Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Quality of attachment in the preschool years

  • Patricia M. Crittenden (a1)
Abstract

This is a theoretical paper about differences in quality of attachment in preschool-aged children with emphasis on the development of the goal-corrected partnership. Inferences are made about the processes underlying preschoolers' attachment behavior. Specifically, the notion of quality of attachment is expanded to explicitly include strategy, regulation of affect, negotiation, secure base behavior, and response to maternal behavior. The classificatory system is expanded by adding two additional defended patterns, that is, compulsive caregiving and compulsive compliance, to the infant avoidant pattern. Furthermore, at the preschool age, the infant ambivalent pattern is identified as having a coercive strategy. In addition, the disorganized infant category is reconceptualized in terms of complex organization, reorganization, and disorganization. Finally, the process of generating new theories and hypotheses through a “participant observer” methodology is considered from the perspective of developmental psychopathology.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1967). Infancy in Uganda: Infant care and the growth of love. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1979). Infant-mother attachment. American Psychologist, 34, 932937.
Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1984, April). Attachment, adaptation, and continuity. Paper presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, New York City.
Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1985). Patterns of infant-mother attachment: Antecedents and effects on development. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 61, 771791.
Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1990). Epilogue: Some considerations relevant to theory and assessment regarding attachment beyond infancy. In Greenberg, M., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 463488). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991). An ethological approach to personality development. American Psychologist, 46, 333341.
Belsky, J., Rovine, M., & Taylor, D. G. (1984). The Pennsylvania Development Project, III: The origins of individual differences in mother-infant attachment: Maternal and infant contributions. Child Development, 55, 719728.
Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and loss. Vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. Vol. 2: Separation. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss. Vol. 3: Loss. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.
Bretherton, I. (1990). Open communication and internal working models: Their role in the development of attachment relationships. In Thompson, R. A. (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on motivation: Socio-emotional development (pp. 57113). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Bretherton, I. (1991). Pouring new wine into old bottles: The social self as internal working model. In Gunnar, M. & Sroufe, L. A. (Eds.), Selfprocesses and development: The Minnesota Symposia on Child Development (pp. 141). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bretherton, I. (in press). Theoretical contributions from developmental psychology to the development of family theory. In Boss, P., Doherty, W., Larossa, R., Schumm, W., & Steinmetz, S. (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach. New York: Plenum Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The experimental ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Campos, J. J., Campos, R. G., & Barrett, K. C. (1989). Emergent themes in the study of emotional development and emotion regulation. Developmental Psychology, 25, 394402.
Cassidy, J., & Marvin, R. S., with the Working Group of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation on the Transition from Infancy to Early Childhood. (1991). Attachment organization in three-and four-year olds: Coding guidelines. Unpublished manuscript, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
Cicchetti, D. (1990). The organization and coherence of socioemotional, cognitive and representational development: Illustrations through a developmental psychopathology perspective on Down syndrome and child maltreatment. In Thompson, R. (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Vol. 36: Socioemotional development (pp. 259366). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Cicchetti, D., Cummings, E. M., Greenberg, M., & Marvin, R. (1990). An organizational perspective on attachment beyond infancy: Implications for theory, measurement, and research. In Greenberg, M., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (Eds.), Attachment in the preschoolyears: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 349). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cicchetti, D., Ganiban, J., & Barnett, D. (1991). Contributions fromthe study ofhigh risk populations to understanding the development of emotion regulation. In Garber, J. & Dodge, K. (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 1548). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cicchetti, D., & Greenberg, M. (Eds.). (1991). Attachment and developmental psychopathology [Special issue]. Development and Psychopathology, 3(4).
Cicchetti, D., & Schneider-Rosen, K. (1986). An organizational approach to childhood depression. In Rutter, M., Izard, C., & Read, P. (Eds.), Depression in youngpeople (pp. 71134). New York: Guilford Press.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. (1991). The making of a developmental psychopathologist. In Cantor, J., Spieker, C., & Lipsitt, L. (Eds.), Child behavior and development: Training for diversity (pp. 3472). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Crittenden, P. M. (1984). Sibling interaction: Evidence of a generational effect in maltreating families. International Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect, 8, 433438.
Crittenden, P. M. (1985a). Maltreated infants: Vulnerability and resilience. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 8596.
Crittenden, P. M. (1985b). Social networks, quality of parenting, and child development. Child Development, 56, 12991313.
Crittenden, P. M. (1987). Non-organic failure-to-thrive: Deprivation or distortion? Infant Mental Health Journal, 8, 5664.
Crittenden, P. M. (1988a). Distorted patterns of relationship in maltreating families: The role of internal representational models. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 6, 183199.
Crittenden, P. M. (1988b). Family and dyadic patterns of functioning in maltreating families. In Browne, K., Davies, C., & Stratton, P. (Eds.), Early predict ion and prevention of child abuse (pp. 161189). London: Wiley.
Crittenden, P. M. (1988c). Relationships at risk. In Belsky, J. & Nezworski, T. (Eds.), The clinical implications of attachment (pp. 136174). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Crittenden, P. M. (1989). Teaching maltreated childern in the preschool. Topics in Early Childhood Education, 9, 1632.
Crittenden, P. M. (1990). Internal representational models of attachment relationships. Infant Mental Health Journal, 11, 259277.
Crittenden, P. M. (1992). Children's strategies for coping with adverse home environments: An interpretation using attachment theory. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 329343.
Crittenden, P. M. (in press). Treatment of child abuse and neglect. Human Systems.
Crittenden, P. M., & Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1989). Child maltreatment and attachment theory. In Cicchetti, D. & Carlson, V. (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 432463). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Crittenden, P. M., & Dilalla, D. (1988). Compulsive compliance: The development of an inhibitory coping strategy in infancy. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 585599.
Crittenden, P. M., Partridge, M. F., & Claussen, A. H. (1991). Family patterns of relationship in normative and dysfunctional families. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 491512.
Crittenden, P. M., & Snell, M. E. (1983). Intervention to improve mother-infant interaction. Infant Mental Health Journal, 4, 2341.
Cummings, E. M., & Cicchetti, D. (1990). Attachment, depression, and the transmission of depression. In Greenberg, M. T., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (Eds.), Attachment during the pre-school years (pp. 339372). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Daly, M., & Wilson, M. (1981). Child maltreatment from a sociobiological perspective. New Directions for Child Development, 11, 93112.
Dilalla, D. L., & Crittenden, P. M. (1990). Dimensions in maltreated children's behavior: A factor analytic approach. Infant Behavior and Development, 13, 439460.
Egeland, B., & Farber, E. A. (1984). Infant-mother attachment: Factors related to its development and changes over time. Child Development, 55, 735771.
Egeland, B., & Sroufe, A. (1981). Attachment and early maltreatment. Child Development, 52, 4452.
Elicker, J., & Sroufe, L. A. (in press). Predicting peer competence and peer relationships in childhood from early parent-child relationships. In Parke, R. & Ladd, G. (Eds.), Family-peer relationships: Modes of linkage. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Garmezy, N., & Masten, A. S. (1986). Stress, competence, and resilience: Common frontiers for therapist and psychopathologist. Behavior Therapy, 17, 500521.
Gelfand, D. M., & Peterson, L. (1985). Child development and psychopathology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Greenberg, M. P., & Marvin, R. S. (1982). Reactions of preschool children to an adult stranger: A behavioral systems approach. Child Development, 53, 481490.
Greenberg, M., & Speltz, M. (1988). Attachment and the ontogeny of conduct problems. In Belsky, J. & Nezworski, T. (Eds.), Clinical implications of attachment (pp. 177218). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Grossmann, K., Fremmer-Bombik, E., Rudolph, J., & Grossmann, K. E. (1987, January). Maternal attachment representations as related to patterns of infant-mother attachment and maternal care during the first year. Paper presented at the Conference on Intrafamilial Relationships, Cambridge, Great Britain.
Hazen, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511524.
Human Development. (1990). [Special issue]. 33(2).
Jean-Gilles, M., & Crittenden, P. M. (1990). Maltreating families: A look at siblings. Family Relations, 39, 323329.
Kobak, R., & Sceery, A. (1988). Attachment in late adolescence: Working models, affect regulation, and representations of self and others. Child Development, 59, 135146.
Lieberman, A. F. (1991). Attachment theory and infant-parent psychotherapy: Some conceptual, clinical, and research considerations. In Cicchetti, D. & Toth, S. L. (Eds.), Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology, Vol. 3: Models and integration (pp. 261287). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Lieberman, A. F., & Pawl, J. H. (1988). Infant mental health: A model for service delivery. Journal of Clinical Child Psychiatry, 14, 196201.
Lynch, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1991). Patterns of relatedness in maltreated and non-maltreated children: Connections among multiple representational models. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 207226.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Zoll, D., Connell, D., & Grunebaum, H. (1989). Family deviance and family disruption in childhood: Associations with maternal behavior and infant maltreatment during the first two years of life. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 219236.
Main, M. (1981). A voidance in the service of attachment: A working paper. In Immelmann, K., Barlow, G., Petrinovich, L., & Main, M. (Eds.), Behavioral development: The Bielfeld interdisciplinary project (pp. 651693). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Main, M., & Cassidy, J. (1988). Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age six: Predictability from infant attachment classifications and stable across a one-month period. Developmental Psychology, 24, 415426.
Main, M., & Hesse, P. (1990). Lack of resolution of mourning in adulthood and its relationship to infant disorganization: Some speculations regarding causal mechanisms. In Greenberg, M., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years (pp. 161182). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. In Bretherton, I., & Waters, E. (Eds.), Growing points of attachment theory and research: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (1–2, Serial No. 209), 66104.
Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern: Procedures, findings, and implications for the classification of behavior. In Yogman, M. & Brazelton, T. B. (Eds.), Affective development in infancy (pp. 121160). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In Greenberg, M., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years (pp. 161182). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Main, M., & Weston, D. R. (1981). The quality of toddlers' relationship to mother and father: Related to conflict behavior and readiness to establish new relationships. Child Development, 52, 932940.
Marvin, R. M. (1977). An ethological-cognitive model for the attenuation of mother-child attachment behavior. In Alloway, T. M., Krames, L., & Finer, P. (Eds.), Advances in the study of communication and affect. Vol. 3. The development of social attachments (pp. 2560). New York: Plenum Press.
Marvin, R. S., Marvin, C. N., & Abramovitch, L. A. (1973, April). The development of coy expressions in young children. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Philadelphia, PA.
Marvin, R. S., & Pianta, R. C. (in press). A relationship-based approach to self-reliance in young children with motor impairments. Infants and Young Children.
Marvin, R. S., & Stewart, R. B. (1990). A family systems framework for the study of attachment. In Greenberg, M., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years (pp. 5186). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McMahon, R. J., & Peters, R. (Eds.). (1985). Childhood disorders: Behavioral developmental approaches. New York: Bruner/Mazel.
Radke-Yarrow, M., Cummings, M., Kuczynski, L., & Chapman, M. (1985). Patterns of attachment in two and three year olds in normal families and families with parental depression. Child Development, 56, 884893.
Sroufe, L. A. (1983). Infant-caregiver attachment and patterns of adaptation in preschool: The roots of maladaptation and competence. In Perlmutter, M. (Ed.), Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 16, pp. 4181). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sroufe, L. A., & Fleeson, J. (1986). Attachment and the construction of relationships. In Hartup, W. & Rubin, Z. (Eds.), Relationships and development (pp. 5171). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sroufe, L. A., & Waters, E. (1977). Attachment as an organizational construct. Child Development, 48, 11841199.
Tracy, R., & Ainsworth, M. (1981). Maternal affectionate behavior and infant-mother attachment patterns. Child Development, 52, 13411343.
Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In Tulving, E. & Donaldson, W. (Eds.), Organization of memory. New York: Academic Press.
Tulving, E. (1979). Memory research: What kind of progress? In Nilsson, L. G. (Ed.), Perspectives on memory research: Essays in honor of Uppsala University's 500th anniversary (pp. 1934). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tulving, E. (1985). How many memory systems are there? American Psychologist, 40, 385398.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed