Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A neurocomputational investigation of reinforcement-based decision making as a candidate latent vulnerability mechanism in maltreated children

  • Mattia I. Gerin (a1) (a2), Vanessa B. Puetz (a1) (a2), R. James R. Blair (a3), Stuart White (a3), Arjun Sethi (a1), Ferdinand Hoffmann (a1) (a2), Amy L. Palmer (a1), Essi Viding (a1) and Eamon J. McCrory (a1) (a2)...
Abstract

Alterations in reinforcement-based decision making may be associated with increased psychiatric vulnerability in children who have experienced maltreatment. A probabilistic passive avoidance task and a model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging analytic approach were implemented to assess the neurocomputational components underlying decision making: (a) reinforcement expectancies (the representation of the outcomes associated with a stimulus) and (b) prediction error signaling (the ability to detect the differences between expected and actual outcomes). There were three main findings. First, the maltreated group (n = 18; mean age = 13), relative to nonmaltreated peers (n = 19; mean age = 13), showed decreased activity during expected value processing in a widespread network commonly associated with reinforcement expectancies representation, including the striatum (especially the caudate), the orbitofrontal cortex, and medial temporal structures including the hippocampus and insula. Second, consistent with previously reported hyperresponsiveness to negative cues in the context of childhood abuse, the maltreated group showed increased prediction error signaling in the middle cingulate gyrus, somatosensory cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and thalamus. Third, the maltreated group showed increased activity in frontodorsal regions and in the putamen during expected value representation. These findings suggest that early adverse environments disrupt the development of decision-making processes, which in turn may compromise psychosocial functioning in ways that increase latent vulnerability to psychiatric disorder.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A neurocomputational investigation of reinforcement-based decision making as a candidate latent vulnerability mechanism in maltreated children
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A neurocomputational investigation of reinforcement-based decision making as a candidate latent vulnerability mechanism in maltreated children
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A neurocomputational investigation of reinforcement-based decision making as a candidate latent vulnerability mechanism in maltreated children
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Mattia Indi Gerin, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1 6BT, UK; E-mail: mattia.gerin.13@ucl.ac.uk.
Footnotes
Hide All

This work was funded by UK Economic and Social Research Council Grant ES/K005723/1 (to E.J.M. [Principal Investigator] and E.V.) and a PhD Impact studentship (M.I.G.) jointly funded by University College London and the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families. The last two authors contributed equally to this work.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Amiez, C., Neveu, R., Warrot, D., Petrides, M., Knoblauch, K., & Procyk, E. (2013). The location of feedback-related activity in the midcingulate cortex is predicted by local morphology. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 22172228. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.2779-12.2013
Anisman, H., & Matheson, K. (2005). Stress, depression, and anhedonia: Caveats concerning animal models. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 525546. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.03.007
Bach, D. R., Guitart-Masip, M., Packard, P. A., Miró, J., Falip, M., Fuentemilla, L., & Dolan, R. J. (2014). Human hippocampus arbitrates approach-avoidance conflict. Current Biology, 24, 541547. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.01.046
Benson, B. E., Guyer, A. E., Nelson, E. E., Pine, D. S., & Ernst, M. (2014). Role of contingency in striatal response to incentive in adolescents with anxiety. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 15, 155168. doi:10.3758/s13415-014-0307-6
Briere, J. (1996). Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC): Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Brovelli, A., Nazarian, B., Meunier, M., & Boussaoud, D. (2011). Differential roles of caudate nucleus and putamen during instrumental learning. NeuroImage, 57, 15801590. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.05.059
Cicchetti, D., & Doyle, C. (2016). Child maltreatment, attachment and psychopathology: Mediating relations. World Psychiatry, 15, 8990. doi:10.1002/wps.20337
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Toth, S. L. (2006). Fostering secure attachment in infants in maltreating families through preventive interventions. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 623649. doi:10.1017/S0954579406060329
Clithero, J. A., & Rangel, A. (2013). Informatic parcellation of the network involved in the computation of subjective value. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 12891302. doi:10.1093/scan/nst106
Cohen, M. X., & Frank, M. J. (2009). Neurocomputational models of basal ganglia function in learning, memory and choice. Behavioural Brain Research, 199, 141156. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2008.09.029
Cooney, R. E., Atlas, L. Y., Joormann, J., Eugène, F., & Gotlib, I. H. (2006). Amygdala activation in the processing of neutral faces in social anxiety disorder: Is neutral really neutral? Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging, 148, 5559. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2006.05.003
Cougle, J. R., Timpano, K. R., Sachs-Ericsson, N., Keough, M. E., & Riccardi, C. J. (2010). Examining the unique relationships between anxiety disorders and childhood physical and sexual abuse in the National Comorbidity Survey—Replication. Psychiatry Research, 177, 150155. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2009.03.008
Cowell, R. A., Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Toth, S. L. (2015). Childhood maltreatment and its effect on neurocognitive functioning: Timing and chronicity matter. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 521533. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000139
Cyr, C., Euser, E. M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Ackerman, B. P., Izard, C. E., … Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2010). Attachment security and disorganization in maltreating and high-risk families: A series of meta-analyses. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 87. doi:10.1017/S0954579409990289
Dannlowski, U., Kugel, H., Huber, F., Stuhrmann, A., Redlich, R., Grotegerd, D., … Suslow, T. (2013). Childhood maltreatment is associated with an automatic negative emotion processing bias in the amygdala. Human Brain Mapping, 34, 28992909. doi:10.1002/hbm.22112
Dannlowski, U., Stuhrmann, A., Beutelmann, V., Zwanzger, P., Lenzen, T., Grotegerd, D., … Kugel, H. (2012). Limbic scars: Long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment revealed by functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Biological Psychiatry, 71, 286293. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.10.021
Dennison, M. J., Sheridan, M. A., Busso, D. S., Jenness, J. L., Peverill, M., Rosen, M. L., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Neurobehavioral markers of resilience to depression amongst adolescents exposed to child abuse. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125, 120112012. doi:10.1037/abn0000215
Devan, B. D., Hong, N. S., & McDonald, R. J. (2011). Parallel associative processing in the dorsal striatum: Segregation of stimulus-response and cognitive control subregions. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 96, 95120. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2011.06.002
Dillon, D. G., Holmes, A. J., Birk, J. L., Brooks, N., Lyons-Ruth, K., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2009). Childhood adversity is associated with left basal ganglia dysfunction during reward anticipation in adulthood. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 206213. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.02.019
Ellis, N. C. (2006). Language acquisition as rational contingency learning. Applied Linguistics, 27, 124. doi:10.1093/applin/ami038
Elton, A., Tripathi, S. P., Mletzko, T., Young, J., Cisler, J. M., James, G. A., & Kilts, C. D. (2014). Childhood maltreatment is associated with a sex-dependent functional reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network. Human Brain Mapping, 35, 16541667. doi:10.1002/hbm.22280
Eshel, N., & Roiser, J. P. (2010). Reward and punishment processing in depression. Biological Psychiatry, 68, 118124. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.01.027
Finger, E. C., Marsh, A. A., Blair, K. S., Reid, M. E., Sims, C., Ng, P., … Blair, R. J. R. (2011). Disrupted reinforcement signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate in youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and a high level of psychopathic traits. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 152162. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10010129
Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E., & Target, M. (2004). The social biofeedback theory of parental affect-mirroring: The development of emotional self-awareness and self-control in infancy. In Affect regulation, mentalization, and the development of the self (2nd ed., pp. 145203). London: Karnac Books. Retrieved from http://www.pep-web.org.libproxy.ucl.ac.uk/document.php?id=ijp.077.1181a
Forbes, E. E., Christopher May, J., Siegle, G. J., Ladouceur, C. D., Ryan, N. D., Carter, C. S., … Dahl, R. E. (2006). Reward-related decision-making in pediatric major depressive disorder: An fMRI study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 47, 10311040. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01673.x
Forbes, E. E., Hariri, A. R., Martin, S. L., Silk, J. S., Moyles, D. L., Fisher, P. M., … Dahl, R. E. (2009). Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 6473. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07081336
Galván, A., & Peris, T. S. (2014). Neural correlates of risky decision making in anxious youth and healthy controls. Depression and Anxiety, 31, 591598. doi:10.1002/da.22276
Garrison, J., Erdeniz, B., & Done, J. (2013). Prediction error in reinforcement learning: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, 12971310. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.03.023
Gergely, G., & Watson, J. S. (1999). Early socio-emotional development: Contingency perception and the social-biofeedback model. In Rochat, P. (Ed.), Early social cognition: Understanding others in the first months of life (pp. 101136). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gilbert, R., Widom, C. S., Browne, K., Fergusson, D., Webb, E., & Janson, S. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. Lancet, 373, 6881. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61706-7
Glimcher, P. W. (2011). Understanding dopamine and reinforcement learning: The dopamine reward prediction error hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 1564715654. doi:10.1073/pnas.1014269108
Goff, B., Gee, D. G., Telzer, E. H., Humphreys, K. L., Gabard-Durnam, L., Flannery, J., & Tottenham, N. (2013). Reduced nucleus accumbens reactivity and adolescent depression following early-life stress. Neuroscience, 249, 129138. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.12.010
Goodman, R. (1997). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 38, 581586. doi:10.1097/00004583-200111000-00015
Gotlib, I. H., Hamilton, J. P., Cooney, R. E., Singh, M. K., Henry, M. L., & Joormann, J. (2010). Neural processing of reward and loss in girls at risk for major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 380387. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.13
Grahn, J. A., Parkinson, J. A., & Owen, A. M. (2008). The cognitive functions of the caudate nucleus. Progress in Neurobiology, 86, 141155. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2008.09.004
Grahn, J. A., Parkinson, J. A., & Owen, A. M. (2009). The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: Neuropsychological studies. Behavioural Brain Research, 199, 5360. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2008.11.020
Grant, S., Contoreggi, C., & London, E. D. (2000). Drug abusers show impaired performance in a laboratory test of decision making. Neuropsychologia, 38, 11801187. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(99)00158-X
Green, J. G., McLaughlin, K. A., Berglund, P. A., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication: I. Associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 113123. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.186
Hanson, J. L., Hariri, A. R., & Williamson, D. E. (2015). Blunted ventral striatum development in adolescence reflects emotional neglect and predicts depressive symptoms. Biological Psychiatry, 78, 598605. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.05.010
Hartley, C. A., & Phelps, E. A. (2012). Anxiety and decision-making. Biological Psychiatry, 72, 113118. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.12.027
Kalinichev, M., Easterling, K. W., & Holtzman, S. G. (2001). Early neonatal experience of Long-Evans rats results in long-lasting changes in morphine tolerance and dependence. Psychopharmacology, 157, 305312. doi:10.1007/s002130100806
Kaufman, J., Jones, B., Stieglitz, E., Vitulano, L., & Mannarino, A. P. (1994). The use of multiple informants to assess children's maltreatment experiences. Journal of Family Violence, 9, 227248. doi:10.1007/BF01531949
Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., … Williams, D. R. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 378385. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.110.080499
Knudsen, E. I. (2004). Sensitive periods in the development of the brain and behavior. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 14121425. doi:10.1162/0898929042304796
Kosson, D. S., Budhani, S., Nakic, M., Chen, G., Saad, Z. S., Vythilingam, M., … Blair, R. J. R. (2006). The role of the amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate in encoding expected outcomes during learning. NeuroImage, 29, 11611172. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.07.060
Lansford, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., Crozier, J., & Kaplow, J. (2002). A 12-year prospective study of the long-term effects of early child physical maltreatment on psychological, behavioral, and academic problems in adolescence. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 156, 824830.
Leppänen, J. M., Milders, M., Bell, J. S., Terriere, E., & Hietanen, J. K. (2004). Depression biases the recognition of emotionally neutral faces. Psychiatry Research, 128, 123133. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2004.05.020
Lim, L., Hart, H., Mehta, M. A., Simmons, A., Mirza, K., & Rubia, K. (2015). Neural correlates of error processing in young people with a history of severe childhood abuse: An fMRI study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 892900. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.14081042
Martinez, D., Slifstein, M., Broft, A., Mawlawi, O., Chatterjee, R., Hwang, D., … Laruelle, M. (2003). Imaging human mesolimbic dopamine transmission with positron emission tomography: Part II. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the functional subdivisions of the striatum. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 23, 285300. doi:10.1097/01.WCB.0000048520.34839.1A
Matthews, K., & Robbins, T. W. (2003). Early experience as a determinant of adult behavioural responses to reward: The effects of repeated maternal separation in the rat. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 4555. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(03)00008-3
Matthys, W., Vanderschuren, L. J., & Schutter, D. J. (2012). The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Altered functioning in three mental domains. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 115. doi:10.1017/S0954579412000272
May, A. C., Stewart, J. L., Migliorini, R., Tapert, S. F., & Paulus, M. P. (2013). Methamphetamine dependent individuals show attenuated brain response to pleasant interoceptive stimuli. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 131, 238246. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.029
McCrory, E. J., De Brito, S. A., Kelly, P. A., Bird, G., Sebastian, C. L., Mechelli, A., … Viding, E. (2013). Amygdala activation in maltreated children during pre-attentive emotional processing. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 269276. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.116624
McCrory, E. J., De Brito, S. A., Sebastian, C. L., Mechelli, A., Bird, G., Kelly, P. A., & Viding, E. (2011). Heightened neural reactivity to threat in child victims of family violence. Current Biology, 21, 947948. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.10.015
McCrory, E. J., Gerin, M. I., & Viding, E. (2017). Annual Research Review: Childhood maltreatment, latent vulnerability and the shift to preventative psychiatry—The contribution of functional brain imaging. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58, 338357. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12713
McCrory, E. J., & Viding, E. (2015). The theory of latent vulnerability: Reconceptualizing the link between childhood maltreatment and psychiatric disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 493505. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000115
McLaughlin, K. A., Peverill, M., Gold, A. L., Alves, S., & Sheridan, M. A. (2015). Child maltreatment and neural systems underlying emotion regulation. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54, 753762. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2015.06.010
Mehta, M. A., Gore-Langton, E., Golembo, N., Colvert, E., Williams, S. C. R., & Sonuga-Barke, E. (2010). Hyporesponsive reward anticipation in the basal ganglia following severe institutional deprivation early in life. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 23162325. doi:10.1162/jocn.2009.21394
Mueller, S. C., Maheu, F. S., Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Mandell, D., Leibenluft, E., … Ernst, M. (2010). Early-life stress is associated with impairment in cognitive control in adolescence: An fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 48, 30373044. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.06.013
Nagai, Y., Asada, M., & Hosoda, K. (2006). Learning for joint attention helped by functional development. Advanced Robotics, 20, 11651181. doi:10.1163/156855306778522497
Nanni, V., Uher, R., & Danese, A. (2012). Childhood maltreatment predicts unfavorable course of illness and treatment outcome in depression: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 141151. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11020335
O'Doherty, J. P. (2011). Contributions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to goal-directed action selection. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1239, 118129. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06290.x
O'Doherty, J. P., Dayan, P., Schultz, J., Deichmann, R., Friston, K., & Dolan, R. J. (2004). Dissociable role of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning. Science, 304, 452454. doi:10.1126/science.1094285
O'Doherty, J. P., Hampton, A., & Kim, H. (2007). Model-based fMRI and its application to reward learning and decision making. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1104, 3553. doi:10.1196/annals.1390.022
Pani, L., Porcella, A., & Gessa, G. L. (2000). The role of stress in the pathophysiology of the dopaminergic system. Molecular Psychiatry, 5, 1421. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4000589
Pollak, S. D., & Tolley-Schell, S. A. (2003). Selective attention to facial emotion in physically abused children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 323338. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.112.3.323
Pollak, S. D., Vardi, S., Putzer Bechner, A. M., & Curtin, J. J. (2005). Physically abused children's regulation of attention in response to hostility. Child Development, 76, 968977. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00890.x
Pryce, C. R., Dettling, A. C., Spengler, M., Schnell, C. R., & Feldon, J. (2004). Deprivation of parenting disrupts development of homeostatic and reward systems in marmoset monkey offspring. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 7279. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.05.002
Puetz, V. B., Kohn, N., Dahmen, B., Zvyagintsev, M., Schüppen, A., Schultz, R. T., … Konrad, K. (2014). Neural response to social rejection in children with early separation experiences. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 13281333. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2014.09.004
Puetz, V. B., Viding, E., Palmer, A., Kelly, P., Lickley, R., Koutoufa, I., … Mccrory, E. (2016). Altered neural response to rejection-related words in children exposed to maltreatment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Advance online publication.
Radford, L., Corral, S., Bradley, C., & Fisher, H. (2011). Child abuse and neglect in the UK today: Research into the prevalence of child maltreatment in the United Kingdom. London: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.
Reeb-Sutherland, B. C., Levitt, P., & Fox, N. A. (2012). The predictive nature of individual differences in early associative learning and emerging social behavior. PLOS ONE, 7, e30511. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030511
Rescorla, R. A., & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. Classical Conditioning: II. Current Research and Theory, 21, 6499. doi:10.1101/gr.110528.110
Ridderinkhof, K. R., van den Wildenberg, W. P. M., Segalowitz, S. J., & Carter, C. S. (2004). Neurocognitive mechanisms of cognitive control: The role of prefrontal cortex in action selection, response inhibition, performance monitoring, and reward-based learning. Brain and Cognition, 56, 129140. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2004.09.016
Rogosch, F. A., Dackis, M. N., & Cicchetti, D. (2011). Child maltreatment and allostatic load: Consequences for physical and mental health in children from low-income families. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 11071124. doi:10.1017/S0954579411000587
Schoenbaum, G., Roesch, M. R., & Stalnaker, T. A. (2006). Orbitofrontal cortex, decision-making and drug addiction. Trends in Neurosciences, 29, 116124. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2005.12.006
Shackman, J. E., Shackman, A. J., & Pollak, S. D. (2007). Physical abuse amplifies attention to threat and increases anxiety in children. Emotion, 7, 838852. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.7.4.838
Smoski, M. J., Felder, J., Bizzell, J., Green, S. R., Ernst, M., Lynch, T. R., & Dichter, G. S. (2009). fMRI of alterations in reward selection, anticipation, and feedback in major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 118, 6978. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.01.034
Smoski, M. J., Rittenberg, A., & Dichter, G. S. (2011). Major depressive disorder is characterized by greater reward network activation to monetary than pleasant image rewards. Neuroimaging, 194, 263270. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.06.012
Solomon, J., & George, C. (1999). The place of disorganization in attachment theory: Linking classic observations with contemporary findings. In Solomon, J. & George, C. (Eds.), Attachment disorganization (pp. 332). New York: Guilford Press.
Stringaris, A., Vidal-Ribas Belil, P., Artiges, E., Lemaitre, H., Gollier-Briant, F., Wolke, S., … Paillère-Martinot, M.-L. (2015). The brain's response to reward anticipation and depression in adolescence: Dimensionality, specificity, and longitudinal predictions in a community-based sample. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 12151223. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.14101298
Tanaka, S. C., Doya, K., Okada, G., Ueda, K., Okamoto, Y., & Yamawaki, S. (2016). Prediction of immediate and future rewards differentially recruits cortico-basal ganglia loops. In Ikeda, S., Kato, H. K., Ohtake, F., & Tsutsui, Y. (Eds.), Behavioral economics of preferences, choices, and happiness (pp. 593616). Tokyo: Springer Japan.
Teicher, M. H., & Samson, J. A. (2013). Childhood maltreatment and psychopathology: A case for ecophenotypic variants as clinically and neurobiologically distinct subtypes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 11141133. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12070957
Tottenham, N., Hare, T. A., Millner, A., Gilhooly, T., Zevin, J. D., & Casey, B. J. (2011). Elevated amygdala response to faces following early deprivation. Developmental Science, 14, 190204. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.00971.x
Ubl, B., Kuehner, C., Kirsch, P., Ruttorf, M., Diener, C., & Flor, H. (2015). Altered neural reward and loss processing and prediction error signalling in depression. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 11021112. doi:10.1093/scan/nsu158
Valentin, V. V, & O'Doherty, J. P. (2009). Overlapping prediction errors in dorsal striatum during instrumental learning with juice and money reward in the human brain. Journal of Neurophysiology, 102, 33843391. doi:10.1152/jn.91195.2008
Ward, B. (2000). Simultaneous inference for fMRI data. AFNI 3rd Deconvolve documentation. Milwaukee, WI: Medical College of Wisconsin.
Wechsler, D. (1997). WAIS-III administration and scoring manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
White, S., Fowler, K. A., Sinclair, S., Schechter, J. C., Majestic, C. M., Pine, D. S., & Blair, R. J. (2014). Disrupted expected value signaling in youth with disruptive behavior disorders to environmental reinforcers. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 5, 577588. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2013.12.023
White, S., Geraci, M., Lewis, E., Leshin, J., Teng, C., Averbeck, B., … Blair, K. S. (2017). Prediction error representation in individuals with generalized anxiety disorder during passive avoidance. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 110117. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15111410
White, S., Pope, K., Sinclair, S., Fowler, K. A., Brislin, S. J., Williams, W. C., … Blair, R. J. R. (2013). Disrupted expected value and prediction error signaling in youths with disruptive behavior disorders during a passive avoidance task. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 315323. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12060840.disrupted
White, S., Tyler, P., Botkin, M. L., Erway, A. K., Thornton, L. C., Kolli, V., … Blair, R. J. (2016). Youth with substance abuse histories exhibit dysfunctional representation of expected value during a passive avoidance task. Neuroimaging, 257, 1724. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2016.08.010
White, S., Tyler, P. M., Erway, A. K., Botkin, M. L., Kolli, V., Meffert, H., … Blair, J. R. (2016). Dysfunctional representation of expected value is associated with reinforcement-based decision-making deficits in adolescents with conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57, 938946. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12557
Widom, C. S., Czaja, S. J., Bentley, T., & Johnson, M. S. (2012). A prospective investigation of physical health outcomes in abused and neglected children: New findings from a 30-year follow-up. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 11351144. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300636
Willner, P. (2005). Chronic mild stress (CMS) revisited: Consistency and behavioural-neurobiological concordance in the effects of CMS. Neuropsychobiology, 52, 90110. doi:10.1159/000087097
Zénon, A., Duclos, Y., Carron, R., Witjas, T., Baunez, C., Régis, J., … Eusebio, A. (2016). The human subthalamic nucleus encodes the subjective value of reward and the cost of effort during decision-making. Brain, 139, 18301843. doi:10.1093/brain/aww075
Zhang, W.-N., Chang, S.-H., Guo, L.-Y., Zhang, K.-L., & Wang, J. (2013). The neural correlates of reward-related processing in major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151, 531539. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.039
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Gerin et al supplementary material 1
Gerin et al supplementary material

 Word (26 KB)
26 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed