Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Interaction matters: Quantifying Conduct Problem × Depressive Symptoms interaction and its association with adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in a national sample

  • Julie Maslowsky (a1) and John E. Schulenberg (a2)
Abstract

Substance use is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among American adolescents. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms have each been found to be associated with adolescent substance use. Although they are highly comorbid, the role of the interaction of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in substance use is not clear. In national samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students from the Monitoring the Future study, latent moderated structural equation modeling was used to estimate the association of conduct problems, depressive symptoms, and their interaction to the use of alcohol (including binge drinking), cigarettes, and marijuana. Moderation by age and sex was tested. The interaction of conduct problems with depressive symptoms was a strong predictor of substance use, particularly among younger adolescents. With few exceptions, adolescents with high levels of both conduct problems and depressive symptoms used substances most frequently. Conduct problems were a strong positive predictor of substance use, and depressive symptoms were a weak positive predictor. Whereas conduct problems are often thought to be a primary predictor of substance use, this study revealed that depressive symptoms potentiate the relation of conduct problems to substance use. Therefore, substance use prevention efforts should target both depressive symptoms and conduct problems.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Julie Maslowsky, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 707 WARF Building, 610 Walnut Street, Madison, WI 53726-2397; E-mail: Maslowsky@wisc.edu.
References
Hide All
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 5787.
Armstrong, T. D., & Costello, E. J. (2002). Community studies on adolescent substance use, abuse, or dependence and psychiatric comorbidity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 12241239. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.70.6.1224
Aseltine, R. H. Jr., Gore, S., & Colten, M. E. (1998). The co-occurrence of depression and substance abuse in late adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 549570. doi:10.1017/S0954579498001746
Bachman, J. G., Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2011). The Monitoring the Future project after thirty-seven years: Design and procedures (Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 76). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Bonin, M. F., McCreary, D. R., & Sadava, S. W. (2000). Problem drinking behavior in two community-based samples of adults: Influence of gender, coping, loneliness, and depression. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14, 151161.
Brook, J. S., Zhang, C., & Brook, D. W. (2011). Developmental trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood: Personal predictors. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 165, 5560.
Capaldi, D. M. (1991). Co-occurrence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescent males: I. Familial factors and general adjustment at Grade 6. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 277300. doi:10.1017/S0954579400005319
Capaldi, D. M. (1992). Co-occurrence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescent males: II. A 2-year follow-up at Grade 8. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 125144. doi:10.1017/S0954579400005605
Capaldi, D. M., & Stoolmiller, M. (1999). Co-occurrence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescent males: III. Prediction to young-adult adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 5984. doi:10.1017/S0954579499001959
Chen, R., & Simons-Morton, B. (2009). Concurrent changes in conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescents: A developmental person-centered approach. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 285307. doi:10.1017/S0954579409000169
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1999). Psychopathology as risk for adolescent substance use disorders: A developmental psychopathology perspective. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 355365. doi:10.1207/S15374424jccp280308
Cohen, P., Cohen, J., Kasen, S., & Velez, C. N. (1993). An epidemiological study of disorders in late childhood and adolescence: I. Age- and gender-specific prevalence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 851867. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1993.tb01094.x
Costello, E. J., Erkanli, A., Federman, E., & Angold, A. (1999). Development of psychiatric comorbidity with substance abuse in adolescents: Effects of timing and sex. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28(3), 298311. doi:10.1207/S15374424jccp280302
Crosnoe, R. (2011). Fitting in, standing out: Navigating the social challenges of high school to get an education. New York: Cambridge University Press.
DeWit, D. J., Adlaf, E. M., Offord, D. R., & Ogborne, A. C. (2000). Age at first alcohol use: A risk factor for the development of alcohol disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 745750. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.5.745
Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Miller, S., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2009). A dynamic cascade model of the development of substance-use onset. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 74, vii–119.
Ellickson, S. L., Tucker, J. S., Klein, D. J., & McGuigan, K. A. (2001). Prospective risk factors for alcohol misuse in late adolescence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62, 773782.
Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., & Horwood, L. J. (1996). Origins of comorbidity between conduct and affective disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 451460. doi:10.1097/00004583-199604000-00011
Fite, P. J., Colder, C. R., & O'Connor, R. M. (2006). Childhood behavior problems and peer selection and socialization: Risk for adolescent alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 14541459. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.09.015
Fleisher, W. P., & Katz, L. Y. (2001). Early onset major depressive disorder. Paediatrics & Child Health, 6, 444448.
Glantz, M. D., Anthony, J. C., Berglund, P. A., Degenhardt, L., Dierker, L., Kalaydjian, A., et al. (2009). Mental disorders as risk factors for later substance dependence: Estimates of optimal prevention and treatment benefits. Psychological Medicine, 39, 13651377. doi:10.1017/S0033291708004510
Goodman, E., & Capitman, J. (2000). Depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among teens. Pediatrics, 106, 748755.
Graham, K., Massak, A., Demers, A., & Rehm, J. (2007). Does the association between alcohol consumption and depression depend on how they are measured? Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 31, 7888. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00274.x
Grant, B. F., & Dawson, D. A. (1997). Age at onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: Results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Journal of Substance Abuse, 9, 103110. doi:10.1016/S0899-3289(97)90009-2
Hinshaw, S. P. (1987). On the distinction between attentional deficits/hyperactivity and conduct problems/aggression in child psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 443463. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.101.3.443
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 155. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118
Ingoldsby, E. M., Kohl, G. O., McMahon, R. J, & Lengua, L. (2006). Conduct problems, depressive symptomatology and their co-occurring presentation in childhood as predictors of adjustment in early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 603621.
Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2013). Monitoring the Future national results on drug use, 1975–2012: Vol. 1. Secondary school students. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.
Keenan, K., Wroblewski, K., Hipwell, A., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2010). Age of onset, symptom threshold, and expansion of the nosology of conduct disorder for females. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 689698. doi:10.1037/a0019346
Kenny, D. A., & Judd, C. M. (1984). Estimating the nonlinear and interactive effects of latent variables. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 201210. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.96.1.201
Klein, A., & Moosbrugger, H. (2000). Maximum likelihood estimation of latent interaction effects with the LMS method. Psychometrika, 65, 457474. doi:10.1007/BF02296338
Kline, R. B. (2004). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Kovacs, M., Paulauskas, S., Gatsonis, C., & Richards, C. (1988). Depressive disorders in childhood: III. A longitudinal study of comorbidity with and risk for conduct disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 15, 205217. doi:10.1016/0165-0327(88)90018-3
Lansford, J. E., Erath, S., Yu, T., Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A., & Bates, J. E. (2008). The developmental course of illicit substance use from age 12 to 22: Links with depressive, anxiety, and behavior disorders at age 18. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 877885. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01915.x
Larsen, H., Overbeek, G., Vermulst, A. A., Granic, I., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2010). Initiation and continuation of best friends and adolescents' alcohol consumption: Do self-esteem and self-control function as moderators? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34, 406416. doi:10.1177/0165025409350363
Mackie, C. J., Castellanos-Ryan, N., & Conrod, P. J. (2011). Personality moderates the longitudinal relationship between psychological symptoms and alcohol use in adolescents. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 703716. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01388.x
Maggs, J. L., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2005). Initiation and course of alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults. In Galanter, M. (Ed.), Recent developments in alcoholism: Vol. 17. Alcohol problems in adolescents and young adults (pp. 2947). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
Marmorstein, N. R. (2010). Longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems: The influence of comorbid delinquent behavior. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 564571. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.01.004
Marmorstein, N. R., & Iacono, W. G. (2001). An investigation of female adolescent twins with both major depression and conduct disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 299306. doi:10.1097/00004583-200103000-00009
Marmorstein, N. R., & Iacono, W. G. (2003). Major depression and conduct disorder in a twin sample: Sex, functioning, and risk for future psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 225233. doi:10.1097/00004583-200302000-00017
Marsh, H. W., Wen, Z., Hau, K.-T., Little, T. D., Bovaird, J. A., & Widaman, K. F. (2007). Unconstrained structural equation models of latent interactions: Contrasting residual- and mean-centered approaches. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 570580.
Maslowsky, J., Schulenberg, J., O'Malley, P., & Kloska, D. (2013). Depressive symptoms, conduct problems, and risk for polysubstance use among adolescents: Results from US national surveys, mental health and substance use. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Mason, C. A. (2003). Developmental epidemiology: Issues, application, and relevance for clinical child psychologists. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 178180. doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3202_1
Mason, W. A., Hitchings, J. E., & Spoth, R. L. (2008). The interaction of conduct problems and depressed mood in relation to adolescent substance involvement and peer substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 96, 233248. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.03.012
McCaffery, J. M., Papandonatos, G. D., Stanton, C., Lloyd-Richardson, E. E., & Niaura, R. (2008). Depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in twins from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Health Psychology, 27(Suppl. 3), S207S215. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.27.3(Suppl.).S207
McMahon, R. J. (1999). Child and adolescent psychopathology as risk factors for subsequent tobacco use. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1, S45S50.
Merline, A., Jager, J., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2008). Adolescent risk factors for adult alcohol use and abuse: Stability and change of predictive value across early and middle adulthood. Addiction, 103(Suppl. 1), 8499. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02178.x
Miller-Johnson, S., Lochman, J. E., Coie, J. D., Terry, R., & Hyman, C. (1998). Comorbidity of conduct and depressive problems at sixth grade: Substance use outcomes across adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 221232. doi:10.1023/A:1022676302865
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.100.4.674
Mokdad, A. H., Marks, J. S., Stroup, D. F., & Gerberding, J. L. (2004). Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291, 12381245. doi:10.1001/jama.291.10.1238
Mooijaart, A., & Bentler, P. (2010). An alternative approach for nonlinear latent variable models. Structural Equation Modeling, 17, 357373. doi:10.1080/10705511.2010.488997
Mooijaart, A., & Satorra, A. (2009). On insensitivity of the chi-square model test to nonlinear misspecification in structural equation models. Psychometrika, 74, 443455.
Muthén, L., & Muthén, B. (1998–2010). Mplus user's guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Author.
Pardini, D., White, H. R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2007). Early adolescent psychopathology as a predictor of alcohol use disorders by young adulthood. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88, S38S49. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.12.014
Patrick, M. E., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2011). How trajectories of reasons for alcohol use relate to trajectories of binge drinking: National panel data spanning late adolescence to early adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 47, 311317. doi:10.1037/a0021939
Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401.
Reboussin, B. A., Hubbard, S., & Ialongo, N. S. (2007). Marijuana use patterns among African-American middle-school students: A longitudinal latent class regression analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 90, 1224. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.02.006
Rushton, J. L., Forcier, M., & Schectman, R. M. (2002). Epidemiology of depressive symptoms in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 199205. doi:10.1097/00004583-200202000-00014
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2010). Ensuring positiveness of the scaled difference chi-square test statistic. Psychometrika, 75, 243248. doi:10.1007/s11336-009-9135-y
Schulenberg, J., Bachman, J. G., O'Malley, P. M., & Johnston, L. D. (1994). High school educational success and subsequent substance use: A panel analysis following adolescents into young adulthood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 4562. doi:10.2307/2137334
Schulenberg, J. E., & Zarrett, N. (2006). Mental health during emerging adulthood: Continuity and discontinuity in courses, causes, and functions. In Arnett, J. J. & Tanner, J. L. (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (pp. 135172). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Spoth, R., Trudeau, L., Guyll, M., Shin, C., & Redmond, C. (2009). Universal intervention effects on substance use among young adults mediated by delayed adolescent substance initiation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 620632. doi:10.1037/a0016029
Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Psychopathology as an outcome of development. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 251268. doi:10.1017/S0954579497002046
Sung, M., Erkanli, A., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2004). Effects of age at first substance use and psychiatric comorbidity on the development of substance use disorders. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 75, 287299. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.03.013
Wagner, F. A., & Anthony, J. C. (2002). From first drug use to drug dependence: Developmental periods of risk for dependence upon marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol. Neuropsychopharmacology, 26, 479488. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(01)00367-0
Weissman, M. M., Wolk, S., Wickramaratne, P., Goldstein, R. B., Adams, P., Greenwald, S., et al. (1999). Children with prepubertal-onset major depressive disorder and anxiety grown up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 794801. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.9.794
Wolff, J. C., & Ollendick, T. H. (2006). The comorbidity of conduct problems and depression in childhood and adolescence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 9, 201220. doi:10.1007/s10567-006-0011-3
World Health Organization. (2008). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008—The MPOWER package. Geneva: Author. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/tobacco/mpower/2008/en/index.html
World Health Organization. (2011a). Global status report on alcohol and health 2011. Geneva: Author. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/en/index.html
World Health Organization. (2011b). Alcohol fact sheet number 349. Geneva: Author. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs349/en/index.html
Zoccolillo, M. (1992). Co-occurrence of conduct disorder and its adult outcomes with depressive and anxiety disorders: A review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 547556. doi:10.1097/00004583-199205000-00024
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed