence: Hormones and behavior in context. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 7, 283306.
Sutton, J. M. (2007). Prevention of depression in youth: A qualitative review and future suggestions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 552571.
Thase, M. E., Jindal, R., & Howland, R. H. (2002). Biological aspects of depression. In Gotlib, I. H. & Hammen, C. L. (Eds.), Handbook of depression (pp. 192218). New York: Guilford Press.
Üstun, T. B., Ayuso-Mateos, J. L., Chatterji, S., Mathers, C., & Murray, C. J. L. (2004). Global burden of depressive disorders in the year 2000. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 386392.
van Eck, M., Berkhof, H., Nicolson, N., & Sulon, J. (1996). The effects of perceived stress, traits, mood states, and stressful daily events on salivary cortisol. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 447458.
van Rossum, E. F. C., Binder, E. B., Majer, M., Koper, J. W., Ising, M., Modell, S., et al. (2006). Polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor gene and major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 681688.
Wadhwa, P. D., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Chicz-DeMet, A., Porto, M., Sandman, C. A. (1996). Prenatal psychosocial factors and the neuroendocrine axis in human pregnancy. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 432446.
Walker, E. F., Walder, D. J., & Reynolds, F. (2001). Developmental changes in cortisol secretion in normal and at-risk youth. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 721732.
Wallace, J., Schneider, T., & McGuffin, P. (2002). Genetics of depression. In Gotlib, I. H. & Hammen, C. L. (Eds.), Handbook of depression (pp. 169191). New York: Guilford Press.
Weaver, I. C. G., Cervoni, N., Champagne, F. A., D'Alessio, A. C., Sharma, S., Seckl, J. R., et al. (2004). Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 847854.
Weitzman, E. D., Fukushima, D., Nogeire, C., Roffwarg, H., Gallagher, T. F., & Hellman, L. (1971). Twenty-four hour pattern of the episodic secretion of cortisol in normal subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 33, 1422.
Wilhelm, I., Born, J., Kudielka, B. M., Schlotz, W., & Wust, S. (2007). Is the cortisol awakening rise a response to awakening? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 358366..
Wüst, S., Federenko, I., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (2000). Genetic factors, perceived chronic stress, and the free cortisol response to awakening. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 707720.
Yehuda, R. (2003). Adult neuroendocrine aspects of PTSD. Psychiatric Annals, 33, 3036.
Young, J. F., Mufson, L., & Davies, M. (2006). Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: An indicated preventive intervention for depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 12541262.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 35 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 236 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.