Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 59
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ratheesh, Aswin Cotton, Susan M. Davey, Christopher G. Adams, Sophie Bechdolf, Andreas Macneil, Craig Berk, Michael and McGorry, Patrick D. 2016. Ethical considerations in preventive interventions for bipolar disorder. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, p. n/a.

    Stebbins, Mary B. and Corcoran, Jacqueline 2016. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: The Child Psychiatrist Perspective. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, Vol. 33, Issue. 2, p. 115.

    Yen, S. Stout, R. Hower, H. Killam, M. A. Weinstock, L. M. Topor, D. R. Dickstein, D. P. Hunt, J. I. Gill, M. K. Goldstein, T. R. Goldstein, B. I. Ryan, N. D. Strober, M. Sala, R. Axelson, D. A. Birmaher, B. and Keller, M. B. 2016. The influence of comorbid disorders on the episodicity of bipolar disorder in youth. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 133, Issue. 4, p. 324.

    Dervic, K. Garcia-Amador, M. Sudol, K. Freed, P. Brent, D.A. Mann, J.J. Harkavy-Friedman, J.M. and Oquendo, M.A. 2015. Bipolar I and II versus unipolar depression: Clinical differences and impulsivity/aggression traits. European Psychiatry, Vol. 30, Issue. 1, p. 106.

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina Youngstrom, Eric A. Martinez, Maria KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer Scovil, Kelly Ross, Jody Feeny, Norah C. and Findling, Robert L. 2015. Physical and Sexual Abuse and Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder in Youths Receiving Outpatient Services: Frequent, but Not Specific. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 43, Issue. 3, p. 453.

    Hirneth, Stephen J. Hazell, Philip L. Hanstock, Tanya L. and Lewin, Terry J. 2015. Bipolar disorder subtypes in children and adolescents: Demographic and clinical characteristics from an Australian sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 175, p. 98.

    James, Anthony Wotton, Clare J. Duffy, Anne Hoang, Uy and Goldacre, Michael 2015. Conversion from depression to bipolar disorder in a cohort of young people in England, 1999–2011: A national record linkage study. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 185, p. 123.

    Josephson, Allan M. 2015. From Family Therapy to Family Intervention. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 24, Issue. 3, p. 457.

    Parry, Peter I Allison, Stephen and Bastiampillai, Tarun 2015. Reification of the paediatric bipolar hypothesis in the USA. The Lancet Psychiatry, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 14.

    Vallarino, Martine Henry, Chantal Etain, Bruno Gehue, Lillian J Macneil, Craig Scott, Elizabeth M Barbato, Angelo Conus, Philippe Hlastala, Stefanie A Fristad, Mary Miklowitz, David J and Scott, Jan 2015. An evidence map of psychosocial interventions for the earliest stages of bipolar disorder. The Lancet Psychiatry, Vol. 2, Issue. 6, p. 548.

    Blader, Joseph C 2014. Clinical Insights: Mental Health in Adolescents: Bipolar Disorder.

    Carlson, Gabrielle A. and Klein, Daniel N. 2014. How to Understand Divergent Views on Bipolar Disorder in Youth. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 529.

    James, Anthony Hoang, Uy Seagroatt, Valerie Clacey, Joe Goldacre, Michael and Leibenluft, Ellen 2014. A Comparison of American and English Hospital Discharge Rates for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder, 2000 to 2010. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 53, Issue. 6, p. 614.

    Udal, Anne H. Egeland, Jens Øygarden, Bjørg Malt, Ulrik F. Lövdahl, Hans Pripp, Are H. and Groholt, Berit 2014. Differentiating Between Comorbidity and Symptom Overlap in ADHD and Early Onset Bipolar Disorder. Developmental Neuropsychology, Vol. 39, Issue. 4, p. 249.

    Carlson, Gabrielle A. 2013. Affective Disorders and Psychosis in Youth. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 22, Issue. 4, p. 569.

    Demeter, Christine A. Youngstrom, Eric A. Carlson, Gabrielle A. Frazier, Thomas W. Rowles, Brieana M. Lingler, Jacqui McNamara, Nora K. DiFrancesco, Kathryn E. Calabrese, Joseph R. and Findling, Robert L. 2013. Age differences in the phenomenology of pediatric bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 147, Issue. 1-3, p. 295.

    MacPherson, Heather A. Cheavens, Jennifer S. and Fristad, Mary A. 2013. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 59.

    Carlson, Gabrielle A Kotov, Roman Chang, Su-Wei Ruggero, Camilo and Bromet, Evelyn J 2012. Early determinants of four-year clinical outcomes in bipolar disorder with psychosis. Bipolar Disorders, Vol. 14, Issue. 1, p. 19.

    CARLSON, GABRIELLE A. 2012. Differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. World Psychiatry, Vol. 11, Issue. 3, p. 146.

    DONOHUE, ANDREW W. 2012. Diagnosing Bipolar Disorder in the Community Setting. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, Vol. 18, Issue. 6, p. 395.


Phenomenology and diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: Complexities and developmental issues

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 December 2006

This review addresses the phenomenology of mania/bipolar disorder from a developmental psychopathology perspective and uses cases with longitudinal information to illustrate major points. Beginning with a summary of the phenomenology of bipolar illness as it occurs in adults, the authors identify diagnostic complexities unique to children and adolescents. These include the challenges of characterizing elation and grandiosity; differentiating mania from comorbid symptoms, rages, sequelae of maltreatment, and typical developmental phenomena; and the unique manifestations of psychosis. We conclude with the observation that a significant difference between early and later onset bipolar disorder is that, in the former, there appears to be a global delay or arrest in the development of appropriate affect regulation; whereas in adult-onset bipolar illness, emotion dysregulation generally presents as an intermittent phenomenon. At this juncture, the study of childhood bipolar illness would benefit from a developmental psychopathology perspective to move beyond the level of cross-sectional symptom description to begin to study individuals over time, focusing on developmental, environmental, genetic, and neurobiological influences on manifest behavior.This review was supported in part by funding from NIMH Grant 44801 and grants from Janssen Pharmaceutica and Abbott Laboratories.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Gabrielle A. Carlson, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Putnam Hall–South Campus, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8790; E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *