Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 116
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Attili, Grazia Di Pentima, Lorenza Toni, Alessandro and Roazzi, Antonio 2016. Reazioni dei genitori in situazioni problematiche e attribuzioni di causa: le aspettative dei bambini maltrattati. MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL'INFANZIA, Issue. 1, p. 89.

    Borelli, Jessica L. Somers, Jennifer West, Jessica L. Coffey, John K. De Los Reyes, Andres and Shmueli-Goetz, Yael 2016. Associations Between Attachment Narratives and Self-Report Measures of Attachment in Middle Childhood: Extending Evidence for the Validity of the Child Attachment Interview. Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 25, Issue. 4, p. 1235.

    Borelli, Jessica L. Smiley, Patricia A. Rasmussen, Hannah F. Gómez, Anthony Seaman, Lauren C. and Nurmi, Erika L. 2016. Interactive Effects of Attachment and Genotype on School-aged Children’s Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms. Behavioural Brain Research,

    Carleton, R. Nicholas 2016. Into the unknown: A review and synthesis of contemporary models involving uncertainty. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 39, p. 30.

    Curran, Eileen A. Cryan, John F. Kenny, Louise C. Dinan, Timothy G. Kearney, Patricia M. and Khashan, Ali S. 2016. Obstetrical Mode of Delivery and Childhood Behavior and Psychological Development in a British Cohort. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 46, Issue. 2, p. 603.

    Dalgaard, Nina Thorup Todd, Brenda Kathryn Daniel, Sarah I.F. and Montgomery, Edith 2016. The transmission of trauma in refugee families: associations between intra-family trauma communication style, children’s attachment security and psychosocial adjustment. Attachment & Human Development, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 69.

    Fransson, Mari Granqvist, Pehr Marciszko, Carin Hagekull, Berit and Bohlin, Gunilla 2016. Is middle childhood attachment related to social functioning in young adulthood?. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 57, Issue. 2, p. 108.

    Gaumon, Sébastien Paquette, Daniel Cyr, Chantal Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko and St-André, Martin 2016. ANXIETY AND ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER IN PRESCHOOLERS RECEIVING PSYCHIATRIC CARE: THE FATHER-CHILD ACTIVATION RELATIONSHIP AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR. Infant Mental Health Journal, Vol. 37, Issue. 4, p. 372.

    Kalaitzaki, Argyroula and Birtchnell, John 2016. Relating Theory – Clinical and Forensic Applications.

    KOKKINOS, CONSTANTINOS M. VOULGARIDOU, IOANNA P. KOUKOUTSIS, NIKOLAOS D. and MARKOS, ANGELOS 2016. Peer victimization and depression in Greek preadolescents: Personality and attachment as moderators. Personal Relationships, Vol. 23, Issue. 2, p. 280.

    Lagerløv, Per Rosvold, Elin Olaug Holager, Tanja and Helseth, Sølvi 2016. How adolescents experience and cope with pain in daily life: a qualitative study on ways to cope and the use of over-the-counter analgesics. BMJ Open, Vol. 6, Issue. 3, p. e010184.

    Li, Zhi Hygen, Beate W. Widaman, Keith F. Berg-Nielsen, Turid S. Wichstrøm, Lars and Belsky, Jay 2016. Disorganization, COMT, and Children's Social Behavior: The Norwegian Hypothesis of Legacy of Disorganized Attachment. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,

    López Seco, F. Mundo-Cid, P. Aguado-Gracia, J. Gaviria-Gómez, A.M. Acosta-García, S. Martí-Serrano, S. Vilella, E. and Masana-Marín, A. 2016. Insecure maternal attachment is associated with depression in ADHD children. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders,

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G. Lunkenheimer, Erika S. and Granger, Douglas A. 2016. Adolescent Conflict Appraisals Moderate the Link Between Marital Conflict and Physiological Stress Reactivity. Journal of Research on Adolescence,

    Mathews, Brittany L. Koehn, Amanda J. Abtahi, Mahsa Movahed and Kerns, Kathryn A. 2016. Emotional Competence and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, Vol. 19, Issue. 2, p. 162.

    Nelemans, S. A. Branje, S. J. T. Hale, W. W. Goossens, L. Koot, H. M. Oldehinkel, A. J. and Meeus, W. H. J. 2016. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent–Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,

    Newman, Michelle G. Shin, Ki Eun and Zuellig, Andrea R. 2016. Developmental risk factors in generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 206, p. 94.

    Pace, Ugo Zappulla, Carla and Di Maggio, Rosanna 2016. The mediating role of perceived peer support in the relation between quality of attachment and internalizing problems in adolescence: a longitudinal perspective. Attachment & Human Development, Vol. 18, Issue. 5, p. 508.

    Pan, Yangu Zhang, Dajun Liu, Yanling Ran, Guangming and Teng, Zhaojun 2016. Different Effects of Paternal and Maternal Attachment on Psychological Health Among Chinese Secondary School Students. Journal of Child and Family Studies,

    Pan, Yangu Zhang, Dajun Liu, Yanling Ran, Guangming and Wang, Zhi 2016. Attachment and internalizing symptoms: The mediating role of regulatory emotional self-efficacy among Chinese young adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 101, p. 360.


Parent–child attachment and internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence: A review of empirical findings and future directions

  • Laura E. Brumariu (a1) and Kathryn A. Kerns (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2010

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the theory and evidence for the links of parent–child attachment with internalizing problems in childhood and adolescence. We address three key questions: (a) how consistent is the evidence that attachment security or insecurity is linked to internalizing symptoms, anxiety, and depression? (b) How consistent is the evidence that specific forms of insecurity are more strongly related to internalizing symptoms, anxiety, and depression than are other forms of insecurity? (c) Are associations with internalizing symptoms, anxiety, and depression consistent for mother–child and father–child attachment? The current findings are consistent with the hypothesis that insecure attachment is associated with the development of internalizing problems. The links between specific insecure attachment patterns and internalizing problems are difficult to evaluate. Father–child and mother–child attachments have a comparable impact, although there are relatively few studies of father–child attachment. No moderators consistently affect these relations. We also propose two models of how attachment insecurity may combine with other factors to lead to anxiety or depression.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Laura E. Brumariu, Department of Psychology, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242; E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. R. Z. Abela , B. L. Hankin , E. A. P. Haigh , P. Adams , T. Vinokuroff , & L. Trayhern (2005). Interpersonal vulnerability to depression in high-risk children: The role of insecure attachment and reassurance seeking. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 182192.

M. D. S. Ainsworth (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709716.

J. P. Allen , C. Moore , G. Kuperminc , & K. Bell (1998). Attachment and adolescent psychosocial functioning. Child Development, 69, 14061419.

J. P. Allen , M. Porter , C. McFarland , K. B. McElhaney , & P. Marsh (2007). The relation of attachment security to adolescents' paternal and peer relationships, depression, and externalizing behavior. Child Development, 78, 12221239.

P. R. Amato (1994). Father–child relations, mother–child relations, and offspring psychological well-being in early adulthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 10311042.

R. M. Anan , & D. Barnett (1999). Perceived social support mediates between prior attachment and subsequent adjustment: A study of urban African American children. Developmental Psychology, 35, 12101222.

G. C. Armsden , & M. T. Greenberg (1987). The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427454.

G. C. Armsden , E. McCauley , M. T. Greenberg , P. M. Burke , & J. R. Mitchell (1990). Parent and peer attachment in early adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 683697.

Y. Bar-Haim , O. Dan , Y. Eshel , & A. Sagi-Schwartz (2007). Predicting children's anxiety from early attachment relationships. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 10611068.

P. M. Barrett , R. M. Rapee , M. M. Dadds , & S. M. Ryan (1996). Family enhancement of cognitive style in anxious and aggressive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 187203.

K. Bartholomew , & L. M. Horowitz (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226244.

J. E. Bates , C. A. Maslin , & K. A. Frankel (1985). Attachment security, mother–child interaction, and temperament as predictors of behavior-problem ratings at age three years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50(Serial No. 209), 167193.

T. S. Berg-Nielsen , A. Vikan , & A. A. Dahl (2002). Parenting related to child and parental psychopathology: A descriptive review of the literature. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7, 529552.

S. M. Bögels , & M. L. Brechman-Toussaint (2006). Family issues in child anxiety: Attachment, family functioning, parental rearing and beliefs. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 834856.

G. Bohlin , B. Hagekull , & A. M. Rydell (2000). Attachment and social functioning: A longitudinal study from infancy to middle childhood. Social Development, 9, 2439.

C. Booth , L. Rose-Krasnor , J. McKinnon , & K. H. Rubin (1994). Predicting social adjustment in middle childhood: The role of preschool attachment security and maternal style. Social Development, 3, 189204.

L. S. Brown , & J. Wright (2003). The relationship between attachment strategies and psychopathology in adolescence. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 76, 351367.

L. E. Brumariu , & K. A. Kerns (2008). Mother–child attachment and social anxiety symptoms in middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 393402.

K. L. Buist , M. Deković , W. Meeus , & M. A. G. van Aken (2004). The reciprocal relationship between early adolescent attachment and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviour. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 351–266.

K. B. Burgess , P. J. Marshall , K. H. Rubin , & N. A. Fox (2003). Infant attachment and temperament as predictors of subsequent externalizing problems and cardiac physiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 819831.

E. A. Carlson (1998). A prospective longitudinal study of attachment disorganization/disorientation. Child Development, 69, 11071128.

J. Cassidy (1994). Emotion regulation: Influences on attachment relationships. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(Serial No. 240), 228249.

J. Cassidy , & L. J. Berlin (1994). The insecure/ambivalent pattern of attachment: Theory and research. Child Development, 65, 971991.

D. Cicchetti (1984). The emergence of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 17.

B. F. Chorpita , A. M. Albano , & D. H. Barlow (1998). The structure of negative emotions in a clinical sample of children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 7485.

B. F. Chorpita , & D. H. Barlow (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 321.

B. F. Chorpita , T. A. Brown , & D. H. Barlow (1998). Perceived control as a mediator of family environment in etiological models of childhood anxiety. Behavior Therapy, 29, 457476.

J. Cohen (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

B. E. Compas , J. K. Connor-Smith , H. Saltzman , A. H. Thomsen , & M. E. Wadsworth (2001). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 87127.

B. E. Compas , S. Ey , & K. E. Grant (1993). Taxonomy, assessment, and diagnosis of depression during adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 323344.

N. M. Costa , & C. F. Weems (2005). Maternal and child anxiety: Do attachment beliefs or children's perceptions of maternal control mediate their association? Social Development, 14, 574590.

E. J. Costello , A. Angold , B. J. Burns , D. K. Stangl , D. L. Tweed , A. Erkanli , (1996). The Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth: Goals, design, methods, and the prevalence of DSM-III-R disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 11291136.

M. R. Dadds , P. M. Barrett , R. M. Rapee , & S. Ryan (1996). Family process and child anxiety and aggression: An observational analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 715734.

D. H. Dallaire , & M. Weinraub (2005). Predicting children's separation anxiety at age 6: The contributions of infant–mother attachment security, maternal sensitivity, and maternal separation anxiety. Attachment and Human Development, 7, 393408.

D. H. Dallaire , & M. Weinraub (2007). Infant–mother attachment security and children's anxiety and aggression at first grade. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 477492.

P. T. Davies , G. T. Harold , M. C. Goeke-Morey , & E. M. Cummings (2002). Child emotional security and interparental conflict. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 67(Serial No. 270), 1129.

M. C. R. De Minzi (2006). Loneliness and depression in middle and late childhood: The relationship to attachment and parental styles. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 167, 189210.

J. M. DiFilippo , & J. C. Overholser (2000). Suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients as associated with depression and attachment relationships. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 155166.

A. B. Doyle , & D. Markiewicz (2005). Parenting, marital conflict and adjustment from early- to mid- adolescence: Mediated by adolescent attachment style? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 97110.

M. A. Easterbrooks , & R. Abeles (2000). Windows to the self in 8-year-olds: Bridges to attachment representation and behavioral adjustment. Attachment and Human Development, 2, 85106.

A. T. Ebata , & R. H. Moss (1991). Coping and adjustment in distressed and healthy adolescents. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 12, 3354.

M. El-Sheikh , & J. A. Buckhalt (2003). Parental problem drinking and children's adjustment: Attachment and family functioning as moderators and mediators of risk. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 510520.

C. A. Essau (2004). The association between family factors and depressive disorders in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 365372.

R. A. Finnegan , E. V. E. Hodges , & D.G. Perry (1996). Preoccupied and avoidant coping during middle childhood. Child Development, 67, 13181328.

G. Fury , E. A. Carlson , & L. A. Sroufe (1997). Children's representations of attachment relationships in family drawings. Child Development, 68, 11541164.

R. Goldwyn , C. Stanley , V. Smith , & J. Green (2000). The Manchester Child Attachment Story Task: Relationship with parental AAI, SAT and child behaviour. Attachment and Human Development, 2, 7184.

C. A. Graham , & M. A. Easterbrooks (2000). School-aged children's vulnerability to depressive symptomatology: The role of attachment security, maternal depressive symptomatology, and economic risk. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 201213.

P. E. Greenberg , T. Sisitsky , R. C. Kessler , S. N. Finkelstein , E. R. Berndt , J. R. T. Davidson , (1999). The economic burden of anxiety disorders in the 1990s. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 427435.

E. Gullone , T. H. Ollendick , & N. J. King (2006). The role of attachment representation in the relationship between depressive symptomatology and social withdrawal in middle childhood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 271285.

C. L. Hardy , W. M. Bukowski , & L. K. Sippola (2002). Stability and change in peer relationships during the transition to middle-level school. Journal of Early Adolescence, 22, 117142.

G. T. Harold , K. H. Shelton , M. C. Goeke-Morey , & E. M. Cummings (2004). Marital conflict, child emotional security about family relationships and child adjustment. Social Development, 13, 350376.

L. V. Hedges (1981). Distribution theory for Glass' estimator of effect size and related estimators. Journal of Educational Statistics, 6, 107128.

E. V. E. Hodges , R. A. Finnegan , & D. G. Perry (1999). Skewed autonomy-relatedness in preadolescents' conceptions of their relationships with mother, father, and best friend. Developmental Psychology, 35, 737748.

M. E. Kenny (1987). The extent and function of parental attachment among first-year college students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 1729.

M. E. Kenny , D. L. Moilanen , R. Lomax , & M. M. Brabeck (1993). Contributions of parental attachments to view of self and depressive symptoms among early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 13, 408430.

K. A. Kerns , J. E. Aspelmeier , A. L. Gentzler , & C. M. Grabill (2001). Parent–child attachment and monitoring in middle childhood. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 6981.

R. R. Kobak , H. E. Cole , R. Ferenz-Gillies , W. S. Fleming , & W. Gamble (1993). Attachment and emotion regulation during mother–teen problem solving: A control theory analysis. Child Development, 64, 231245.

Z. Lakdawalla , B. L. Hankin , & R. Mermelstein (2007). Cognitive theories of depression in children and adolescents: A conceptual and quantitative review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 124.

M. E. Lamb (1982). Paternal influences on early socio-emotional development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 23, 185190.

S. Larose , & M. Boivin (1997). Structural relations among attachment working models of parents, general and specific support expectations, and personal adjustment in late adolescence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 14, 579601.

C. G. Last , S. Perrin , M. Hersen , & A. E. Kazdin (1996). DSM-III-R anxiety disorders in children: Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 10701076.

M. Lewis , C. Feiring , C. McGuffog , & J. Jaskir (1984). Predicting psychopathology in six-year-olds from early social relations. Child Development, 55, 123136.

C. J. Lonigan , & B. M. Phillips (2001). Temperamental influences on the development of anxiety disorders. In M. W. Vasey & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 6091). New York: Oxford University Press.

M. C. Lovejoy , P. A. Graczyk , E. O'Hare , & G. Neuman (2000). Maternal depression and parenting behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 561592.

K. Lyons-Ruth , M. A. Easterbrooks , & C. D. Cibelli (1997). Infant attachment strategies, infant mental lag, and maternal depressive symptoms: Predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7. Developmental Psychology, 33, 681692.

K. Lyons-Ruth , & E. Spielman (2004). Disorganized infant attachment strategies and helpless-fearful profiles of parenting: Integrating attachment research with clinical intervention. Infant Mental Health Journal, 25, 318335.

S. K. Margolese , D. Markiewicz , & A. B. Doyle (2005). Attachment to parents, best friend, and romantic partner: Predicting different pathways to depression in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 637650.

K. McCartney , M. T. Owen , C. L. Booth , A. Clarke-Stewart , & D. L. Vandell (2004). Testing a maternal attachment model of behavior problems in early childhood. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 765778.

R. Miljkovitch , B. Pierrehumbert , & O. Halfon (2007). Three-year-olds' attachment play narratives and their associations with internalizing problems. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14, 249257.

E. Moss , J. F. Bureau , C. Cyr , C. Mongeau , D. St-Laurent (2004). Correlates of attachment at age 3: Construct validity of the preschool attachment classification system. Developmental Psychology, 40, 323334.

E. Moss , C. Cyr , & K. Dubois-Comtois (2004). Attachment at early school age and developmental risk: Examining family context and behavior problems of controlling-caregiving, controlling-punitive, and behaviorally disorganized children. Developmental Psychology, 40, 519532.

E. Moss , D. Rousseau , S. Parent , D. St-Laurent , & J. Saintonge (1998). Correlates of attachment at school age: Maternal reported stress, mother–child interaction, and behavior problems. Child Development, 69, 13901405.

M. J. Noom , M. Deković , & and V. H. J. Meeus (1999). Autonomy, attachment and psychosocial adjustment during adolescence a double-edged sword? Journal of Adolescence, 22, 771783.

D. R. Papini , & L. A. Roggman (1992). Adolescent perceived attachment to parents in relation to competence, depression, and anxiety: A longitudinal study. Journal of Early Adolescence, 12, 420440.

D. R. Papini , L. A. Roggman , & J. Anderson (1991). Early-adolescent perceptions of attachment to mother and father: A test of the emotional-distancing and buffering hypotheses. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 258275.

B. Pierrehumbert , R. Miljkovitch , B. Plancherel , O. Halfon , & F. Ansermet (2000). Attachment and temperament in early childhood: Implications for later behavior problems. Infant and Child Development, 9, 1732.

K. E. Ranson , & L. J. Urichuk (2008). The effect of parent–child attachment relationships on child biopsychosocial outcomes: A review. Early Child Development and Care, 178, 129152.

R. M. Rapee (1997). Potential role of childrearing practices in the development of anxiety and depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 4764.

J. Roelofs , C. Meesters , M. Ter Huurne , L. Bamelis , & P. Muris (2006). On the links between attachment style, parental rearing behaviors, and internalizing and externalizing problems in non-clinical children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 331344.

G. I. Roisman , K. Fortuna , & A. Holland (2006). An experimental manipulation of retrospectively defined earned and continuous attachment security. Child Development, 77, 5971.

L. D. Seligman , & T. H. Ollendick (1998). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: An integrative review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1, 125144.

G. Shamir-Essakow , J. A. Ungerer , & R. M. Rapee (2005). Attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 131143.

D. S. Shaw , K. Keenan , J. I. Vondra , E. Delliquadri , & J. Giovannelli (1997). Antecedents of preschool children's internalizing problems: A longitudinal study of low-income families. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 17601767.

D. S. Shaw , & J. I. Vondra (1995). Infant attachment security and maternal predictors of early behavior problems: A longitudinal study of low-income families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 335357.

J. S. Silk , D. S. Shaw , E. M. Skuban , A. A. Oland , & M. Kovacs (2006). Emotion regulation strategies in offsprings of childhood-onset depressed mothers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 6978.

J. S. Silk , L. Steinberg , & A. S. Morris (2003). Adolescents' emotion regulation in daily life: Links to depressive symptoms and problem behavior. Child Development, 74, 18691880.

M. A. Southam-Gerow , & P. C. Kendall (2002). Emotion regulation and understanding; Implications for child psychopathology and therapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 189222.

L. A. Sroufe , & M. Rutter (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 1729.

G. J. J. M. Stams , F. Juffer , & M. H. van IJzendoorn (2002). Maternal sensitivity, infant attachment, and temperament in early childhood predict adjustment in middle childhood: The case of adopted children and their biologically unrelated parents. Developmental Psychology, 38, 806821.

A. M. Sund , & L. Wichstrøm (2002). Insecure attachment as a risk factor for future depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 14781485.

C. Suveg , & J. Zeman (2004). Emotion regulation in children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 750759.

R. A. Thompson (2001). Childhood anxiety disorders from the perspective of emotion regulation and attachment. In M. W. Vasey & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 160182). New York: Oxford University Press.

M. H. Van IJzendoorn , C. Schuengel , & M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (1999). Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 225249.

M. V. Vasey , & C. MacLeod (2001). Information-processing factors in childhood anxiety: A review and developmental perspective. In M. W. Vasey & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 253278). New York: Oxford University Press.

J. I. Vondra , D. S. Shaw , L. Swearingen , M. Cohen , & E. B. Owens (2001). Attachment stability and emotional and behavioral regulation from infancy to preschool age. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 1333.

S. L. Warren , L. Huston , B. Egeland , & L. A. Sroufe (1997). Child and adolescent anxiety disorders and early attachment. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 637644.

C. F. Weems , & W. K. Silverman (2006). An integrative model of control: Implications for understanding emotion regulation and dysregulation in childhood anxiety. Journal of Affective Disorders, 91, 113124.

M. West , M. S. Rose , S. Spreng , A. Sheldon-Keller , & K. Adam (1998). Adolescent attachment questionnaire: A brief assessment of attachment in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 661673.

R. B. Wilkinson (2004). The role of parental and peer attachment in the psychological health and self-esteem of adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 479493.

S. K. Williams , & F. D. Kelly (2005). Relationships among involvement, attachment, and behavioral problems in adolescence: Examining father's influence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 168196.

J. J. Wood (2007). Academic competence in preschool: Exploring the role of close relationships and anxiety. Early Education and Development, 18, 223242.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *