Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Magnetic resonance imaging methods in developmental science: A primer

  • Ruskin H. Hunt (a1) and Kathleen M. Thomas (a1)

Abstract

Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are increasingly common research methods among investigators interested in typically and atypically developing populations. However, the effective use of these tools requires an understanding of the basis of the magnetic resonance signal, as well as some of the additional experimental complications that arise when collecting MRI data from developmental populations. This primer provides a foundation for investigators who wish to utilize MRI methods in their research and whose primary interest involves typically and atypically developing populations. The basic concepts of MRI physics are introduced, as well as the typical MRI scanner components and their role in MRI data acquisition. In addition, a variety of scan types (structural, functional, diffusion tensor) are discussed, along with a number of important experimental design factors that can impact the quality and utility of the data collected. Special consideration is given to working with pediatric and special populations.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Ruskin H. Hunt, Institute of Child Development, 51 East River Road, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455; E-mail: hunti011@umn.edu.

References

Hide All
Aguirre, G. K., & D'Esposito, M. (1999). Experimental design for brain fMRI. In Moonen, C. & Bandettini, P. A. (Eds.), Medical radiology: Functional MRI (pp. 369380). New York: Springer–Verlag.
Belliveau, J. W., Kennedy, D. N., McKinstry, R. C., Buchbinder, B. R., Weisskoff, R. M., Cohen, M. S., et al. (1991). Functional mapping of the human visual cortex by magnetic resonance imaging. Science, 254, 716719.
Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: A new and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B, 57, 289300.
Bloch, F. (1946). Nuclear induction. Physical Review, 70, 460474.
Bloch, F., Hansen, W. W., & Packard, M. (1946). Nuclear induction. Physical Review, 69, 127.
Bottomley, P. A., Foster, T. H., Argersinger, R. E., & Pfeiffer, L. M. (1984). A review of normal tissue hydrogen NMR relaxation times and relaxation mechanisms from 1–100 MHz. Medical Physics, 11, 425448.
Bottomley, P. A., Hardy, C. J., Argersinger, R. E., & Allen-Moore, G. (1987). A review of hydrogen magnetic resonance relaxation in pathology. Medical Physics, 14, 137.
Bracewell, R. N. (1965). The Fourier transform and its applications. New York: McGraw–Hill.
Brammer, M. J. (2001). Head motion and its correction. In Jezzard, P., Matthews, P. M., & Smith, S. M. (Eds.), Functional MRI: An introduction to methods (pp. 243250). New York: Oxford.
Braver, T. S., Cohen, J. D., Nystrom, L. E., Jonides, J., Smith, E. E., & Noll, D. C. (1997). A parametric study of prefrontal cortex involvement in human working memory. NeuroImage, 5, 4962.
Brigham, E. O. (1974). The fast Fourier transform. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice–Hall.
Buckner, R. L., Bandettini, P. A., O'Craven, K. M., Savoy, R. L., Petersen, S. E., Raichle, M. E., et al. (1996). Detection of cortical activation during averaged single trials of a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 93, 1487814883.
Buckner, R. L., & Braver, T. S. (1999). Event-related functional MRI. In Moonen, C. & Bandettini, P. A. (Eds.), Medical radiology: Functional MRI (pp. 441452). New York: Springer–Verlag.
Buxton, R. B. (2002). Introduction to functional magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and techniques. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Buxton, R. B., Edelman, R. R., Rosen, B. R., Wismer, G. L., & Brady, T. J. (1987). Contrast in rapid MR imaging: T1- and T2-weighted imaging. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 11, 716.
Cascio, C. J., Gerig, G., & Piven, J. (2007). Diffusion tensor imaging: Application to the study of the developing brain. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 213223.
Casey, B. J., Forman, S. D., Franzen, P., Berkowitz, A., Braver, T. S., Nystrom, L. E., et al. (2001). Sensitivity of prefrontal cortex to changes in target probability: A functional MRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 13, 2633.
Casey, B. J., Trainor, R. J., Orendi, J. L., Schubert, A. B., Nystrom, L. E., Giedd, J. N., et al. (1997). A developmental functional MRI study of prefrontal activation during performance of a go-nogo task. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 835847.
Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Hamburger, S. D., Marsh, W. L., & Rapoport, J. L. (1996). Brain morphometry in Tourette's syndrome: The influence of comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neurology, 47, 15811583.
Chen, D. W. (2001, August 1). Small town reels from boy's MRI death. The New York Times.
Constable, R. T., Skudlarski, P., Mencl, E., Pugh, K. R., Fulbright, R. K., Lacadie, C., et al. (1996). Quantifying and comparing region-of-interest activation patterns in functional brain MR imaging: Methodology considerations. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 16, 289300.
Conturo, T. E., Lori, N. F., Cull, T. S., Akbudak, E., Snyder, A. Z., Shimony, J. S., et al. (1999). Tracking neuronal fiber pathways in the living human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 1042210427.
Cox, R. W. (1996). AFNI: Software for analysis and visualization of functional magnetic resonance neuroimages. Computers and Biomedical Research, 29, 162173.
DeYoe, E. A., Bandettini, P., Neitz, J., Miller, D., & Winans, P. (1994). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) of the human brain. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 54, 171187.
Durston, S., Davidson, M. C., Tottenham, N., Galvan, A., Spicer, J., Fossella, J. A., & Casey, B. J. (2006). A shift from diffuse to focal cortical activity with development. Developmental Science, 9, 18.
Durston, S., Thomas, K. M., Worden, M. S., Yang, Y., & Casey, B. J. (2002). The effect of preceding context on inhibition: An event-related fMRI study. NeuroImage, 16, 449453.
Durston, S., Tottenham, N. T., Thomas, K. M., Davidson, M. C., Eigsti, I. M., Yang, Y., et al. (2003). Differential patterns of striatal activation young children with and without ADHD. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 871878.
Edelstein, W. A., Hutchison, J. M. S., Johnson, G., & Redpath, T. (1980). Spin warp NMR imaging and applications to human whole body imaging. Journal of Physics in Medicine and Biology, 25, 751756.
Fox, P. T., Raichle, M. E., Mintun, M. A., & Dence, C. (1988). Nonoxidative glucose consumption during focal physiologic neural activity. Science, 241, 462464.
Friston, K. J., Ashburner, J., Frith, C. S., Poline, J.-B., Heather, J. D., & Frackowiak, R. S. J. (1995). Spatial registration and normalization of images. Human Brain Mapping, 2, 165189.
Friston, K. J., Holmes, A. P., Worsley, K. J., Poline, J. P., Frith, C. C., & Fackowiak, R. S. J. (1995). Statistical parametric maps in functional imaging: A general linear approach. Human Brain Mapping, 2, 189210.
Friston, K. J., Jezzard, P., & Turner, R. (1994). Analysis of functional MRI time-series. Human Brain Mapping, 1, 153171.
Friston, K. J., Josephs, O., Rees, G., & Turner, R. (1998). Nonlinear event-related responses in fMRI. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 39, 4152.
Genovese, C. R., Lazar, N. A., & Nichols, T. (2002). Thresholding of statistical maps in functional neuroimaging using the false discovery rate. NeuroImage, 15, 870878.
Giedd, J. N., Vaituzis, A. C., Hamburger, S. D., Lange, N., Rajapakse, J. C., Kaysen, D., et al. (1996). Quantitative MRI of the temporal lobe, amygdala, and hippocampus in normal human development: Ages 4–18 years. Journal of Comparative Neruology, 366, 223230.
Hahn, E. L. (1950). Spin echoes. Physical Review, 80, 580594.
Hajnal, J. V., Myers, R., Oatridge, A., Schwieso, J. E., Young, I. R., & Bydder, G. M. (1994). Artifacts due to stimulus correlated motion in functional imaging of the brain. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 31, 283291.
Huettel, S. A., & McCarthy, G. (2001). The effects of single-trial averaging upon the spatial extent of fMRI activation. NeuroReport, 12, 24112416.
Huettel, S. A., Song, A. W., & McCarthy, G. (2004). Functional magnetic resonance imaging. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Jezzard, P. (1999). Physiological noise: Strategies for correction. In Moonen, C. & Bandettini, P. A. (Eds.), Medical radiology: Functional MRI (pp. 173181). New York: Springer–Verlag.
Jezzard, P., & Balaban, R. S. (1995). Correction for geometric distortion in echo planar images from B0 field distortions. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 34, 6573.
Jezzard, P., & Clare, S. (2001). Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance and MRI. In Jezzard, P., Matthews, P. M., & Smith, S. M. (Eds.), Functional MRI: An introduction to methods (pp. 6792). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kanal, E., Borgstede, J. P., Barkovich, A. J., Bell, C., Bradley, W. G., Etheridge, S., et al. (2004). American College of Radiology white paper on MR safety: 2004 update and revisions. American Journal of Roentgenology, 182, 11111114.
Klucznik, R., Carrier, D., & Pyka, R. (1993). Placement of a ferromagnetic intracerebral aneurysm clip in a magnetic field with a fatal outcome. Radiology, 187, 855856.
Kumar, A., Welti, D., & Ernst, R. (1975). NMR Fourier zeugmatography. Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 18, 6983.
Kutner, M. H., Nachtsheim, C. J., Neter, J., & Li, W. (2005). Applied linear statistical models (5th ed.). New York: McGraw–Hill.
Kwong, K. K., Belliveau, J. W., Chesler, D. A., Goldberg, I. E., Weisskoff, R. M., Poncelet, B. P., et al. (1992). Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89, 56755679.
Lange, N. (1996). Statistical approaches to human brain mapping by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Statistics in Medicine, 15, 389428.
LeBihan, D., Mangin, J. F., & Poupon, C., Clark, C. A., Pappata, S., Molko, N., et al. (2001). Diffusion tensor imaging: Concepts and applications. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 13, 534546.
Loring, D. W., Meador, K. J., Allison, J. D., Pillai, J. J., Lavin, T., Lee, G. P., et al. (2002). Now you see it, now you don't: Statistical and methodological considerations in fMRI. Epilepsy and Behavior, 3, 539547.
Mansfield, P. (1977). Multi-planar image formation using NMR spin echoes. Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, 10, L55L58.
Mansfield, P., & Maudsley, A. A. (1977). Medical imaging by NMR. British Journal of Radiology, 50, 188194.
Mansfield, P., & Pykett, I. L. (1978). Biological and medical imaging by NMR. Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 29, 355373.
McRobbie, D. W., Moore, E. A., Graves, M. J., & Prince, M. R. (2003). MRI: From picture to proton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Miezin, F. M., Maccotta, L., Ollinger, J. M., Petersen, S. E., & Buckner, R. L. (2000). Characterizing the hemodynamic response: Effects of presentation rate, sampling procedure, and the possibility of ordering brain activity based on relative timing. NeuroImage, 11, 735759.
Ogawa, S., Lee, T. S., Nayak, A. S. & Glynn, P. (1990). Oxygenation sensitive contrast in magnetic resonance image of rodent brain at high magnetic fields. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 26, 6878.
Parrish, T. B., Gitelman, D. R., LaBar, K. S., & Mesulam, M. M. (2000). Impact of signal-to-noise on functional MRI. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 44, 925932.
Poline, J.-B., Worsley, K. J., Evans, A. C., & Friston, K. J. (1997). Combining spatial extent and peak intensity to test for activations in functional imaging. NeuroImage, 5, 8396.
Purcell, E. M., Torrey, H. C., & Pound, R. V. (1946). Resonance absorption by nuclear magnetic moments in a solid. Physical Review, 69, 3738.
Raichle, M. E. (1987). Circulatory and metabolic correlates of brain function in normal humans. In Mountcastle, V. B., Plum, F., & Geiger, S. R. (Eds.), Handbook of physiology: The nervous system. V. Higher Functions of the Brain (pp. 643674). Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society.
Reber, P. J., Wong, E. C., Buxton, R. B., & Frank, L. R. (1998). Correction of off-resonance related distortion in EPI using EPI based field maps. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 39, 328330.
Reese, T., Davis, T., & Weisskoff, R. (1995). Automated shimming at 1.5T using echo planar image frequency maps. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 5, 739745.
Rosenberg, D. R., Sweeney, J. A., Gillen, J. S., Kim, J., Varanelli, M. J., O'Hearn, K. M., et al. (1997). Magnetic resonance imaging of children without sedation: Preparation with simulation. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 853859.
Smith, S. M. (2001). Preparing fMRI data for statistical analysis. In Jezzard, P., Matthews, P. M., & Smith, S. M. (Eds.), Functional MRI: An introduction to methods (pp. 229250). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stark, C. E. L., & Squire, L. R. (2001). When zero is not zero: The problem of ambiguous baseline conditions in fMRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 1276012766.
Talairach, J., & Tourneoux, P. (1988). Co-planar stereotactic atlas of the human brain: 3-dimensional proportional system: An approach to cerebral imaging. Stuttgart: Thieme.
Taylor, W. D., Hsu, E., Krishnan, K. R. R., & McFall, J. R. (2004). Diffusion tensor imaging: Background, potential, and utility in psychiatric research. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 201207.
Thomas, K. M. (2003). Assessing brain development using neurophysiologic and behavioral measures. Journal of Pediatrics, 143, S46S53.
Thomas, K. M., & Casey, B. J. (1999). Functional MRI in pediatrics. In Moonen, C. T. W. & Bandettini, P. A. (Eds.), Functional MRI (pp. 513523). New York: Springer.
Thomas, K. M., & Casey, B. J. (2003). Methods for imaging the developing brain. In Haan, M. de & Johnson, M. K. (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of development (pp. 1941). East Sussex: Psychology Press.
Thomas, K. M., Drevets, W. C., Dahl, R. E., Ryan, N. D., Birmaher, B., Eccard, C. H., Axelson, D., Whalen, P. J., & Casey, B. J. (2001). Amygdala response to fearful faces in anxious and depressed children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 10571063.
Thomas, K. M., King, S. W., Franzen, P. L., Welsh, T. F., Berkowitz, A. L., Noll, D. C., Birmaher, V., & Casey, B. J. (1999). A developmental functional MRI study of spatial working memory. NeuroImage, 10, 327338.
Thulborn, K. R. (1999). Visual feedback to stabilize head position for fMRI. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 41, 10391043.
Turner, R., Le Bihan, D., Moonen, C. T. W., Despres, D., & Frank, J. (1991). Echo-planar time course MRI of cat brain oxygenation changes. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 22, 159166.
Twieg, D. B. (1983). The k-trajectory formulation of the NMR imaging process with applications in analysis and synthesis of imaging methods. Medical Physics, 10, 610621.
Wood, M. L., & Henkelman, R. M. (1985). MR image artifacts from periodic motion. Medical Physics, 12, 143151.
Woods, R. P., Grafton, S. T., Holmes, C. J., Cherry, S. R., & Mazziotta, J. C. (1998a). Automated image registration: I. General methods and intrasubject, intramodality validation. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 22, 139152.
Woods, R. P., Grafton, S. T., Holmes, C. J., Cherry, S. R., & Mazziotta, J. C. (1998b). Automated image registration: II. Intersubject validation of linear and nonlinear models. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 22, 153165.
Worsley, K. J., Marrett, S., Neelin, P., & Evans, A.C. (1992). A three-dimensional statistical analysis for CBF activation studies in human brain. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 12, 900918.
Young, S. W. (1988). Magnetic resonance imaging: Basic principles (2nd ed.). New York: Raven Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed