Skip to main content Accessibility help

Resilience in developing systems: Progress and promise as the fourth wave rises

  • Ann S. Masten (a1)

Perspectives based on the first three waves of resilience research are discussed with the goal of informing the fourth wave of work, which is characterized by a focus on multilevel analysis and the dynamics of adaptation and change. Resilience is defined as a broad systems construct, referring to the capacity of dynamic systems to withstand or recover from significant disturbances. As the systems perspective on resilience builds strength and technologies of measuring and analyzing multiple levels of functioning and their interactions improve, it is becoming feasible to study gene–environment interactions, the development of adaptive systems and their role in resilience, and to conduct experiments to foster resilience or reprogram the fundamental adaptive systems that protect development in the context of adversity. Hot spots for future research to study and integrate multiple levels of analysis are delineated on the basis of evidence gleaned from the first waves of resilience research.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Ann Masten, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, 51 East River Road, Minneapolis MN 55455. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed