Skip to main content Accessibility help

A model-based cluster analysis approach to adolescent problem behaviors and young adult outcomes

  • Eun Young Mun (a1), Michael Windle (a2) and Lisa M. Schainker (a3)


Data from a community-based sample of 1,126 10th- and 11th-grade adolescents were analyzed using a model-based cluster analysis approach to empirically identify heterogeneous adolescent subpopulations from the person-oriented and pattern-oriented perspectives. The model-based cluster analysis is a new clustering procedure to investigate population heterogeneity utilizing finite mixture multivariate normal densities and accordingly to classify subpopulations using more rigorous statistical procedures for the comparison of alternative models. Four cluster groups were identified and labeled multiproblem high-risk, smoking high-risk, normative, and low-risk groups. The multiproblem high risk exhibited a constellation of high levels of problem behaviors, including delinquent and sexual behaviors, multiple illicit substance use, and depressive symptoms at age 16. They had risky temperamental attributes and lower academic functioning and educational expectations at age 15.5 and, subsequently, at age 24 completed fewer years of education, and reported lower levels of physical health and higher levels of continued involvement in substance use and abuse. The smoking high-risk group was also found to be at risk for poorer functioning in young adulthood, compared to the low-risk group. The normative and the low risk groups were, by and large, similar in their adolescent and young adult functioning. The continuity and comorbidity path from middle adolescence to young adulthood may be aided and abetted by chronic as well as episodic substance use by adolescents.


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Eun Young Mun, Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers University, 607 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854; E-mail:


Hide All

This research was supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Grant R37-AA07861 awarded to Michael Windle. We are grateful to Alexander von Eye for his helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript.



Hide All
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Arminger, G., & Stein, P. (1997). Finite mixtures of covariance structure models with regressors. Sociological Methods and Research, 26, 148182.
Arminger, G., Stein, P., & Wittenberg, J. (1999). Mixtures of conditional mean- and covariance-structure models. Psychometrika, 64, 475494.
Arnett, J. J. (1992). Reckless behavior in adolescence: A developmental perspective. Developmental Review, 12, 339373.
Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. American Psychologist, 54, 317326.
Banfield, J. D., & Raftery, A. E. (1993). Model-based Gaussian and non-Gaussian clustering. Biometrics, 49, 803821.
Bauer, D. J., & Curran, P. J. (2003). Distributional assumptions of growth mixture models: Implications for overextraction of latent trajectory classes. Psychological Methods, 8, 338363.
Bauer, D. J., & Curran, P. J. (2004). The integration of continuous and discrete latent variable models: Potential problems and promising opportunities. Psychological Methods, 9, 329.
Bergman, L. R., & Magnusson, D. (1997). A person-oriented approach in research on developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 291319.
Bollen, K. A. (2002). Latent variables in psychology and the social sciences. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 605634.
Bongers, I. L., Koot, H. M., van der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2004). Developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviors in childhood and adolescence. Child Development, 75, 15231537.
Brame, B., Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2001). Developmental trajectories of physical aggression from school entry to late adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 503512.
Capaldi, D. M., & Stoolmiller, M., Clark, S., & Owen, L. D. (2002). Heterosexual risk behaviors in at-risk young men from early adolescence to young adulthood: Prevalence, prediction, and association with STD contraction. Developmental Psychology, 38, 394406.
Celeux, G., & Govaert, G. (1992). Comparison of the mixture and the classification maximum likelihood in cluster analysis. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 47, 127146.
Chassin, L., Flora, D. B., & King, K. M. (2004). Trajectories of alcohol and drug use and dependence from adolescence to adulthood: The effects of familial alcoholism and personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 483498.
Chassin, L., Pitts, S. C., & Prost, J. (2002). Heavy drinking trajectories from adolescence to emerging adulthood in a high-risk sample: Predictors and substance abuse outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 6778.
Chassin, L., Presson, C. C., Pitt, S. C., & Sherman, S. J. (2000). The natural history of cigarette smoking from adolescence to adulthood in a Midwestern community sample: Multiple trajectories and their psychosocial correlates. Health Psychology, 19, 223231.
Chassin, L., Presson, C. C., Sherman, S. J., & Edwards, D. A. (1991). Four pathways to young-adult smoking status: Adolescent social-psychological antecedents in a midwestern community sample. Health Psychology, 10, 409418.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2002). A developmental psychopathology perspective on adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 620.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1998). The development of depression in children. American Psychologist, 53, 221241.
Colder, C. R., Campbell, R. T., Ruel, E., Richardson, J. L., & Flay, B. R. (2002). A finite mixture model of growth trajectories of adolescent alcohol use: Predictors and consequences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 6778.
Colder, C. R., Mehta, P., Balanda, K., Campbell, R. T., Mayhew, K. P., & Stanton, W. R., et al. (2001). Identifying trajectories of adolescent smoking: An application of latent growth mixture modeling. Health Psychology, 20, 127135.
Crockett, L. J., Moilanen, K. L., Raffaelli, M., & Randall, B. A. (2006). Psychological profiles and adolescent adjustment: A person-centered approach. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 195214.
Dahl, R. E. (2004). Adolescent brain development: A period of vulnerabilities and opportunities. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 122.
Dolan, C. V., Schmittmann, V. D., Lubke, G. H., & Neale, M. C. (2005). Regime switching in the latent growth curve mixture model. Structural Equation Modeling, 12, 94119.
Dolan, C. V., & van der Mass, H. L. J. (1998). Fitting multivariate normal finite mixtures subject to structural equation modeling. Psychometrika, 63, 227253.
Dornbusch, S. M., Mont-Reynaud, R., Ritter, P. L., Chen, Z., Steinberg, L. (1991). Stressful events and their correlates among adolescents of diverse backgrounds. In Colten, M. E. & Gore, S. (Eds.), Adolescent stress: Causes and consequences (pp. 111130). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Dumenci, L., & Windle, M. (2001). Cluster analysis as a method of recovering types of intraindividual growth trajectories: A Monte Carlo study. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36, 501522.
Eaton, D. K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., Harris, W. A., et al. (2006). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55, 1108.
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Menard, S. (1989). Multiple problem youth. New York: Springer–Verlag.
Everitt, B. S. (2005). Finite mixture distributions. In Everitt, B. S. & Howell, D. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of statistics in behavioral science. London: Wiley.
Everitt, B. S., & Hand, D. J. (1981). Finite mixture distributions. London: Chapman & Hall CRC.
Everitt, B. S., Landau, S., & Leese, M. (2001). Cluster analysis (4th ed.). London: Arnold.
Flory, K., Lynam, D., Milich, R., Leukefeld, C., & Clayton, R. (2004). Early adolescent through young adulthood alcohol and marijuana use trajectories: Early predictors, young adult outcomes, and predictive utility. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 193213.
Fraley, C., & Raftery, A. E. (1998). How many clusters? Which clustering method? Answer via model-based cluster analysis. The Computer Journal, 41, 578588.
Fraley, C., & Raftery, A. E. (1999). MCLUST: Software for model-based cluster analysis. Journal of Classification, 16, 297–206.
Fraley, C., & Raftery, A. E. (2002a). Model-based clustering, discriminant analysis, and density estimation. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 97, 611631.
Fraley, C., & Raftery, A. E. (2002b). MCLUST: Software for model-based clustering, density estimation, and discriminant analysis (Technical Report No. 415). Seattle, WA: Department of Statistics, University of Washington.
Fraley, C., & Raftery, A. E. (2003). Enhanced software for model-based clustering, discriminant analysis, and density estimation: MCLUST. Journal of Classification, 20, 263286.
Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P. H., Loeber, R., Henry, D. B. (1998). Relation of family problems to patterns of delinquent involvement among urban youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 319333.
Grunbaum, J. A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., Lowry, R., et al. (2004). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53, 195.
Guo, J., Chung, I. J., Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Abbott, R. D. (2002). Developmental relationships between adolescent substance use and risky sexual behavior in young adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 354362.
Hand, D. J., & Bolton, R. J. (2004). Pattern discovery and detection: A unified statistical methodology. Journal of Applied Statistics, 31, 885924.
Hardin, J., & Rocke, D. M. (2002). Outlier detection in the multiple cluster setting using the minimum covariance determinant estimator. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 44, 625638.
Haselager, G. J. T., Cillessen, A. H. N., Van Lieshout, C. F. M., Riksen-Walraven, J. M. A., & Hartup, W. W. (2002). Heterogeneity among peer-rejected boys across middle childhood: Developmental pathways of social behavior. Developmental Psychology, 38, 446456.
Hill, K. G., White, H. R., Chung, I.-J., Hawkins, D., & Catalano, R. F. (2000). Early adult outcomes of adolescent heavy drinking: Person- and variable-centered analyses of heavy drinking trajectories. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 892901.
Hipp, J. R., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Local solutions in the estimation of growth mixture models. Psychological Methods, 11, 3653.
Hix-Small, H., Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & Okut, H. (2004). A multivariate associative finite growth mixture modeling approach examining adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 255270.
Insightful Corporation (19882006). S-PLUS 7 for Windows. Seattle, WA: Author.
Jedidi, K., Jagpal, H. S., & DeSarbo, W. S. (1997). STEMM: A general finite mixture structural equation model. Journal of Classification, 14, 2350.
Jessor, R., van den Bos, J., Vanderryn, J., Costa, F. M., & Turbin, M. S. (1995). Protective factors in adolescent problem behavior: Moderator effects and developmental change. Developmental Psychology, 31, 923933.
Jester, J. M., Nigg, J. T., Adams, K., Fitzgerald, H. E., Puttler, L. I., Wong, M. M., et al. (2005). Inattention/hyperactivity and aggression from early childhood to adolescence: Heterogeneity of trajectories and differential influence of family environment characteristics. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 99125.
Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (2006). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2005. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Kandel, D. (1975). Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use. Science, 190, 912914.
Kandel, D. B. (2002). Examining the gateway hypothesis: Stages and pathways of drug involvement (pp. 3–15). In Kandel, D. B. (Ed.), Stages and pathways of drug involvement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kaplow, J. B., Curran, P. J., Dodge, K. A., & the Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group (2002). Child, parent, and peer predictors of early-onset substance use: A multisite longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 199216.
Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 819.
Kim, H. K., Capaldi, D. M., & Stoolmiller, M. (2003). Depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood in men: Predictions from parental and contextual risk factors. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 469495.
Kim, J., & Cicchetti, D. (2006). Longitudinal trajectories of self-system processes and depressive symptoms among maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Child Development, 77, 624639.
Leisch, F. (2004). FlexMix: A general framework for finite mixture models and latent class regression in R. Journal of Statistical Software, 11, 118.
Little, R. J. A. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of American Statistical Association, 83, 11981202.
Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (1987). Statistical analysis with missing data. New York: Wiley.
Loeber, R., & Southamer-Loeber, M. (1998). Development of juvenile aggression and violence. American Psychologist, 53, 242259.
Lubke, G. H., & Muthén, B. (2005). Investigating population heterogeneity with factor mixture models. Psychological Methods, 10, 2139.
Magnusson, D. (2000). The individual as the organizing principle in psychological inquiry: A holistic approach. In Bergman, L. R., Cairns, R. B., Nilsson, L.-G., & Nystedt, L. (Eds.), Developmental science and the holistic approach (pp. 3348). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Masten, A. S., Burt, K. B., Roisman, G. I., Obradovic, J., Long, J. D., & Tellegen, A. (2004). Resources and resilience in the transition to adulthood: Continuity and change. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 10711094.
McLachlan, G. J., & Chang, S. U. (2004). Mixture modeling for cluster analysis. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 13, 347361.
McLachlan, G. J., Do, K., & Ambroise, C. (2004). Analyzing microarray gene expression data. New York: Wiley.
McLachlan, G., & Peel, D. (2000). Finite mixture models. New York: Wiley.
Meilă, M. (2003). Comparing clusterings by the variation of information. In Schölkopf, B. & Warmuth, M. K. (Eds.), Learning theory and kernel machines: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference on Computational Learning Theory (pp. 173187). New York: Springer.
Meilă, M. (2007). Comparing clusterings—An information based distance. Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 98, 873895.
Meredith, W. (1993). Measurement invariance, factor analysis, and factorial invariance. Psychometrika, 58, 525543.
Miller, P., & Plant, M. (2002). Heavy cannabis use among UK teenagers: An exploration. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 65, 235242.
Miller-Tutzauer, C., Leonard, K. E., & Windle, M. (1991). Marriage and alcohol use: A longitudinal study of “maturing out.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 52, 434440.
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701.
Monti, P. M., Miranda, R. Jr., Nixon, K., Sher, K. J., Swartzwelder, S., Tapert, S. F., et al. (2005). Adolescence: Booze, brain, and behavior. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 29, 207220.
Muthén, B. O. (2003). Statistical and substantive checking in growth mixture modeling: Comment on Bauer and Curran (2003). Psychological Methods, 8, 369377.
Muthén, B. O. (2006). Latent variable hybrids: Overview of old and new models. Presented at the University of Maryland Center for Integrated Latent Variable Research conference, “Mixture Models in Latent Variable Research,” May 18–19, 2006.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (19982006). Mplus user's guide (4th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.
Muthén, B. O., & Shedden, K. (1999). Finite mixture modeling with mixture outcomes using the EM algorithm. Biometrics, 55, 463469.
Nagin, D. S. (1999). Analyzing developmental trajectories: A semi-parametric, group-based approach. Psychological Methods, 4, 139157.
Nagin, D. S. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nagin, D. S., Farrington, D. P., & Moffitt, T. E. (1995). Life-course trajectories of different types of offenders. Criminology, 33, 111139.
Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (1999). Trajectories of boys' physical aggression, and opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 70, 11811196.
Needham, R. M. (1965). Computer methods for classification and grouping. In Hymes, I. (Ed.), The use of computers in anthropology (Vol. 11, pp. 91110). The Hague: Mouton.
Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1988). Consequences of adolescent drug use: Impact on the lives of young adults. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Orlando, M., Tucker, J. S., Ellickson, P. L., & Klein, D. J. (2004). Developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking and their correlates from early adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 400410.
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427441.
Potter, C. C., & Jenson, J. M. (2003). Cluster profiles of multiple problem youth. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30, 230250.
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401.
Raffaelli, M., & Crockett, L. J. (2003). Sexual risk taking in adolescence: The role of self-regulation and attraction to risk. Developmental Psychology, 39, 10361046.
Reyna, V. F., & Farley, F. (2006). Risk and rationality in adolescent decision making. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 7, 144.
Rindskopf, D. (2003). Mixture or homogeneous? Comment on Bauer and Curran (2003). Psychological Methods, 8, 364368.
Sadeh, A., Gruber, R., & Raviv, A. (2002). Sleep, neurobehavioral functioning, and behavior problems in school-age children. Child Development, 73, 405417.
Sampson, R. J., Laub, J. H., & Wimer, C. (2006). Does marriage reduce crime? A counterfactual approach to within-individual causal effects. Criminology, 44, 465508.
Schafer, J. L. (1997). Analysis of incomplete multivariate data. New York: Chapman & Hall.
Schulenberg, J., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Wadsworth, K. N., & Johnston, L. D. (1996). Getting drunk and growing up: Trajectories of frequent heavy drinking during the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57, 289304.
Schulenberg, J., Sameroff, A. J., & Cicchetti, D. (2004). The transition to adulthood as a critical juncture in the course of psychopathology and mental health. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 799806.
Shiffman, S., Kassel, J., Paty, J., Gnys, P., & Zettler-Segal, M. (1994). Smoking typology profiles of chippers and regular smokers. Journal of Substance Abuse, 6, 2135.
SPSS Inc. (19892004). SPSS 13.0 for Windows. Chicago: Author.
Steinley, D. (2003). Local optima in K-means clustering: What you don't know may hurt you. Psychological Methods, 8, 294304.
Stoolmiller, M., Kim, H. K., & Capaldi, D. M. (2005). The course of depressive symptoms in men from early adolescence to young adulthood: Identifying latent trajectories and early predictors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 331345.
Tarter, R. E., & Vanyukov, M. (1994). Alcoholism: A developmental disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 10961107.
Tonidandel, S., & Overall, J. E. (2004). Determining the number of clusters by sampling with replacement. Psychological Methods, 9, 238249.
Tubman, J. G., Vicary, J. R., von Eye, A., & Lerner, J. V. (1990). Longitudinal substance use and adult adjustment. Journal of Substance Abuse, 2, 317334.
Tubman, J. G., & Windle, M. (1995). Continuity of difficult temperament in adolescence: Relations with depression, life events, family support, and substance use across a one-year period. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 133153.
Tucker, J. S., Ellickson, P. L., & Klein, D. J. (2002). Smoking cessation during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 4, 321332.
Tucker, J. S., Orlando, M., & Ellickson, P. L. (2003). Patterns and correlates of binge drinking trajectories from early adolescence to young adulthood. Health Psychology, 22, 7987.
van der Kloot, W. A., Spaans, A. M. J., & Heiser, W. J. (2005). Instability of hierarchical cluster analysis due to input order of the data: The PermuCLUSTER solution. Psychological Methods, 10, 468476.
Venables, W. N., & Ripley, B. D. (2002). Modern applied statistics with S (4th ed.). New York: Springer.
von Eye, A. (2002). Configural frequency analysis: Methods, models, and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
von Eye, A., & Bergman, L. R. (2003). Research strategies in developmental psychopathology: Dimensional identity and the person-oriented approach. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 553580.
von Eye, A. & Mun, E. Y. (2005). Analyzing rater agreement. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
von Eye, A., Mun, E. Y., & Indurkhya, A. (2004). Typifying developmental trajectories—A decision making perspective. Psychology Science, 1, 6598.
White, H. R., Pandina, R. J., & Chen, P-H. (2002). Developmental trajectories of cigarette use from early adolescence into young adulthood. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 65, 167178.
Wiesner, M., & Capaldi, D. (2003). Relations of childhood and adolescent factors to offending trajectories of young men. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40, 231262.
Wiesner, M., & Kim, H. K., & Capaldi, D. (2005). Developmental trajectories of offending: Validation and prediction to young adult alcohol use, drug use, and depressive symptoms. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 120.
Wills, T. A., & Cleary, S. D. (1997). The validity of self-reports of smoking: Analyses by race/ethnicity in a school sample of urban adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 5661.
Wilsnack, S. C., Plaud, J. J., Wilsnack, R. W., & Klassen, A. D. (1997). Sexuality, gender, and alcohol use. In Wilsnack, R. W. & Wilsnack, S. C. (Eds.), Gender and alcohol (pp. 250287). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Center of Alcohol Studies.
Windle, M. (1989). Predicting temperament-mental health relationships: A covariance structure latent variable analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 23, 118144.
Windle, M. (1991). The difficult temperament in adolescence: Associations with substance use, family support, and problem behaviors. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47, 310315.
Windle, M. (1992). The Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R): Simultaneous group confirmatory factor analysis for adolescent gender groups. Psychological Assessment, 4, 228234.
Windle, M. (1996). An alcohol involvement typology for adolescents: Convergent validity and longitudinal stability. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57, 627637.
Windle, M., & Lerner, R. M. (1986). Reassessing the dimensions of temperamental individuality across the lifespan: The Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R). Journal of Adolescent Research, 1, 213230.
Windle, M., & Mun, E. Y. (2006). The course of depressive symptoms from ages 14 through 30: Growth mixture modeling and young adulthood outcomes. Unpublished manuscript.
Windle, M., Mun, E. Y., & Windle, R. C. (2005). Adolescent-to-young adulthood heavy drinking trajectories and their prospective predictors. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66, 313322.
Windle, M., & Wiesner, M. (2004). Trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood: Predictors and outcomes. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 10071027.
Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., Henly, G. A., & Schwartz, R. H. (1991). Validity of adolescent self-reports of alcohol and other drug involvement. The International Journal of Addictions, 25, 13791395.
Wong, M. M., Brower, K. J., Fitzgerald, H. E., & Zucker, R. A. (2004). Sleep problems in early childhood and early onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 28, 578587.
World Health Organisation. (1997). Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Version 2.0. Geneva: Author.
Yeung, K. Y., Fraley, C., Murua, A., Raftery, A. E., & Ruzzo, W. L. (2001). Model-based clustering and data transformations for gene expression data. Bioinformatics, 17, 977987.
Zucker, R. A., Ellis, D. A., Bingham, C. R., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (1996). The development of alcoholic subtypes. Alcohol Health & Research World, 20, 4654.
Zucker, R. A., Fitzgerald, H. E., & Moses, H. D. (1995). Emergence of alcohol problems and the severe alcoholisms: A developmental perspective on etiological theory and life course trajectory. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. (Eds.), Manual of developmental psychopathology (Vol., 2, pp. 677711). New York: Wiley.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed