Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 10
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Baker, Rosalind H. Clanton, Roberta L. Rogers, Jack C. and De Brito, Stéphane A. 2015. Neuroimaging findings in disruptive behavior disorders. CNS Spectrums, Vol. 20, Issue. 04, p. 369.

    Cohn, Moran D. Pape, Louise E. Schmaal, Lianne van den Brink, Wim van Wingen, Guido Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M. Doreleijers, Theo A.H. Veltman, Dick J. and Popma, Arne 2015. Differential relations between juvenile psychopathic traits and resting state network connectivity. Human Brain Mapping, Vol. 36, Issue. 6, p. 2396.

    Aoki, Yuta Inokuchi, Ryota Nakao, Tomohiro and Yamasue, Hidenori 2014. Neural bases of antisocial behavior: a voxel-based meta-analysis. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, Vol. 9, Issue. 8, p. 1223.

    Fairchild, Graeme Hagan, Cindy C. Passamonti, Luca Walsh, Nicholas D. Goodyer, Ian M. and Calder, Andrew J. 2014. Atypical Neural Responses During Face Processing in Female Adolescents With Conduct Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 53, Issue. 6, p. 677.

    Hodsoll, Sara Lavie, Nilli and Viding, Essi 2014. Emotional attentional capture in children with conduct problems: the role of callous-unemotional traits. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol. 8,

    Sebastian, C. L. McCrory, E. J. Dadds, M. R. Cecil, C. A. M. Lockwood, P. L. Hyde, Z. H. De Brito, S. A. and Viding, E. 2014. Neural responses to fearful eyes in children with conduct problems and varying levels of callous–unemotional traits. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 44, Issue. 01, p. 99.

    Blair, R. J. R. and Lee, Tatia M. C. 2013. The social cognitive neuroscience of aggression, violence, and psychopathy. Social Neuroscience, Vol. 8, Issue. 2, p. 108.

    Blair, R. James R. 2013. The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol. 14, Issue. 11, p. 786.

    Blair, R. James R. White, Stuart F. Meffert, Harma and Hwang, Soonjo 2013. Emotional learning and the development of differential moralities: implications from research on psychopathy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1299, Issue. 1, p. 36.

    Hyde, Luke W. Shaw, Daniel S. and Hariri, Ahmad R. 2013. Understanding youth antisocial behavior using neuroscience through a developmental psychopathology lens: Review, integration, and directions for research. Developmental Review, Vol. 33, Issue. 3, p. 168.


Reduced activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting of attention network to fearful expressions in youth with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits


Using behavioral and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response indices through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study investigated whether youths with disruptive behavior disorders (conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) plus psychopathic traits (DBD + PT) show aberrant sensitivity to eye gaze information generally and/or whether they show particular insensitivity to eye gaze information in the context of fearful expressions. The participants were 36 children and adolescents (ages 10–17 years); 17 had DBD + PT and 19 were healthy comparison subjects. Participants performed a spatial attention paradigm where spatial attention was cued by eye gaze in faces displaying fearful, angry, or neutral affect. Eye gaze sensitivity was indexed both behaviorally and as BOLD response. There were no group differences in behavioral response: both groups showed significantly faster responses if the target was in the congruent spatial direction indicated by eye gaze. Neither group showed a Congruence × Emotion interaction; neither group showed an advantage from the displayer's emotional expression behaviorally. However, the BOLD response revealed a significant Group × Congruence × Emotion interaction. The comparison youth showed increased activity within the dorsal endogenous orienting network (superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal sulcus) for fearful congruent relative to incongruent trials relative to the youth with DBD + PT. The results are discussed with reference to current models of DBD + PT and possible treatment innovations.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: R. James Blair, Unit on Affective Cognitive Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 15K, Room 206, Bethesda, MD 20892; E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A. S. Aniskiewicz (1979). Autonomic components of vicarious conditioning and psychopathy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 6067.

R. J. R. Blair (2003). Facial expressions, their communicatory functions and neuro-cognitive substrates. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society London B: Biological Sciences, 358(1431), 561572.

R. J. R. Blair , E. Colledge , L. Murray , & D. G. Mitchell (2001). A selective impairment in the processing of sad and fearful expressions in children with psychopathic tendencies. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 491498.

E. D. Burgund , H. C. Kang , J. E. Kelly , R. L. Buckner , A. Z. Snyder , S. E. Petersen , (2002). The feasibility of a common stereotactic space for children and adults in fMRI studies of development. NeuroImage, 17, 184200.

M. Caldwell , J. Skeem , R. Salekin , & G. Van Rybroek (2006). Treatment response of adolescent offenders with psychopathy features: A 2-year follow-up. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33, 571596.

M. R. Dadds , Y. El Masry , S. Wimalaweera , & A. J. Guastella (2008). Reduced eye gaze explains “fear blindness” in childhood psychopathic traits. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 455463.

M. R. Dadds , J. Fraser , A. Frost , & D. J. Hawes (2005). Disentangling the underlying dimensions of psychopathy and conduct problems in childhood: A community study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 400410.

M. R. Dadds , J. Jambrak , D. Pasalich , D. J. Hawes , & J. Brennan (2011). Impaired attention to the eyes of attachment figures and the developmental origins of psychopathy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 238245.

M. R. Dadds , Y. Perry , D. J. Hawes , S. Merz , A. C. Riddell , D. J. Haines , (2006). Attention to the eyes and fear-recognition deficits in child psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 189, 280281.

J. Driver , G. Davis , P. Ricciardelli , P. Kidd , E. Maxwell , & S. Baron-Cohen (1999). Gaze perception triggers visuospatial orienting by adults in a reflexive manner. Visual Cognition, 6, 509540.

P. J. Frick , & C. Dickens (2006). Current perspectives on conduct disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 8, 5972.

A. Frischen , A. P. Bayliss , & S. P. Tipper (2007). Gaze cueing of attention: Visual attention, social cognition, and individual differences. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 694724.

Y. Hakamata , S. Lissek , Y. Bar-Haim , J. C. Britton , N. A. Fox , E. Leibenluft , (2010). Attention bias modification treatment: A meta-analysis toward the establishment of novel treatment for anxiety. Biological Psychiatry, 68, 982990.

S. P. Hinshaw (1987). On the distinction between attentional deficits/hyperactivity and conduct problems/aggression in child psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 443463.

K. L. Hoffman , K. M. Gothard , M. C. Schmid , & N. K. Logothetis (2007). Facial-expression and gaze-selective responses in the monkey amygdala. Current Biology, 17, 766772.

A. P. Jones , K. R. Laurens , C. M. Herba , G. J. Barker , & E. Viding (2009). Amygdala hypoactivity to fearful faces in boys with conduct problems and callous–unemotional traits. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 95102.

H. C. Kang , E. D. Burgund , H. M. Lugar , S. E. Petersen , & B. L. Schlaggar (2003). Comparison of functional activation foci in children and adults using a common stereotactic space. NeuroImage, 19, 1628.

M. D. Lieberman , & W. A. Cunningham (2009). Type I and Type II error concerns in fMRI research: Rebalancing the scale. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4, 423428.

Q. Luo , T. Holroyd , C. Majestic , X. Cheng , J. C. Schechter , & R. J. R. Blair (2010). Emotional automaticity is a matter of timing. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 58255829.

A. A. Marsh , & R. J. Blair (2008). Deficits in facial affect recognition among antisocial populations: A meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 454465.

A. A. Marsh , E. C. Finger , K. A. Fowler , I. T. N. Jurkowitz , J. C. Schechter , H. H. Yu , (2011). Reduced amygdala/orbitofrontal connectivity during moral judgments in youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 194, 279286.

S. Mineka , & M. Cook (1993). Mechanisms involved in the observational conditioning of fear. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 2338.

F. C. Murphy , I. Nimmo-Smith , & A. D. Lawrence (2003). Functional neuroanatomy of emotions: A meta-analysis. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 207233.

L. Passamonti , G. Fairchild , I. M. Goodyer , G. Hurford , C. C. Hagan , J. B. Rowe , (2010). Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 729738.

P. Putman , E. Hermans , & J. van Honk (2006). Anxiety meets fear in perception of dynamic expressive gaze. Emotion, 6, 94102.

D. Stevens , T. Charman , & R. J. R. Blair (2001). Recognition of emotion in facial expressions and vocal tones in children with psychopathic tendencies. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 162, 201211.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *