Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Altered functioning in three mental domains

  • Walter Matthys (a1) (a2), Louk J. M. J. Vanderschuren (a1) (a2) and Dennis J. L. G. Schutter (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to stress, amygdala hyporeactivity to negative stimuli, and altered serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission suggest low punishment sensitivity, which may compromise the ability of children and adolescents to make associations between inappropriate behaviors and forthcoming punishments. Second, sympathetic nervous system hyporeactivity to incentives, low basal heart rate associated with sensation seeking, orbitofrontal cortex hyporeactiviy to reward, and altered dopamine functioning suggest a hyposensitivity to reward. The associated unpleasant emotional state may make children and adolescents prone to sensation-seeking behavior such as rule breaking, delinquency, and substance abuse. Third, impairments in executive functions, especially when motivational factors are involved, as well as structural deficits and impaired functioning of the paralimbic system encompassing the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex, suggest impaired cognitive control over emotional behavior. In the discussion we argue that more insight into the neurobiology of oppositional defiance disorder and conduct disorder may be obtained by studying these disorders separately and by paying attention to the heterogeneity of symptoms within each disorder.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Walter Matthys, University Medical Center Utrecht, B01.324, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands; E-mail: w.matthys@umcutrecht.nl.
References
Hide All
aan het Rot M., Coupland N., Boivin D. B., Benkelfat C., & Young S. N. (2010). Recognizing emotions in faces: Effects of acute tryptophan depletion and bright light. Psychopharmacology, 24, 14471454.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Angold A., Costello J. E., & Erkanli A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 5787.
Aston-Jones G., & Cohen J. D. (2005). An integrative theory of locus coeruleus–norepinephrine function: Adaptive gain and optimal performance. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 403450.
Balleine B. W., & Killcross S. (2006). Parallel incentive processing: An integral view of amygdala functioning. Trends in Neurosciences, 29, 272279.
Barry R. J., Clarke A. R., & Johnstone S. J. (2003). A review of electrophysiology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Qualitative and quantitative electroencephalography. Clinical Neurophysiology, 114, 171183.
Bartzokis G., Lu P. H., Beckson M., Rapaport R., Grant S., Wiseman M., et al. (2000). Abstinence from cocaine reduces high-risk response on a gambling task. Neuropsychopharmacology, 22, 102103.
Bauer L. O., & Hesselbrock V. M. (1999). Subtypes of family history and conduct disorder: Effects on P300 during the Stroop test. Neuropsychopharmacology, 21, 5162.
Baving L., Rellum T., Laucht M., & Schmidt M. H. (2006). Children with oppositional–defiant disorder display deviant attentional processing independent of ADHD symptoms. Journal of Neural Transmission, 113, 685693.
Beachaine T. P. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray's motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183214.
Beauchaine T. P., Gatzke-Kopp L., & Mead H. K. (2007). Polyvagal theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74, 174184.
Beauchaine T. P, Hong J., & Marsh P. (2008). Sex differences in autonomic correlates of conduct problems and aggression. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 788796.
Bechara A., Damasio A. R., Damasio H., & Anderson S. W. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50, 715.
Bechara A., Dolan S., Denburg N., Hindes A., Anderson S. W., & Nathan P. E. (2001). Decision-making deficits, linked to a dysfunctional ventromedial prefrontal cortex, revealed in alcohol and stimulant abusers. Neuropsychologia, 39, 376389.
Beitchman J. H., Baldassarra L., Mik H., De Luca V., King N., Bender D., et al. (2006). Serotonin transporter polymorphisms and persistent, pervasive childhood aggression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 11031105.
Berridge C. W., & Waterhouse B. D. (2003). The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system: Modulation of behavioral state and state-dependent cognitive processes. Brain Research Reviews, 42, 3384.
Berridge K. C. (2007). The debate over dopamine's role in reward: The case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology, 191, 391431.
Birmaher B., Stanley M., Greenhill L., Twomey J., Gavrilescu A., & Rabinovich H. (1990). Platelet imipramine binding in children and adolescents with impulsive behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 914918.
Blair R. J. R. (2004). The roles of orbital frontal cortex in the modulation of antisocial behaviour. Brain and Cognition, 55, 198208.
Blair R. J. R. (2007). Dysfunctions of medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex in psychopathy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1121, 461479.
Blair R. J. R., Colledge E., & Mitchell D. G. V. (2001). Somatic markers and response reversal: Is there orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in boys with psychopathic tendencies? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 499511.
Blair R. J. R., Colledge E., Murray L., & Mitchell D. G. V. (2001). A selective impairment in the processing of sad and fearful expressions in children with psychopathic tendencies. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 491498.
Buckholtz J. W., Treadway M. T., Cowan R. L., Woodward N. D., Benning S. D., Li R., et al. (2010). Mesolimbic dopamine reward system hypersensitivity in individuals with psychopathic traits. Nature Neuroscience, 13, 419421.
Bussing R., Grudnik J., Mason D., Wasiak M., & Leonard C. (2002). ADHD and conduct disorder: An MRI study in a community sample. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 3, 216220.
Cappadocia M. C., Desrocher M., Pepler D., & Schroeder J. H. (2009). Contextualizing the neurobiology of conduct disorder in an emotion dysregulation framework. Clinical Psychological Review, 29, 506518.
Cardinal R. N., Parkinson J. A., Hall J., & Everitt B. J. (2002). Emotion and motivation: The role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 321352.
Caspi A., Hariri A., Holmes A., Uher R., & Moffitt T. E. (2010). Genetic sensitivity to the environment: The case of the serotonin transporter gene and its implications for studying complex diseases and traits. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 509527.
Caspi A., Langley K., Milne B., Moffitt T. E., O'Donovan M., Owen M., et al. (2008). A replicated molecular genetic basis for subtyping antisocial behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 203210.
Caspi A., McClay J., Moffitt T., Mill J., Martin J., Craig I. W., et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851854.
Chamberlain S. R., Müller U., Robbins T. W., & Sahakian B. J. (2006). Neuropharmacological modulation of cognition. Current Opinion in Neurology, 19, 607612.
Connor D. F., Glatt S., Lopez I., Jackson D., & Melloni R. (2002). Psychopharmacology and aggression. I. A meta analysis of stimulant effects on overt–covert aggression-related behaviors in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 253261.
Cools R., Calder A. J., Lawrence A. D., Clark L., Bullmore E., & Robbins T. W. (2005). Individual differences in threat sensitivity predict serotonergic modulation of amygdala response to fearful faces. Psychopharmacology, 180, 670679.
Cools R., Roberts A. C., & Robbins T. W. (2008). Serotoninergic regulation of emotional and behavioural control processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 3140.
Crowell S., Beauchaine T. P., Gatzke-Kopp L., Sylvers P., Mead H., & Chipman-Chacon J. (2006). Autonomic correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 174178.
Dadds M. R., El Masry Y., Wimalaweera S., & Guastella A. J. (2008). Reduced eye gaze explains “fear blindness” in childhood psychopathic traits. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 455463.
Dalley J. W., Cardinal R. N., & Robbins T. W. (2004). Prefrontal executive and cognitive functions in rodents: Neural and neurochemical substrates. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 28, 771784.
Daugherty T. K., & Quay H. C. (1991). Response perseveration and delayed responding in childhood behavior disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 453461.
De Brito S. A., Mechelli A., Wilke M., Laurens K. R., Jones A. P., Barker G. J., et al. (2009). Size matters: Increased grey matter in boys with conduct problems and callous–unemotional traits. Brain, 132, 843852.
Decety J., Michalska K. J., Akitsuki Y., & Lahey B. B. (2009). Atypical empathic responses in adolescents with aggressive conduct disorder: A functional MRI investigation. Biological Psychology, 80, 203211.
Durston S., Hulshoff Pol H. E., Casey B. J., Giedd J. N., Buitelaar J. K., & van Engeland H. (2001). Anatomical MRI of the developing human brain: What have we learned? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 21492157.
El-Sheikh M., Ballard M., & Cummings E. M. (1994). Individual differences in preschoolers’ physiological and verbal responses to videotaped angry interactions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 303320.
Ernst M., Grant S. J., London E. D., Contoreggi C. S., Kimes A. S., & Spurgeon L. (2003). Decision making in adolescents with behaviour disorders and adults with substance abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 3340.
Fairchild G., van Goozen S. H. M., Stollery S. J., Aitken M. R. F., Savage J., Moore S. C., et al. (2009). Decision making and executive function in male adolescents with early-onset or adolescence-onset conduct disorder and control subjects. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 162168.
Fairchild G., van Goozen S. H. M., Stollery S. J., & Goodyer I. (2008). Fear conditioning and affective modulation of the startle reflex in male adolescents with early-onset or adolescence onset conduct disorder and healthy control subjects. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 279285.
Findling R. L., McNamara N. K., Branicky L. A., Schluchter M. D., Lemon E., & Blumer J. (2000). A double-blind pilot study of risperidone in the treatment of conduct disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 509516.
Finger E. C., Marsh A. A., Blair K. S., Reid M. E., Sims C., Ng P., et al. (2011). Disrupted reinforcement signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate in youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and a high level of psychopathic traits. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 152162.
Finger E. C., Marsh A. A., Mitchell D. G., Reid M. E., Sims C., Budhani S., et al. (2008). Abnormal ventromedial prefrontal cortex function in children with psychopathic traits during reversal learning. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 586594.
Flory J. D., Newcorn J. H., Miller C., Harty S., & Halperin J. (2007). Serotonergic function in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 410414.
Foley D. L., Eaves L. J., Wormley B., Silberg J. L., Maes H. H., Kuhn J., et al. (2004). Childhood adversity, monoamine oxidase A genotype, and risk for conduct disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 738744.
Fone K. C., & Nutt D. J. (2005). Stimulants: Use and abuse in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 5, 8793.
Fowles D. C. (1980). The three arousal model: Implications of Gray's two-factor learning theory for heart rate, electrodermal activity, and psychopathy. Psychophysiology, 17, 87104.
Fowles D. C. (2000). Electrodermal hyporeactivity and antisocial behavior: Does anxiety mediate the relationship? Journal of Affective Disorders, 61, 177189.
Frick P. J., & White S. F. (2008). Research review: The importance of callous–unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 359375.
Fung M. T., Raine A., Loeber R., Lynam D. R., Steinhauer S. R., Venables P. H., et al. (2005). Reduced electrodermal activity in psychopathy-prone adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 187196.
Gao Y., Raine A., Venables P. H., Dawson M. E., & Mednick S. A. (2010a). Reduced electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years is associated with aggressive behaviour at age 8 years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 550558.
Gao Y., Raine A, Venables P. H., Dawson M. E., & Mednick S. A. (2010b). Association of poor childhood fear conditioning and adult crime. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 5660.
Grant S., Contoreggi C., & London E. D. (2000). Drug abusers show impaired performance in a laboratory test of decision-making. Neuropsychologia, 38, 11801187.
Haberstick B. C., Smolen A., & Hewitt J. K. (2006). Family-based association test of the 5-HTTLPR and aggressive behavior in a general population sample of children. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 836843.
Halperin J. M., Newcorn J. H., Schwartz S. T., Sharma V., Siever L. J., Koda V. H., et al. (1997). Age-related changes in the association between serotonergic function and aggression in boys with ADHD. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 682689.
Halperin J. M., Sharma V., Siever L. J., Schwartz S. T., Matier K., Wornell G., et al. (1994). Serotonergic function in aggressive and nonaggressive boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 243248.
Harmer C. J., Rogers R. D., Timbridge E., Cowen P. J., & Goodwin G. M. (2003). Tryptophan depletion decreases the recognition of fear in female volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 167, 411417.
Herpertz S. C., Huebner T., Marx I., Vloet T., Fink G. R., Stoecker T., et al. (2008). Emotional processing in male adolescents with childhood-onset conduct disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 781791.
Herpertz S. C., Mueller B., Qunaibi M., Lichterveld C., Konrad K., & (2005). Response to emotional stimuli in boys with conduct disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 11001107.
Holmes J., Payton A., Barrett J., Harrington R., McGuffin P., Owen M., et al. (2002). Association of DRD4 in children with ADHD ad comorbid conduct problems. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 114, 150153.
Houston R. J., & Stanford M. S. (2005). Electrophysiological substrates of impulsiveness: Potential effects on aggressive behavior. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 29, 305313.
Hoyer D., Hannon J. P., & Martin G. R. (2002). Molecular, pharmacological and functional diversity of 5-HT receptors. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, & Behavior, 71, 533554.
Huebner T., Vloet T. D., Marx I., Konrad K., Fink G. R., Herpertz S. C., et al. (2008). Morphometric brain abnormalities in boys with conduct disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 540547.
Jones A. P., Laurens K. R., Herba C. J., & Viding E. (2009). Amygdala hypoactivity to fearful faces in boys with conduct problems and callous–unemotional traits. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 95102.
Klein R. G., Abikoff H., Klass E., Ganales D., Seese L. M., & Pollack S. (1997). Clinical efficacy of methylphenidate in conduct disorder with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 10731080.
Kochanska G. (1993). Toward a synthesis of parental socialization and child development in early development of conscience. Child Development, 64, 325347.
Kruesi M. J. P., Casanova M. F., Mannheim G., & Johnson-Bilder A. (2004). Reduced temporal lobe volume in early onset conduct disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 132, 111.
Kruesi M. J. P., Rapaport J. L., Hamburger S., Hibbs E., Potter W. Z. E., Lenane M., et al. (1990). Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites, aggression, and impulsivity in disruptive behavior disorders of children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 419426.
LeDoux J. E. (2002). Synaptic self: How our brains become who we are. New York: Viking.
Lee H. J., Jin S. Y., Hong M. S., Park H. J., Kim M. K., Yim S. V., et al. (2004). MAOA and persistent, pervasive childhood aggression. Molecular Psychiatry, 9, 546547.
Lorber M. F. (2004). Psychophysiology of aggression, psychopathy and conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 531552.
Luman M., Sergeant J. S, Knol D., & Oosterlaan J. (2010). Impaired decision making in oppositional defiant disorder related to altered psychophysiological responses to reinforcement. Biological Psychiatry, 68, 337343.
Lykken D. T. (1957). A study of anxiety in the sociopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 610.
Malone R. P., Delaney M. A., Luebbert J. F., Cater J., & Campbell M. (2000). A double-blind placebo-controlled study of lithium in hospitalized aggressive children and adolescents with conduct disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 649654.
Marsh A. A., Finger E. C., Buzas B., Soliman N., Richell R. A., Vythilingham M., et al. (2006). Impaired recognition of fear facial expressions in 5-HTTLPR S-polymorphism carriers following tryptophan depletion. Psychopharmacology, 189, 387394.
Marsh A. A., Finger E. C., Mitchell D. G. V., Reid M., Sims C., Kosson D. S., et al. (2008). Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents with callous–unemotional traits and disruptive behaviour disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 712720.
Matthys W., & Lochman J. E. (2010). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in childhood. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Matthys W., van Goozen S. H. M., de Vries H., Cohen-Kettenis P., & van Engeland H. (1998). The dominance of behavioural activation over behavioural inhibition in conduct disordered boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 643651.
Matthys W., van Goozen S. H. M., Snoek H., & van Engeland H. (2004). Response perseveration and sensitivity to reward and punishment in boys with oppositional defiant disorder. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13, 362364.
Mazas C. A., Finn P. R., & Steinmetz J. E. (2000). Decision-making biases, antisocial personality, and early-onset al.coholism. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 10361040.
Moore T. M., Scarpa A., & Raine A. (2002). A meta-analysis of serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA and antisocial behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 28, 299316.
Morgan A. B., & Lilienfeld S. O. (2000). A meta-analytic review of the relation between antisocial behavior and neuropsychological measures of executive function. Clinical Psychological Review, 20, 113136.
Nelson R. J., & Trainer B. C. (2007). Neural mechanisms of aggression. Nature Review of Neuroscience, 8, 536546.
Newcorn J. H., Spencer T. J., Biederman J., Milton D. R., & Michelson D. (2005). Atomoxetine treatment in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 240248.
Nigg J. T. (2006). What causes ADHD? Understanding what goes wrong and why. New York: Guilford Press.
Nock M. K., Kazdin A. E., Hiripi E., & Kessler R. C. (2007). Lifetime prevalence, correlates, and persistence of oppositional defiant disorder: Results from the national Comorbidity Survey Replication. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 703713.
O'Brien B. S., & Frick P. J. (1996). Reward dominance: Associations with anxiety, conduct problems, and psychopathy in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 223240.
Oosterlaan J., Logan G. D., & Sergeant J. A. (1998). Response inhibition in AD/HD, CD, comorbid AD/HD + CD, anxious and normal children: A meta-analysis of studies with the stop task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 411426.
Ortiz J., & Raine A. (2004). Heart rate level and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 154162.
Pardini D. A., Frick P. J., & Moffitt T. E. (2010). Building an evidence base for DSM-5 conceptualizations of oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: Introduction to the special section. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 683686.
Pattij T., & Vanderschuren L. J. M. J. (2008). The neuropharmacology of impulsive behavior. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 29, 192199.
Pennington B. F., & Ozonoff S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 5187.
Phelps E. A., & LeDoux J. E. (2005). Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: From animal models to human behavior. Neuron, 48, 175187.
Pitkänen A. (2000). Connectivity of the rat amygdaloid complex. In Aggleton J. P. (Ed.), The amygdala: A functional analysis (pp. 31115). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pliszka S. R., Rogeness G. A., Renner P., Sherman J., & Broussard T. (1988). Plasma neurochemistry in juvenile offenders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 588594.
Posthumus J. A., Böcker K. B. E., Raaijmakers M. A. J., van Engeland H., & Matthys W. (2009). Heart rate and skin conductance in 4-year old children with aggressive behavior. Biological Psychology, 82, 164168.
Qian Q. J., Liu J., Wang Y. F., Yang L., Guan L. L., & Faraone S. V. (2009). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominantly inattentive type: Evidence for an association with COMT but not MAOA in a Chinese sample. Behavioural and Brain Functions, 5, 8.
Quay H. C. (1965). Psychopathic personality as pathological stimulation-seeking. American Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 180183.
Raaijmakers M. A. J., Smidts D. P., Sergeant J. A., Maassen G. H., Posthumus J. A., van Engeland H., et al. (2008). Executive functions in preschool children with aggressive behavior: Impairments in inhibitory control. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 10971107.
Raine A. (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Robbins T. W., & Arnsten A. F. T. (2009). The neuropsychopharmacology of fronto-executive function: Monoaminergic modulation. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 32, 267287.
Rogeness G. A., Hernandez J. M., Macedo C. A., & Mitchell E. L. (1982). Biochemical differences in children with conduct disorder socialized and undersocialized. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 307311.
Rogeness G. A., Javors M. A., Maas J. W., & Macedo C. A. (1990). Catecholamines and diagnoses in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 234241.
Rogeness G. A., Javors M.A., Maas J. W., Macedo C. A., & Fischer C. (1987). Plasma dopamine-β-hydroxylase, HVA, MHPG, and conduct disorder in emotionally disturbed boys. Biological Psychiatry, 22, 11581162.
Rogers R. D., Everitt B. J., Baldacchino A., Blackshaw A. J., Swainson R., Wynne K., et al. (1999). Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: Evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology, 20, 322339.
Rolls E. T. (2004). The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex. Brain and Cognition, 55, 1129.
Rowe R., Costello E. J., Angold A., Copeland W., & Maughan B. (2010). Developmental pathways in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 726738.
Rubia K. (2011). “Cool” inferior frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus “hot” ventromedial orbitofrontal-limbic dusfunction in conduct disorder: A review. Biological Psychiatry, 69, e69e87.
Rubia K., Halari R., Cubillo A., Smith A., Mohammed A.-M., Scott S., et al. (2010). Disorder-specific inferior prefrontal hypofunction in boys with pure attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to boys with pure conduct disorder during cognitive flexibility. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 18231833.
Rubia K., Halari R., Smith A., Mohammed M., Scott S., & Brammer M. J. (2009). Shared and disorder-specific prefrontal abnormalities in boys with pure attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to boys with pure CD during interference inhibition and attention allocation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 669678.
Rubia K., Halari R., Smith A., Mohammed M., Scott S., Giampetro V., et al. (2008). Dissociated functional brain abnormalities of inhibition in boys with pure conduct disorder and in boys with pure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 889897.
Rubia K., Smith A. B., Halari R., Matsukara F., Mohammad M., Taylor E., et al. (2009). Disorder-specific dissociation of orbitofrontal dysfunction in boys with pure conduct disorder during reward and ventrolateral prefrontal dysfunction in boys with pure ADHD during sustained attention. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 8394.
Sakai J. T., Young S. E., Stallings M. C., Timberlake D., Smolen A., Steler G., et al. (2006). Case-control and within-family tests for an association between conduct disorder and 5HTTLPR. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 141B, 825832.
Sander D., Grafman J., & Zalla T. (2003). The human amygdala: An evolved system for relevance detection. Review of Neurosciences, 14, 303316.
Schmidt L. A., Fox N. A., Rubin K. H., Hu S., & Hamer D. H. (2002). Molecular genetics of shyness and aggression in preschoolers. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 227238.
Schoenbaum G., Roesch M. R., Stalnaker T. A., & Takahashi Y. K. (2009). A new perspective on the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in adaptive behaviour. Nature Review of Neurosciences, 10, 885892.
Schultz K. P., Newcorn J. H., McKay K. E., Himelstein J., Koda V. H., Siever L. J., et al. (2001). Relationship between serotonergic function and aggression in prepubertal boys: Effect of age and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Research, 101, 110.
Schutter D. J. L. G., van Bokhoven I., Vanderschuren L. J. M. J., Lochman J. E., & Matthys W. (2011). Risky decision making in substance dependent adolescents with a disruptive behavior disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 333339.
Schutter D. J. L. G., & van Honk J. (2005). The cerebellum on the rise in humane motion. Cerebellum, 4, 290294.
Séguin J. R., & Zelazo P. D. (2005). Executive function in early physical aggression. In Tremblay R. E., Hartup W. W., & Archer J. (Eds.), Developmental origins of aggression (pp. 307329). New York: Guilford Press.
Shapiro S. K., Quay H. C., Hogan A. E., & Schwartz K. P. (1988). Response perseveration and delayed responding in undersocialized aggressive conduct disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 371373.
Siever L. J. (2008). Neurobiology of aggression and violence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 429442.
Sijtsema J. J., Veenstra R., Lindenberg S., van Roon A. M., Verhulst F. C., Ormel J., et al. (2010). Mediation of senstation seeking and behavioral inhibition on the relationship between heart rate and antisocial behaviour: The TRAILS study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 493502.
Snoek H., van Goozen S. H. M., Matthys W., Buitelaar J. K., & van Engeland H. (2004). Stress responsivity in children with externalizing behavior disorders. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 389406.
Snoek H., van Goozen S. H. M., Matthys W., Sigling H. O., Koppeschaar H. P. F., Westenberg H. G. M., et al. (2002). Serotonergic functioning in children with oppositional defiant disorder: A sumatriptan challenge study. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 319325.
Stadler C., Sterzer P., Schmeck K., Krebs A., Kleinschmidt A., & Poustka F. (2007). Reduced anterior cingulate activation in aggressive children and adolescents during affective stimulation: Association with temperament traits. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 410417.
Sterzer P., Stadler C., Krebs A., Kleinschmidt A., & Poustka F. (2005). Abnormal neural responses to emotional stimuli in adolescents with conduct disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 715.
Sterzer P., Stadler C., Poustka F., & Kleinschmidt A. (2007). A structural neural deficit in adolescents with conduct disorder and its association with lack of empathy. NeuroImage, 37, 335342.
Stoff D. M., Ieni J., Friedman E., Bridger W. H., Pollock L., & Vitiello B. (1991). Platelet 3H-imipramine binding, serotonin reuptake, and plasma alpha 1 acid glycoprotein in disruptive behaviour disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 29, 494498.
Stringaris A., & Goodman R. (2009a). Longitudinal outcome of youth oppositionality: Irritable, headstrong, and hurtful behaviors have distinctive predictions. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 404412.
Stringaris A., & Goodman R. (2009b). Three dimensions of oppositionality in youth. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 50, 216223.
Taylor E., Schachar R., Thorley G., Wieselberg H. M., Everitt B., & Rutter M. (1987). Which boys respond to stimulant medication? A controlled trial of methylphenidate in boys with disruptive behaviour. Psychological Medicine, 17, 121143.
Thapar A., Langley K., Fowler T., Rice F., Turic D., Whittinger N., et al. (2005). Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene variant and birth weight predict early-onset antisocial behaviour in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 12751278.
Turgay A. (2009). Psychopharmacological treatment of oppositional defiant disorder. CNS Drugs, 23, 117.
Unis A. S., Cook E. H., Vincent J. G., Gjerde D. K., Perry B. D., Mason C., et al. (1997). Platelet serotonin measures in adolescents with conduct disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 553559.
van Bokhoven I, Matthys W., van Goozen S. H. M., & van Engeland H. (2005). Prediction of adolescent outcome in children with disruptive behaviour disorders: A study of neurobiological, psychological and family factors. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14, 153163.
van der Vegt E. J. M., Oostra B. A., Arias-Vàsquez A., van der Ende J., Verhulst F. C., & Tiemeier H. (2009). High activity of monoamine oxidase A is associated with externalizing behaviour in maltreated and nonmaltreated adoptees. Psychiatric Genetics, 19, 209211.
van Goozen S. H., Matthys W., Cohen-Kettenis P. T., Westenberg H., & van Engeland H. (1999). Plasma monoamine metabolites and aggression: Two studies of normal and oppositional defiant disorder children. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 9, 141147.
van Goozen S. H. M., Cohen-Kettenis P. T., Snoek H., Matthys W., Swaab-Barneveld H., & van Engeland H. (2004). Executive functioning in children: A comparison of hospitalized ODD and ODD/ADHD children and normal controls. Journal of Child Psycholology and Psychiatry, 45, 284292.
van Goozen S. H. M., & Fairchild G. (2008). How can the study of biological processes help design new interventions for children with severe antisocial behavior? Development and Psychopathology, 20, 941973.
van Goozen S. H. M., Fairchild G., Snoek H., & Harold G. T. (2007). The evidence of a neurobiological model of childhood antisocial behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 149182.
van Goozen S. H. M., Matthys W., Cohen-Kettenis P. T., Buitelaar J. K., & van Engeland H. (2000). Hypothylamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system activity in disruptive children and matched controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 14381445.
van Goozen S. H. M., Matthys W., Cohen-Kettenis P. T., Gispen-de Wied C., Wiegant V. M., & van Engeland H. (1998). Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity during stress in oppositional-defiant disorder boys and normal controls. Biological Psychiatry, 43, 531539.
van Goozen S. H. M., Snoek H., Matthys W., van Rossum I., & van Engeland H. (2004). Evidence of fearlessness in behaviourally disordered children: A study on startle reflex modulation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 884892.
van Honk J., Hermans E. J., Putman P., Montagne B., & Schutter D. J. L. G. (2002). Defective somatic markers in sub-clinical psychopathy. NeuroReport, 13, 10251027.
Volkow N. D., Wang G. J., Fowler J. S., Telang F., Maynard L., Logan J., et al. (2004). Evidence that methylphenidate enhances saliency of a mathematical task by increasing dopamine in the human brain. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 11731180.
Völm B. A., de Araujo I. E., Cowel P. J., Rolls E. T., Kringelbach M. L., Smith K. A., et al. (2004). Metampetamine activates reward circuitry in drug naïve human subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 17151722.
Voorn P., Vanderschuren L. J. M. J., Groenewegen H. J., Robbins T. W., & Pennartz C. M. A. (2004). Putting a spin on the dorsal-ventral divide of the striatum. Trends in Neurosciences, 27, 468474.
Winterer G., & Goldman D. (2003). Genetics of human prefrontal function. Brain Research Review, 43, 134163.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 39
Total number of PDF views: 379 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1348 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.