Skip to main content Accessibility help

Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: Modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project

  • Paul R. Smokowski (a1) (a2), Shenyang Guo (a2), Roderick Rose (a2), Caroline B. R. Evans (a2), Katie L. Cotter (a2) and Martica Bacallao (a1) (a2)...

The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Paul R. Smokowski, School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 3550, 325 Pittsboro Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3550; E-mail:
Hide All
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth and Families.
Alexander, K., Entwisle, D., & Horsey, C. (1997). From first grade forward: Early foundations of high school dropout. Sociology of Education, 70, 87107. doi:10.2307/2673158
Allen, J. P., Porter, M. R., & McFarland, F. C. (2006). Leaders and followers in adolescent close friendships: Susceptibility to peer influence as a predictor of risky behavior, friendship instability, and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 155172.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Angold, A., Erkanli, A., Farmer, E., Fairbank, J., Burns, B., Keeler, G., et al. (2002). Psychiatric disorder, impairment, and service use in rural African American and White youth. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 893901. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.59.10.893
Arslan, C. (2009). Anger, self-esteem, and perceived social support in adolescence. Social Behavior and Personality, 37, 555564. doi:10.2224/sbp.2009.37.4.555
Atav, S., & Spencer, G. A. (2002). Health risk behaviors among adolescents attending rural, suburban, and urban schools: A comparative study. Family and Community Health, 17(12), 5364. doi:10.1097/00003727-200207000-00007
Bachman, J. G., O'Malley, P. M., Freedman-Doan, P., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Donnellan, M. B. (2011). Adolescent self-esteem: Differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Self and Identity, 10, 445473. doi:10.1080/15298861003794538
Bagley, C., & Mallick, K. (1997). Self-esteem and religiosity: Comparison of 13- to 15-year-old students in Catholic and public junior high schools. Canadian Society for the Study of Education, 22, 8992.
Barrett, A., & Turner, R. J. (2005). Family structure and mental health: The mediating effects of socioeconomic status, family structure, family process, and social stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46, 156169. doi:10.1177/002214650504600203
Beeri, A., & Lev-Wiesel, R. (2012). Social rejection by peers: A risk factor for psychological distress. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17, 216221. doi:10.1111/j.1475-3588.2011.00637.x
Birmaher, B., Ryan, N. D., Willamson, D. E., Brent, D. A., Kaufman, J., Dahl, R. E., et al. (1996). Childhood and adolescent depression: A review of the past 10 years (Part I). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 14271439. doi:10.1097/00004583-199611000-00011
Blash, R. R., & Unger, D. G. (1995). Self-concept of African-American male youth: Self-esteem and ethnic identity. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 4, 359373. doi:10.1007/BF02233968
Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In Richardson, J. (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241258). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Boutelle, K., Eisenberg, M. E., Gregory, M. L., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2009). The reciprocal relationship between parent–child connectedness and adolescent emotional functioning over 5 years. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 66, 309316. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.10.019
Bowen, G. L., & Richman, J. M. (2008). The School Success Profile. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.
Bowen, G. L., Rose, R. A., & Bowen, N. K. (2005). The reliability and validity of the School Success Profile. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris.
Bronfrenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bronfrenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological models of human development. In Husén, T. & Postlethwaite, T. N. (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education (Vol. 3, 2nd ed.). Oxford/New York: Pergamon/Elsevier.
Bynner, J. M., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (1981). Self-esteem and delinquency revisited. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 10, 407441.
Byun, S. Y., Meece, J. L., & Irvin, M. J. (2012), Rural–nonrural disparities in postsecondary attainment revisited. American Educational Research Journal, 49, 412437. doi:10.3102/0002831211416344
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). School connectedness. Retrieved from
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Youth risk behavior surveillance system. Retrieved from
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2009). The past achievements and future promises of developmental psychopathology: The coming of age of a discipline. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 1625. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01979.x
Clark, J., & Barber, B. L. (1994). Adolescents in post-divorce and always-married families: Self-esteem and perceptions of fathers' interest. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 608614. doi:10.2307/352871
Colarossi, L. G., & Eccles, J. S. (2003). Differential effects of support providers on adolescents' mental health. Social Work Research, 27, 1930. doi:10.1093/swr/27.1.19
Coleman, J. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94(Suppl.), S95S120.
Corenblum, B., & Armstrong, H. D. (2012). Racial–ethnic identity development in children in a racial–ethnic minority group. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 44, 124137. doi:10.1037/a0027154
Crick, N. R., Ostrov, J. M., & Werner, N. E. (2006). A longitudinal study of relational aggression, physical aggression, and children's social–psychological adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 131142.
Croninger, R. G., & Lee, V. E. (2001). Social capital and dropping out of high school: Benefits to at-risk students of teachers' support and guidance. Teachers College Record, 103, 548581. doi:10.1111/0161-4681.00127
Dika, S. L., & Singh, K. (2002) Applications of social capital in educational literature: A critical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 72, 3160. doi:10.3102/00346543072001031
Donahue, M. J. (1995). Religion and well-being of adolescents. Journal of Social Issues, 51, 145160. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1995.tb01328.x
Donnellan, M. B., Trzesniewski, K. H., Robins, R. W., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 16, 328335.
Eamon, M. K. (2002). Influences and mediators of the effects of poverty on young adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(3), 231242. doi:10.1023/A:1015089304006
Farrell, L., Sijbenga, A., & Barrett, P. (2009). An examination of childhood anxiety, depression and self-esteem across socioeconomic groups: A comparison study between high and low socioeconomic status school communities. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 2, 518. doi:10.1080/1754730X.2009.9715694
Ferris, J. S., & West, E. G. (2004). Economies of scale, school violence, and the optimal size of schools. Applied Economics, 36, 16771684. doi:10.1080/0003684042000266856
Finn, J. K. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59, 117142. doi:10.3102/00346543059002117
Garnefski, N., & Diekstra, R. F. W. (1997). Adolescents from one parent, stepparent and intact families: Emotional problems and suicide attempts. Journal of Adolescence, 20, 201208. doi:10.1006/jado.1996.0077
Glendinning, A. (1998). Family life, health, and lifestyles in rural areas: The role of self-esteem. Health Education, 98, 5968. doi:10.1108/09654289810199829
Goodman, E., Huang, B., Wade, T. J., & Kahn, R. S. (2003). A multilevel analysis of the relation of socioeconomic status to adolescent depressive symptoms: Does school context matter? Journal of Pediatrics, 143, 451456. doi:10.1067/S0022-3476(03)00456-6
Goodman, E., Slap, G. B., & Huang, B. (2003). The public health impact of socioeconomic status on adolescent depression and obesity. Adolescent Health, 93, 18441850. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.11.1844
Green, E. J., Myrick, A. C., & Crenshaw, D. A. (2013). Toward secure attachment in adolescent relational development: Advancements from sandplay and expressive play-based interventions. International Journal of Play and Therapy, 22, 90103. doi:10.1037/10032323
Greene, W. H. (2003). Econometric analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Guerra, N. G., Williams, K. R., & Sadek, S. (2011). Understanding bullying and victimization during childhood and adolescence: A mixed methods study. Child Development, 82, 295310. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01556.x.
Guin, K. (2004). Chronic teacher turnover in urban elementary school. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12(42), 125.
Guo, S. (2005). Analyzing grouped data with hierarchical linear modeling. Children and Youth Services Review 27, 637–65. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.11.017
Hankin, B. L. (2006). Adolescent depression: Description, causes and interventions. Epilepsy & Behavior, 8, 102114. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2005.10.012
Haycock, K. (1998). Good teaching matters: How well-qualified teachers can close the gap. Washington, DC: Education Trust.
Huebner, E. S., & Gilman, R. (2006). Students who like and dislike school. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1, 139150. doi:10.1007/s11482-006-9001-3
Hunsberger, B., Pratt, M., & Pancer, M. (2001). Religious versus nonreligious socialization: Does religious background have implications for adjustment? International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 11, 105128. doi:10.1207/S15327582IJPR1102_03
Hurd, N. M., Stoddard, S. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2013). Neighborhoods, social support, and African American adolescents' mental health outcomes: A multilevel path analysis. Child Development, 84, 858874. doi:10.1111/cdev.12018
Kaltiala-Heino, R., Rimpelä, M., Marttunen, M., Rimpelä, A., & Rantanen, P. (1999). Bullying, depression, and suicidal ideation in Finnish adolescents: School survey. British Journal of Medicine, 319, 348351. doi:
Kaplan, H. B. (1980). Deviant behavior in defense of the self. New York: Academic Press.
Kerr, D. C. R., Reinke, W. M., & Eddy, M. (2013). Trajectories of depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors across adolescence: Associations with histories of suicide attempt and ideation in early adult hood. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 43, 5066. doi:10.1111/j.1943-278X.2012.00127.x
Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 819. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950010008002
Kiang, L., Witkow, M. R., & Champagne, M. C. (2012). Normative changes in ethnic and American identities and links with adjustment among Asian American adolescents. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0030840
Kupersmidt, J. B., & Coie, J. D. (1990). Preadolescent peer status, aggression, and school adjustment as predictors of externalizing problems in adolescence. Child Development, 61, 13501362. doi:10.2307/1130747
La Greca, A. M., & Harrison, H. M. (2005). Adolescent peer relations, friendships, and romantic relationships: Do they predict social anxiety and depression? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 34, 4961.
Laible, D. J., Carlo, G., & Roesch, S. C. (2004). Pathways to self-esteem in late adolescence: The role of parent and peer attachment, empathy, and social behaviours. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 703716. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2004.05.005
Le, T. N., Tov, W., & Taylor, J. (2007). Religiousness and depressive symptoms in five ethnic adolescent groups. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 17, 209232. doi:10.1080/10508610701402259
Little, R. A., & Rubin, D. B. (2002). Statistical analysis with missing data (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Lleras, C. (2008). Hostile school climates: Explaining differential risk of student exposure to disruptive learning environments in high school. Journal of School Violence, 7, 105135. doi:10.1080/15388220801955604
Lopez, C., & DuBois, D. L. (2005). Peer victimization and rejection: Investigation of an integrative model of effects on emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment in early adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 34, 2536. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3401_3
Mandara, J., Richards, M. H., Gaylord-Harden, & Ragsdale, B. F. (2009). The effects of changes in racial identity and self-esteem on changes in African American adolescents' mental health. Child Development, 80, 16601675. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01360.x
Marmorstein, N. R., & Iacono, W. G. (2004). Major depression and conduct disorder in youth: Associations with parental psychopathology and parent–child conflict. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 377386. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00228.x
Marsee, M., Weems, C., & Taylor, L. (2008). Exploring the association between aggression and anxiety in youth: A look at aggressive subtypes, gender, and social cognition. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 17, 154168. doi:10.1007/s10826-007-9154-1
Mason, W. A. (2001). Self-esteem and delinquency revisited (again): A test of Kaplan's self-derogation theory of delinquency using latent growth curve modeling. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 83102. doi:10.1023/A:1005276905961
McCabe, K., & Barnett, D. (2000). First comes work, then comes marriage: Future orientation among African American young adolescents. Family Relations, 49, 6370. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2000.00063.x
Merikangas, K. R., He, J., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., et al. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication—Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 980989. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017
Miller, B., & Taylor, J. (2012). Racial and socioeconomic status differences in depressive symptoms among Black and White youth: An examination of the mediating effects of family structure, stress, and support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 426437. doi:10.1007/s10964-011-9672-4
National Survey of Children's Health. (2007). Data query from child and adolescent health measurement initiative. Retrieved from
Negriff, S., & Susman, E. J. (2011). Pubertal timing, depression, and externalizing problems: A framework, review, and examination of gender differences. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 717746. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00708.x
Nurmi, J. E. (1991). How do adolescents see their future? A review of the development of future orientation and planning. Developmental Review, 11, 159. doi:10.1016/0273-2297(91)90002-6
Nurmi, J. E., & Pulliainen, H. (1991). The changing parent–child relationship, self-esteem, and intelligence as determinants of orientation to the future during early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 14, 3551. doi:10.1016/0140-1971(91)90044-R
O'Moore, M., & Kirkham, C. (2001). Self-esteem and its relationship to bullying behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 269283.
Owens, M., Stevenson, J., Hadwin, J. A., & Norgate, R. (2012). Anxiety and depression in academic performance: An exploration of mediating factors of worry and memory making. School Psychology International, 33, 433449. doi:10.1177/0143034311427433
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357389.
Philips, T. M. (2012). The influence of family structure versus family climate on adolescent well-being. Child Adolescent Social Work Journal, 29, 103110. doi:10.1007/s10560-012 0254-4
Phinney, J. S., & Chaviara, V. (1992). Ethnic identity and self-esteem: An exploratory longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescence, 15, 271281. doi:10.1016/01401971(92)90030-9
Phinney, J. S., Horenczyk, G., Liebkind, K., & Vedder, P. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and well-being: An interactional perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 493510. doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00225
Phinney, J. S., & Ong, A. D. (2007). Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity: Current Status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 271281. doi:10.1037/t00335-000
Polgar, M., & Auslander, W. (2009). HIV prevention for youths in foster care: Understanding future orientation and intended risk behaviors. Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services, 8, 397413. doi:10.1080/15381500903417646
Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: Its origins and applications in modem sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 124. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.24.1.1
Prinz, R. J., Foster, S., Kent, R. N., & O'Leary, K. D. (1979). Multivariate assessment of conflict in distressed and nondistresssed mother–adolescent dyads. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 691700. doi:10.1901/jaba.1979.12-691
Provasnik, S., Ramani, A. K., Coleman, M. M., Gilbertson, L., Herring, W., & Xie, Q. (2007). Status of education in rural America (NCES 2007–040) . Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Puskar, K. R., Bernardo, L. M., Ren, D., Haley, T. M., Tark, K. H., Switala, J., et al. (2010). Self-esteem and optimism in rural youth: Gender differences. Contemporary Nurse, 34, 190198. doi:10.5172/conu.2010.34.2.190
Rasic, D., Kisely, S., & Langille, D. B. (2011). Protective associations of importance of religion and frequency service attendance with depression risk, suicidal behaviors and substance use in adolescents in Nova Scotia, Canada. Journal of Affective Disorders, 132, 389395. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.03.007
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Reddy, R., Rhodes, J. E., & Mulhall, P. (2003). The influence of teacher support on student adjustment in the middle school years: A latent growth curve study. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 119138. doi:10.1017/S0954579403000075
Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., et al. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 823832. doi:10.1001/jama.1997.03550100049038
Roberts, R. E., Attkisson, C., & Rossenblatt, A. (1998). Prevalence of psychopathology among children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 715725.
Roberts, R. E., Roberts, C. R., & Chen, Y. R. (1997). Ethnocultural differences in the prevalence of adolescent depression. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 95110. doi:10.1023/A:1024649925737
Roberts, R. E., & Sobhan, M. (1992). Symptoms of depression in adolescence: A comparison of Anglo, African, and Hispanic Americans. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 639651. doi:10.1007/BF01538736
Rosario, M., Salzinger, S., Feldman, R. S., & Ng-Mak, D. (2008). Intervening processes between youths' exposure to community violence and internalizing symptoms over time: The roles of social support and coping. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 4362. doi:10.1007/s10464-007-9147-7
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rueger, S. Y., Malekci, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2008). Gender differences in the relationship between perceived social support and student adjustment during early adolescence. School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 496514. doi:10.1016/0047-2352(95)00046-1
Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2010). Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Comparisons across gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 4761. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9368-6
Salmon, G., James, A., Cassidy, E. L., & Javaloyes, M. A. (2000). Bullying a review: Presentations to an adolescent psychiatric service and within a school for emotionally and behaviourally disturbed children. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5, 563579. doi:10.1177/1359104500005004010
Saluja, G., Iachan, R., Scheidt, P. C., Overpeck, M. D., Wun, W., & Giedd, J. N. (2004). Prevalence of and risk factors for depressive symptoms among young adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 158, 760765. doi:10.1001/archpedi.158.8.760
Schmitz, M. F. (2006). Influence of social and family contexts on self-esteem of Latino youth. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 28, 516530. doi:10.1177/0739986306293999
Seals, D., & Young, J. (2003). Bullying and victimization: Prevalence and relationship to gender, grade level, ethnicity, self-esteem, and depression. Adolescence, 38, 735747.
Seginer, R. (2008). Future orientation in times of threat and challenge: How resilient adolescents construct their future. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32, 272282. doi:10.1177/0165025408090970
Shagle, S. C., & Barber, B. K. (1993). Effects of family, marital, and parent–child conflict on adolescent self-derogation and suicidal ideation. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 964974. doi:10.2307/352776
Shek, D. T. S. (1997). The relation of parent–adolescent conflict to adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Social Behavior and Personality, 25, 277290. doi:10.2224/sbp.1997.25.3.277
Smith, C. B., Weigert, A. J., & Thomas, D. L. (1979). Self-esteem and religiosity: An analysis of Catholic adolescents from five cultures. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 18, 5160. doi:10.2307/1385378
Smokowski, P. R., & Bacallao, M. L. (2007). Acculturation, internalizing mental health symptoms, and self-esteem: Cultural experiences of Latino adolescents in North Carolina. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 37, 273292. doi:10.1007/s10578-006-00354
Smokowski, P. R., Cotter, K. L., Robertson, C. I. B., & Guo, S. (2013). Anxiety and aggression in rural youth: Baseline results from the Rural Adaptation Project. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44, 479492. doi:10.1007/s10578-012-0342-x
Smokowski, P. R., & Kopasz, K. (2005). Bullying in school: An overview of types, effects, family characteristics, and intervention strategies. Children & Schools, 27, 101110.
Stewart, T., & Suldo, S. (2011). Relationships between social support sources and early adolescents' mental health: The moderating effect of student achievement level. Psychology in the Schools, 48, 10161033. doi:10.1002/pits.20607
Storch, E. A., Bagner, D. M., Geffken, G. R., & Baumeister, A. L. (2004). Association between overt and relational aggression and psychosocial adjustment in undergraduate college students. Violence and Victims, 19, 689700. doi:10.1891/vivi.19.6.689.66342
Street, J., Harris-Britt, A., & Walker-Barnes, C. (2009). Examining relationships between ethnic identity, family environment, and psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 412420. doi:10.1007/s10826-008-9245-7
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011, April). The NSDUH Report: Major depressive episode and treatment among adolescents—2009. Retrieved from
Suldo, S. M., Shaunessy, E., Thalji, A., Michalowski, J., & Shaffer, E. (2009). Sources of stress for students in high school college preparatory and general education program: Group differences and association with adjustment. Adolescence, 44, 925948.
Sweeting, H., Young, R., West, P., & Der, G. (2006). Peer victimization and depression in early–mid adolescence: A longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 577594. doi:10.1348/000709905X49890
Trzesniewski, K. H., Donnellan, M. B., Moffitt, T. E., Robins, R. W., Poulton, R., & Caspi, A. (2006). Low self-esteem during adolescence predicts poor health, criminal behavior, and limited economic prospects during adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 42, 381390. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.2.381
Twenge, J. M., & Crocker, J. (2002). Race and self-esteem: Meta-analyses comparing Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians and comment on Gray-Little and Hafdahl (2000). Psychological Bulletin, 128, 371408. doi:10.1037//0033-2909.128.3.371
Twenge, J. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2002). Gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort differences on children's depression inventory: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 578588. doi:10.1037//0021-843X.111.4.578
Tynes, B. M., Rose, C. A., Anderson, C. J., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Lin, J. (2012). Online racial discrimination and the protective function of ethnic identity and self-esteem for African American adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 48, 343355. doi:10.1037/a0027032
Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2007). Latino adolescents' mental health: Exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 549567. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.08.002
US Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Programs. (2001). Rural victim assistance: A victim/witness guide for rural prosecutors (NCJ No. 21106). Retrieved from
Vine, M., Stoep, A. V., Bell, J., Rhew, I. C., Gudmundsen, G., & McCauley, E. (2012). Associations between household and neighborhood income and anxiety symptoms in young adolescents. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 824832. doi:10.1002/da.21948
Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2002). Reactively and proactively aggressive children: Antecedent and subsequent characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 495505. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00040
Wagner, J., Ludtke, O., Jonkmann, K., & Trautwein, U. (2013). Cherish yourself: Longitudinal patterns and conditions of self-esteem change in the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 148163. doi:10.1037/a0029680
Walker, H. M., & Gresham, F. M. (1997). Making schools safer and violence free. Intervention in School and Clinic, 32, 199204. doi:10.1177/105345129703200402
Walsemann, K. M., Bell, B. A., & Maitra, D. (2011). The intersection of school racial composition and student race/ethnicity on adolescent depressive and somatic symptoms. Social Science & Medicine, 72, 18731883.
Wiltfang, G. L., & Scarbecz, M. (1990). Social class and adolescents' self-esteem: Another look. Social Psychology Quarterly, 53, 174183.
Witherspoon, D., Scotland, M., Way, N., & Hughes, D. (2009). Connecting the dots: How connectedness to multiple contexts influences the psychological and academic adjustment of urban youth. Applied Developmental Science, 13, 199216. doi:10.1080/10888690903288755
Woodward, L. J., & Fergusson, D. M. (2001). Life course outcomes of young people with anxiety disorders in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 10861093. doi:10.1097/00004583-200109000-00018
Yip, T., Sellers, R. M., & Seaton, E. K. (2006). African American racial identity across the lifespan: Identity status, identity content, and depressive symptoms. Child Development, 77, 15041517. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00950.x
Zeiders, K. H., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Derlan, C. L. (2013). Trajectories of depressive symptoms and self-esteem in Latino youths: Examining the role of gender and perceived discrimination. Developmental Psychology, 49, 951963. doi:10.1037/a0028866
Zimmerman, M. A., Copeland, L. A., Shope, J. T., & Dielman, T. E. (1997). A longitudinal study of self-esteem: Implications for adolescent development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26, 117141. doi:10.1023/A:1024596313925
Zimmermann, F., Schutte, K., Taskinen, P., & Koller, O. (2013). Reciprocal effects between adolescent externalizing problems and measures of achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0032793
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed