This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
H. S. Akiskal (1995). Developmental pathways to bipolarity: Are juvenile-onset depressions pre-bipolar? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 754–763.
M. Alda (1997). Bipolar disorder: From families to genes. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 378–387.
J. Biederman , E. Mick , S. V. Faraone , T. Spencer , T. E. Wilens , & J. Wozniak (2003). Current concepts in the validity, diagnosis and treatment of paediatric bipolar disorder. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 6, 293–300.
B. Birmaher , D. Axelson , M. Strober , M. K. Gill , S. Valeri , L. Chiappetta , (2006). Clinical course of children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 175–183.
H. P. Blumberg , J. Kaufman , A. Martin , D. S. Charney , J. H. Krystal , & B. S. Peterson (2004). Significance of adolescent neurodevelopment for the neural circuitry of bipolar disorder. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 376–383.
S. C. Caetano , R. L. Olvera , D. Glahn , M. Fonseca , S. Pliszka , & J. C. Soares (2005). Fronto-limbic brain abnormalities in juvenile onset bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 525–531.
G. A. Carlson , P. S. Jensen , R. L. Findling , R. E. Meyer , J. Calabrese , M. P. DelBello , (2003). Methodological issues and controversies in clinical trials with child and adolescent patients with bipolar disorder: Report of a consensus conference. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 13, 13–27.
G. A. Carlson , & S. Weintraub (1993). Childhood behavior problems and bipolar disorder—Relationship or coincidence? Journal of Affective Disorders, 28, 143–153.
K. Chang , N. E. Adleman , K. Dienes , D. J. Simeonova , V. Menon , & A. Reiss (2004). Anomalous prefrontal–subcortical activation in familial pediatric bipolar disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 781–792.
K. Chang , M. Howe , K. Gallelli , & D. Miklowitz (2006). Prevention of pediatric bipolar disorder: Integration of neurobiological and psychosocial processes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 235–247.
K. D. Chang , K. Dienes , C. Blasey , N. Adleman , T. Ketter , & H. Steiner (2003). Divalproex monotherapy in the treatment of bipolar offspring with mood and behavioral disorders and at least mild affective symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 936–942.
K. D. Chang , H. Steiner , & T. A. Ketter (2000). Psychiatric phenomenology of child and adolescent bipolar offspring. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 453–460.
D. Cicchetti , & F. A. Rogosch (1999). Psychopathology as risk for adolescent substance use disorders: A developmental psychopathology perspective. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 355–365.
D. Cicchetti , & S. L. Toth (1998). The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 53, 221–241.
C. U. Correll , J. B. Penzner , A. M. Frederickson , J. J. Richter , A. M. Auther , C. W. Smith , (2007). Differentiation in the preonset phases of schizophrenia and mood disorders: Evidence in support of a bipolar mania prodrome. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 703–713.
A. L. Coville , D. J. Miklowitz , D. O. Taylor , & K. Low (2008). Correlates of high expressed emotion attitudes among parents of bipolar adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 438–449.
M. P. DelBello (2006). The neurophysiology of childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder. CNS Spectrums, 11, 298–311.
M. P. DelBello , C. M. Adler , R. M. Whitsel , K. E. Stanford , & S. M. Strakowski (2007). A 12-week single-blind trial of quetiapine for the treatment of mood symptoms in adolescents at high risk for developing bipolar I disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 789–795.
K. A. Dienes , C. Hammen , R. M. Henry , A. N. Cohen , & S. E. Daley (2006). The stress sensitization hypothesis: Understanding the course of bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 95, 43–49.
J. A. Egeland , R. L. Blumenthal , J. Nee , L. Sharpe , & J. Endicott (1987). Reliability and relationship of various ages of onset criteria for major affective disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 12, 159–165.
J. A. Egeland , A. M. Hostetter , D. L. Pauls , & J. N. Sussex (2000). Prodromal symptoms before onset of manic-depressive disorder suggested by first hospital admission histories. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1245–1252.
J. A. Egeland , J. A. Shaw , J. Endicott , D. L. Pauls , C. R. Allen , A. M. Hostetter , (2003). Prospective study of prodromal features for bipolarity in well Amish children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 786–796.
S. V. Faraone , J. Biederman , D. Mennin , J. Wozniak , & T. Spencer (1997). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with bipolar disorder: A familial subtype? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1378–1387.
E. L. Fergus , R. B. Miller , D. A. Luckenbaugh , G. S. Leverich , R. L. Findling , A. M. Speer , (2003). Is there progression from irritability/dyscontrol to major depressive and manic symptoms? A retrospective community survey of parents of bipolar children. Journal of Affective Disorders, 77, 71–78.
R. L. Findling , T. W. Frazier , E. A. Youngstrom , N. K. McNamara , R. J. Stansbrey , B. L. Gracious , (2005). Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of divalproex monotherapy in the treatment of symptomatic youth at high risk for developing bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 781–788.
R. L. Findling , E. A. Youngstrom , N. K. McNamara , R. J. Stansbrey , C. A. Demeter , D. Bedoya , (2005). Early symptoms of mania and the role of parental risk. Bipolar Disorders, 7, 623–634.
K. A. Gallelli , C. M. Wagner , A. Karchemskiy , M. Howe , D. Spielman , A. Reiss , (2005). N-Acetylaspartate levels in bipolar offspring with and at high-risk for bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 7, 589–597.
J. Garber (2006). Depression in children and adolescents: Linking risk research and prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 31, S104–S125.
B. Geller , R. Tillman , J. L. Craney , & K. Bolhofner (2004). Four-year prospective outcome and natural history of mania in children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 459–467.
B. Geller , K. Warner , M. Williams , & B. Zimerman (1998). Prepubertal and young adolescent bipolarity versus ADHD: Assessment and validity using the WASH-U-KSADS, CBCL and TRF. Journal of Affective Disorders, 51, 93–100.
B. Geller , B. Zimerman , M. Williams , K. Bolhofner , & J. L. Craney (2001). Bipolar disorder at prospective follow-up of adults who had prepubertal major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 125–127.
K. Hashimoto , E. Shimizu , & M. Iyo (2004). Critical role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mood disorders. Brain Research Review, 45, 104–114.
G. Hasler , W. C. Drevets , T. D. Gould , I. I. Gottesman , & H. K. Manji (2006). Toward constructing an endophenotype strategy for bipolar disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 93–105.
M. H. Hillegers , C. G. Reichart , M. Wals , F. C. Verhulst , J. Ormel , & W. A. Nolen (2005). Five-year prospective outcome of psychopathology in the adolescent offspring of bipolar parents. Bipolar Disorders, 7, 344–350.
K. Kendler (2005). “A gene for … ”: The nature of gene action in psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1243–1252.
E. Y. Kim , & D. J. Miklowitz (2002). Childhood mania, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder: A critical review of diagnostic dilemmas. Bipolar Disorders, 4, 215–225.
F. J. Kochman , E. G. Hantouche , P. Ferrari , S. Lancrenon , D. Bayart , & H. S. Akiskal (2005). Cyclothymic temperament as a prospective predictor of bipolarity and suicidality in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 85, 181–189.
M. LaPalme , S. Hodgins , & C. LaRoche (1997). Children of parents with bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis of risk for mental disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 623–631.
E. Leibenluft , P. Cohen , T. Gorrindo , J. S. Brook , & D. S. Pine (2006). Chronic vs. episodic irritability in youth: A community-based, longitudinal study of clinical and diagnostic associations. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 16, 456–466.
G. S. Leverich , S. L. McElroy , T. Suppes , P. E. J. Keck , K. D. Denicoff , W. A. Nolen , (2002). Early physical and sexual abuse associated with an adverse course of bipolar illness. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 288–297.
G. S. Leverich , R. M. Post , P. E. J. Keck , L. L. Altshuler , M. A. Frye , R. W. Kupka , (2007). The poor prognosis of childhood-onset bipolar disorder. Journal of Pediatrics, 150, 485–490.
P. M. Lewinsohn , D. N. Klein , & J. R. Seeley (2000). Bipolar disorder during adolescence and young adulthood in a community sample. Bipolar Disorders, 2, 281–293.
J. D. Lish , S. Dime-Meenan , P. C. Whybrow , R. A. Price , & R. M. Hirschfeld (1994). The National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association (NDMDA) survey of bipolar members. Journal of Affective Disorders, 31, 281–294.
G. Masi , G. Perugi , C. Toni , S. Millepiedi , M. Mucci , N. Bertini , (2004). Obsessive–compulsive bipolar comorbidity: Focus on children and adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 78, 175–183.
C. A. Mathews , & V. I. Reus (2003). Genetic linkage in bipolar disorder. CNS Spectrums, 8, 891–904.
T. H. McGlashan , R. B. Zipursky , D. Perkins , J. Addington , T. Miller , S. W. Woods , (2006). Randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 790–799.
K. R. Merikangas , H. S. Akiskal , J. Angst , P. E. Greenberg , R. M. A. Hirschfeld , M. Petukhova , (2007). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 543–552.
D. J. Miklowitz , A. Biuckians , & J. A. Richards (2006). Early-onset bipolar disorder: A family treatment perspective. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 1247–1265.
D. J. Miklowitz , E. L. George , J. A. Richards , T. L. Simoneau , & R. L. Suddath (2003). A randomized study of family-focused psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy in the outpatient management of bipolar disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 904–912.
D. J. Miklowitz , M. J. Goldstein , K. H. Nuechterlein , K. S. Snyder , & J. Mintz (1988). Family factors and the course of bipolar affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 225–231.
D. J. Miklowitz , M. W. Otto , E. Frank , N. A. Reilly-Harrington , J. N. Kogan , G. S. Sachs , (2007). Intensive psychosocial intervention enhances functioning in patients with bipolar depression: Results from a 9-month randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1–8.
D. J. Miklowitz , M. W. Otto , E. Frank , N. A. Reilly-Harrington , S. R. Wisniewski , J. N. Kogan , (2007). Psychosocial treatments for bipolar depression: A 1-year randomized trial from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 419–427.
D. J. Miklowitz , T. L. Simoneau , E. L. George , J. A. Richards , A. Kalbag , N. Sachs-Ericsson , (2000). Family-focused treatment of bipolar disorder: One-year effects of a psychoeducational program in conjunction with pharmacotherapy. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 582–592.
C. Moreno , G. Laje , C. Blanco , H. Jiang , A. B. Schmidt , & M. Olfson (2007). National trends in the outpatient diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder in youth. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 1032–1039.
L. Murray , C. Kempton , M. Woolgar , & R. Hooper (1993). Depressed mothers' speech to their infants and its relation to infant gender and cognitive development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1083–1101.
NIMH. (2001). Research roundtable on prepubertal bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 871–878.
R. A. O'Connell , J. A. Mayo , L. Flatow , B. Cuthbertson , & B. E. O'Brien (1991). Outcome of bipolar disorder on long-term treatment with lithium. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 132–129.
M. N. Pavuluri , B. Birmaher , & M. W. Naylor (2005). Pediatric bipolar disorder: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 846–871.
M. N. Pavuluri , P. A. Graczyk , D. B. Henry , J. A. Carbray , J. Heidenreich , & D. J. Miklowitz (2004). Child and family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder: Development and preliminary results. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 528–537.
R. H. Perlis , S. Miyahara , L. B. Marangell , S. R. Wisniewski , M. Ostacher , M. P. DelBello , (2004). Long-term implications of early onset in bipolar disorder: Data from the first 1000 participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). Biological Psychiatry, 55, 875–881.
M. L. Phillips , W. C. Drevets , S. L. Rauch , & R. Lane (2003). Neurobiology of emotion perception II: Implications for major psychiatric disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 515–528.
R. M. Post (2002). Do the epilepsies, pain syndromes, and affective disorders share common kindling-like mechanisms? Epilepsy Research, 50, 203–219.
R. M. Post , & G. S. Leverich (2006). The role of psychosocial stress in the onset and progression of bipolar disorder and its comorbidities: The need for earlier and alternative modes of therapeutic intervention. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 1181–1211.
G. Rajkowska (2000). Postmortem studies in mood disorders indicate altered numbers of neurons and glial cells. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 766–777.
G. Rajkowska , A. Halaris , & L. D. Selemon (2001). Reductions in neuronal and glial density characterize the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 741–752.
M. M. Rea , M. Tompson , D. J. Miklowitz , M. J. Goldstein , S. Hwang , & J. Mintz (2003). Family focused treatment vs. individual treatment for bipolar disorder: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 482–492.
C. G. Reichart , & W. A. Nolen (2004). Earlier onset of bipolar disorder in children by antidepressants or stimulants? An hypothesis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 78, 81–84.
B. A. Rich , D. T. Vinton , R. Roberson-Nay , R. E. Hommer , L. H. Berghorst , E. B. McClure , (2006). Limbic hyperactivation during processing of neutral facial expressions in children with bipolar disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 8900–8905.
J. A. Shaw , J. A. Egeland , J. Endicott , C. R. Allen , & A. M. Hostetter (2005). A 10-year prospective study of prodromal patterns for bipolar disorder among Amish youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 1104–1011.
T. L. Simoneau , D. J. Miklowitz , J. A. Richards , R. Saleem , & E. L. George (1999). Bipolar disorder and family communication: Effects of a psychoeducational treatment program. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 588–597.
M. K. Singh , M. P. DelBello , R. A. Kowatch , & S. M. Strakowski (2006). Co-occurrence of bipolar and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in children. Bipolar Disorders, 8, 710–720.
D. K. Snyder , A. M. Castellani , & M. A. Whisman (2006). Current status and future directions in couple therapy. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 1–28.
S. M. Strakowski , M. P. Delbello , & C. M. Adler (2005). The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: A review of neuroimaging findings. Molecular Psychiatry, 10, 105–116.
S. M. Strakowski , M. P. DelBello , M. E. Zimmerman , G. E. Getz , N. P. Mills , J. Ret , (2002). Ventricular and periventricular structural volumes in first- versus multiple-episode bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1841–1847.
T. Suppes , G. S. Leverich , P. E. Keck , W. A. Nolen , K. D. Denicoff , L. L. Altshuler , (2001). The Stanley Foundation Bipolar Treatment Outcome Network. II. Demographics and illness characteristics of the first 261 patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 67, 45–59.
R. Tillman , & B. Geller (2006). Controlled study of switching from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar I disorder phenotype during 6-year prospective follow-up: Rate, risk, and predictors. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 1037–1053.
R. Tillman , B. Geller , J. L. Craney , K. Bolhofner , M. Williams , & B. Zimerman (2004). Relationship of parent and child informants to prevalence of mania symptoms in children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1278–1284.
R. Tillman , B. Geller , M. J. Nickelsburg , K. Bolhofner , J. L. Craney , M. P. DelBello , (2003). Life events in a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype compared to attention-deficit hyperactive and normal controls. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 13, 243–251.
F. C. Verhulst , J. van der Ende , R. F. Ferdinand , & M. C. Kasius (1997). The prevalence of DSM-III-R diagnoses in a national sample of Dutch adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 329–336.
J. R. Vittengl , L. A. Clark , T. W. Dunn , & R. B. Jarrett (2007). Reducing relapse and recurrence in unipolar depression: A comparative meta-analysis of cognitive–behavioral therapy's effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 475–488.
M. Wals , M. H. J. Hillegers , C. G. Reichart , F. C. Verhulst , W. A. Nolen , & J. Ormel (2005). Stressful life events and onset of mood disorders in children of bipolar parents during 14-month follow-up. Journal of Affective Disorders, 87, 253–263.
L. J. Yan , C. Hammen , A. N. Cohen , S. E. Daley , & R. M. Henry (2004). Expressed emotion versus relationship quality variables in the prediction of recurrence in bipolar patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 83, 199–206.
D. A. Yurgelun-Todd , S. A. Gruber , G. Kanayama , W. D. Killgore , A. A. Baird , & A. D. Young (2000). fMRI during affect discrimination in bipolar affective disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 2(3, Part 2), 237–248.