Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: Testing a developmental cascade model

  • Stephanie L. Sitnick (a1), Daniel S. Shaw (a1) and Luke W. Hyde (a1) (a2)
Abstract

This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Stephanie S. Sitnick, 210 South Bouquet Street, 4109 Sennott Square, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260; E-mail: sls151@pitt.edu.
References
Hide All
Achenbach, T. M. (1992). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Achenbach, T. M., Howell, C. T., Quay, H. C., & Conners, C. K. (1991). National survey of problems and competencies among four- to sixteen-year-olds: Parents' reports for normative and clinical samples. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 56, 1131.
Acock, A. C. (2005). Working with missing values. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 10121028.
Aguilar, L., Sroufe, A., Egeland, B., & Carlson, E. (2000). Distinguishing the early-onset/persistent and adolescence-onset antisocial behavior types: From birth to 16 years. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 109132.
Andrew, M., & Cronin, C. (1997). Two measures of sensation seeking as predictors of alcohol use among high school males. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 393401.
Arnett, J. J. (1996). Sensation seeking, aggressiveness, and adolescent reckless behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 20, 693702.
Bauman, K. E., & Ennett, S. T. (1996). On the importance of peer influence for adolescent drug use: Commonly neglected considerations. Addiction, 91, 185198.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 5695.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Ranieri, W. F. (1988). Scale for suicide ideation: Psychometric properties of a self-report version. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 499505.
Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238246.
Block, J., Block, J. H., & Keyes, S. (1988). Longitudinally foretelling drug usage in adolescence: Early childhood personality and environmental precursors. Child Development, 59, 336355.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods and Research, 21, 230258.
Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (1978). Manual for the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. Little Rock, AR: University of Arkansa Press.
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Newman, D. L., & Silva, P. A. (1996). Behavioral observations at age 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders: Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 10331039.
Chassin, L., Ritter, J., Trim, R. S., & King, K. M. (2003). Adolsecsnt substance use disorders. In Mash, E. J. & Barkley, R. A.(Eds.), Child psychopathology (pp. 199229). New York: Guilford Press.
Chilcoat, H. C., & Anthony, J. C. (1996). Impact of parent monitoring on initiation of drug use through late childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 91100.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2002). A developmental psychopathology perspective on adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 620.
Cohen, D. A., Richardson, J., & LaBree, L. (1994). Parenting behaviors and the onset of smoking and alcohol use: A longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 94, 368375.
Cohen, P., Chen, H., Crawford, T. N., Brook, J. S., & Gordon, K. (2007). Personality disorders in early adolescence and the development of later substance use disorders in the general population. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88(Suppl. 1), S71S84.
Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing mediational models with longitudinal data: Questions and tips in the use of structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 558577.
Cornelius, J. R., Reynolds, M., Martz, B. M., Clark, D. B., Kirisci, L., & Tarter, R. (2008). Premature mortality among males with substance use disorders. Addictive Behavior, 33, 156160.
Cortes, R. C., Fleming, C. B., Mason, W. A., & Catalano, R. F. (2009). Risk factors linking maternal depressed mood to growth in adolescent substance use. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 17, 4964.
Crawford, A. M., Pentz, M. A., Chou, C. P., Li, C., & Dwyer, J. H. (2003). Parallel developmental trajectories of sensation seeking and regular substance use in adolescents. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 179192.
Dåderman, A. M. (1999). Differences between severely conduct-disordered juvenile males and normal juvenile males: The study of personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 827845.
Dishion, T. J., & Loeber, R. (1985). Adolescent marijuana and alcohol use: The role of parents and peers revisited. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 11, 1125.
Dishion, T. J., Nelson, S. E., & Kavanagh, K. (2003). The family check-up with high-risk young adolescents: Preventing early-onset substance use by parent monitoring. Behavior Therapy, 34, 553571.
Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., Stoolmiller, M., & Skinner, M. L. (1991). Family, school, and behavioral antecedents to early adolescent involvement with antisocial peers. Developmental Psychology, 27, 172180.
Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D., Connell, A., Gardner, F., Weaver, C., & Wilson, M. (2008). The family check-up with high-risk indigent families: Preventing problem behavior by increasing parents' positive behavior support in early childhood. Child Development, 79, 13951414.
Dishion, T. J., Spracklen, K. M., Andrews, D. W., & Patterson, G. R. (1996). Deviancy training in male adolescent friendships. Behavior Therapy, 27, 373390.
Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Miller, S., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2009). A dynamic cascade model of the development of substance-use onset. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 74, vii119.
Donohew, L., Clayton, R. R., Skinner, W. F., & Colon, S. (1999). Peer networks and sensation seeking: Some implications for primary socialization theory. Substance Use and Misuse, 34, 10131023.
Dorard, G., Berthoz, S., Phan, O., Corcos, M., & Bungener, C. (2008). Affect dysregulation in cannabis abusers: A study in adolescents and young adults. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 274282.
Downey, G., & Coyne, J. C. (1990). Children of depressed parents: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 5076.
Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fergusson, D. M., Swain-Campbell, N. R., & Horwood, L. J. (2002). Deviant peer affiliations, crime and substance use: A fixed effects regression analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 419430.
Goodman, S. H. (2007). Depression in mothers. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 107135.
Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458490.
Gross, H. E., Shaw, D. S., & Moilanen, K. L. (2008). Reciprocal associations between boys' externalizing problems and mothers' depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 693709.
Hampson, S. E., Andrews, J. A., & Barckley, M. (2008). Childhood predictors of adolescent marijuana use: Early sensation-seeking, deviant peer affiliation, and social images. Addictive Behaviors, 33, 11401147.
Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64105.
Henry, B., Caspi, A., Moffit, T., & Silva, P. (1996). Temperamental and familial predictors of violent and nonviolent criminal convictions: Age 3 to age 18. Developmental Psychology, 32, 614623.
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four Factor Index of Social Status. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University, Department of Sociology.
Hussong, A. M., Gould, L. F., & Hersh, M. A. (2008). Conduct problems moderate self-medication and mood-related drinking consequences in adolscents. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 296307.
Iannotti, R. J., & Bush, P. J. (1992). Perceived vs. actual friends' use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine: Which has the most influence? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 375389.
Jessor, R., Donovan, J. E., & Costa, F. M. (1991). Beyond adolescence: Problem behavior and young adult development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Krueger, R. F. (1999). The structure of common mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 921926.
Krueger, R. F., Hicks, B. M., Patrick, C. J., Carlson, S. R., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2002). Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: Modeling the externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 411424.
Lahey, B. B., Applegate, B., Chronis, A. M., Jones, H. A., Williams, S. H., Loney, J., et al. (2008). Psychometric characteristics of a measure of emotional dispositions developed to test a developmental propensity model of conduct disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 794807.
Lahey, B. B., & Waldman, I. D. (2003). A devepmental propensity model of the origins of conduct problems during childhood and adolescesnce. In Lahey, B. B., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 76117). New York: Guilford Press.
Laird, R. D., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Parent's monitoring-relevant knowledge and adolescents' delinquent behavior: Evidence of correlated developmental changes and reciprocal influences. Child Development, 73, 752768.
Lansford, J. E., Criss, M. M., Laird, R., Shaw, D. S., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., et al. (2011). Reciprocal relations between parents' physical discipline and children's externalizing behavior during middle childhood and adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 225238.
Lynne-Landsman, S. D., Bradshaw, C. P., & Ialongo, N. S. (2010). Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 933948.
Mackinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99.
Martel, M. M., Pierce, L., Nigg, J. T., Jester, J. M., Adams, K., Puttler, L. I., et al. (2009). Temperament pathways to childhood disruptive behavior and adolescent substance abuse: Testing a cascade model. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 363373.
Martin, C. A., Kelly, T. H., Rayens, M. K., Brogli, B. R., Brenzel, A., Smith, W. J., et al. (2002). Sensation seeking, puberty, and nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana use in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 14951502.
Martin, M. J., Conger, R. D., Schofield, T. J., Dogan, S. J., Widaman, K. F., Donnellan, M. D., et al. (2010). Evaluation of the interactionist model of socioeconomic status and problem behavior: A developmental cascade across generations. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 695713.
Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 491495.
Masten, A. S., Faden, V. B., Zucker, R. A., & Spear, L. P. (2008). Underage drinking: A developmental framework. Pediatrics, 121, S235S251.
Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradović, J., Riley, J. R., et al. (2005). Developmental cascades: Linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41, 733749.
Mayzer, R., Fitzgerald, H. E., & Zucker, R. A. (2009). Anticipating problem drinking risk from preschoolers' antisocial behavior: Evidence for a common delinquency-related diathesis model. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 820827.
McLeod, J. D., & Shanahan, M. J. (1993). Poverty, parenting, and children's mental health. American Sociological Review, 58, 351366.
Moffit, T., & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 355375.
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701.
Moilanen, K. L., Shaw, D. S., Criss, M. M., & Dishion, T. J. (2009). Growth and predictors of parental knowledge of youth behavior during early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 29, 800825.
Muthén, B., du Toit, S. H. C., & Spisic, D. (1997). Robust inference using weighted least squares and quadratic estimating equations in latent variable modeling with categorical and continuous outcomes. Unpublished manuscript.
Muthén, B. O., & Muthén, L. K. (2009). Mplus version 5.2 [Computer software]. Los Angeles: Author.
Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1988). Impact of adolescent drug use and social support on problems of young adults: A longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 6475.
Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Patterson, G. R., Chamberlain, P. D., & Reid, J. B. (1982). A comparative evaluation of parent training procedures. Behavior Therapy, 13, 638650.
Reid, J. B. (1993). Prevention of conduct disorder before and after school entry: Relating interventions to developmental findings. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 243262.
Rogosch, F. A., Oshri, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 883889.
Shafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view on the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147177.
Shaw, D. S., & Bell, R. Q. (1993). Developmental theories of parental contributors to antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 493518.
Shaw, D. S., Bell, R. Q., & Gilliom, M. (2000). A truly early starter model of antisocial behavior revisited. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3, 155172.
Shaw, D. S., Connell, A., Dishion, T. J., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2009). Improvements in maternal depression as a mediator of intervention effects on early childhood problem behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 417439.
Shaw, D. S., Gilliom, M., Ingoldsby, E. M., & Nagin, D. S. (2003). Trajectories leading to school-age conduct problems. Development and Psychopathology, 39, 189200.
Shaw, D. S., & Gross, H. E. (2008). Early childhood and the development of delinquency: What we have learned from recent longitudinal research. In Lieberman, A. (Ed.), The long view of crime: A synthesis of longitudinal research (pp. 79127). New York: Springer.
Shaw, D. S., Hyde, L. W., & Brennan, L. M. (2012). Early predictors of boys' antisocial trajectories. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 871888.
Shaw, D. S., Schonberg, M., Sherrill, J., Huffman, D., Lukon, J., Obrosky, D., et al. (2006). Responsivity to offspring's expression of emotion among childhood-onset depressed mothers. Journal of Clinical and Child Adolescent Psychology, 35, 490503.
Shaw, D. S., Wagner, E. F., Arnett, J., & Aber, M. (1992). Factor structure of the Reckless Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 765782.
Shelder, J., & Block, J. (1990). Adolescent drug use and psychological health: A longitudinal inquiry. American Psychologist, 45, 612630.
Sher, K. J. (1991). Children of alcoholics: A critical apprasal of theory and research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sroufe, L. A., Fox, N. E., & Pancake, V. R. (1983). Attachment and dependency in developmental perspective. Child Development, 54, 16151627.
Stattin, H., & Kerr, M. (2000). Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. Child Development, 71, 10721085.
Steinberg, L., Fletcher, A., & Darling, N. (1994). Parental monitoring and peer influences on adolescent substance use. Pediatrics, 93, 10601064.
Stern, S. B., & Smith, C. A. (1999). Reciprocal relationships between antisocial behavior and parenting: Implications for delinquency intervention. Families in Society, 80, 169181.
Tarter, R. E. (2002). Etiology of adolescent substance use: A developmental perspective. American Journal on Addictions, 11, 171191.
Tarter, R. E., Kirisci, L., Ridenour, T., & Vanyukov, M. (2008). Prediction of cannabis use disorder beteween childhood and young adulthood using the Child Behavior Checklist. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30, 272278.
Trentacosta, C. J., Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S., & Cheong, J. (2009). Adolescent dispositions for antisocial behavior in context: The roles of neighborhood dangerousness and parental knowledge. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 564575.
Trentacosta, C. J., & Shaw, D. S. (2008). Maternal predictors of rejecting parenting and early adolescent antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 247259.
Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38, 110.
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Results from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Heatlh: Vol. 1. Summary of national findings. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies.
Vuchinich, S., Bank, L., & Patterson, G. R. (1992). Parenting, peers, and the stability of antisocial behavior in preadolescent boys. Developmental Psychology, 28, 510521.
Weissman, M. M., Warner, V., Wickramaratne, P., Moreau, D., & Olfson, M. (1997). Offspring of depressed parents: 10 Years later. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 932940.
White, H. R., Labouvie, E. W., & Bates, M. E. (1985). The relationship between sensation seeking and delinquency: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 22, 197211.
Wills, T. A., McNamara, G., Vaccaro, D., & Hirky, A. E. (1996). Escalated substance use: A longitudinal grouping analyses from early to middle adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 166180.
Windle, M. (1990). A longitudinal study of antisocial behaviors in early adolescence as predictors of late adolescent substance use: Gender and ethnic group differences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 8691.
Wong, M. M., Nigg, J. T., Zucker, R. A., Puttler, L. I., Fitzgerald, H. E., Jester, J. M., et al. (2006). Behavioral control and resiliency in the onset of alcohol and illicit drug use: A prospective study from preschool to adolescence. Child Development, 77, 10161033.
Zucker, R. A., Donovan, J. E., Masten, A. S., Mattson, M. E., & Moss, H. B. (2008). Early developmental processes and the continuity of risk for underage drinking and problem drinking. Pediatrics, 121, S252S272.
Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zuckerman, M. (1996). The psychobiological model for impulsive unsocialized sensation seeking: A comparative approach. Neuropsychobiology, 34, 125129.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed