Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Sequences of maladaptation: Preadolescent self-regulation, adolescent negative social interactions, and young adult psychopathology

  • Odilia M. Laceulle (a1) (a2), René Veenstra (a3), Wilma A. M. Vollebergh (a1) and Johan Ormel (a3) (a4)

Abstract

This study aims to test whether adolescent negative social interactions mediate the relation between early adolescent self-regulatory capacities and young adult psychopathology, using a fully prospective mediation model. Data were derived from the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey, a large population cohort of Dutch adolescents (n = 962). At age 11, three indicators of self-regulation were assessed: low frustration, high effortful control, and high response inhibition. Negative social interactions between ages 11 and 22 were captured twice using the Event History Calendar. Psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) was assessed at ages 11 and 22. Findings indicate that adolescents’ frustration and effortful control but not response inhibition assessed at age 11 are related to both internalizing and externalizing problems at age 22, after controlling for psychopathology at age 11, sex, and socioeconomic status. These associations were partly (about 22%) mediated by the negative social interactions adolescents experienced. Effect sizes were all modest. This study shows that self-regulation is related to subsequent psychopathology in part through its effect on negative social interactions, providing evidence for sequences of self-regulatory capacities, life experiences, and developmental outcomes.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Odilia M. Laceulle, Department of Developmental Psychology, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands; E-mail: o.m.laceulle@uu.nl.

Footnotes

Hide All

This research is part of the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Participating centers of TRAILS include various departments of the University Medical Center and University of Groningen, the Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, the University of Utrecht, the Radboud Medical Center Nijmegen, and the Parnassia Bavo group, all in the Netherlands. TRAILS has been financially supported by various grants from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, ZonMW, GB-MaGW, the Dutch Ministry of Justice, the European Science Foundation, BBMRI-NL, the participating universities, and the Accare Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. We are grateful to all adolescents, their parents, and teachers who participated in this research, and to everyone who worked on this project and made it possible.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Youth Self-Report and 1991 profile. Bulington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 217237.
Allik, J., Laidra, K., Realo, A., & Pullmann, H. (2004). Personality development from 12 to 18 years of age: Changes in mean levels and structure of traits. European Journal of Personality, 18, 445462.
Auerbach, R. P., Bigda-Peyton, J. S., Eberhart, N. K., Webb, C. A., & Ho, M. R. (2011). Conceptualizing the prospective relationship between social support, stress, and depressive symptoms among adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 475487.
Bakker, M. P., Ormel, J., Verhulst, F. C., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2010). Peer stressors and gender differences in adolescents’ mental health: The TRAILS study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 444450.
Bakker, M. P., Ormel, J., Verhulst, F. C., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2011). Adolescent family adversity and mental health problems: The role of adaptive self-regulation capacities. The TRAILS study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 341350.
Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Gerbino, M., & Pastorelli, C. (2003). Role of affective self-regulatory efficacy in diverse spheres of psychosocial functioning. Child Development, 74, 769782.
Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., & Tice, D. M. (2007). The strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 351355.
Beauchaine, T. P., Gatzke-Kopp, L., & Mead, H. K. (2007). Polyvagal theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74, 174184.
Belli, R. F., Shay, W. L., & Stafford, F. P. (2001). Event history calendars and question list surveys: A direct comparison of interviewing methods. Public Opinion Quarterly, 65, 4574.
Bernstein, G. A., Borchardt, C. M., & Perwien, A. R. (1996). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 11101119.
Boelema, S. R., Harakeh, Z., van Zandvoort, M. J., Reijneveld, S. A., Verhulst, F. C., Ormel, J., & Vollebergh, W. A. (2015). Adolescent heavy drinking does not affect maturation of basic executive functioning: Longitudinal findings from the TRAILS study. PLOS ONE, 10, e0139186.
Bogg, T., & Roberts, B. W. (2013). The case for conscientiousness: Evidence and implications for a personality trait marker of health and longevity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45, 278288.
Bongers, I. L., Koot, H. M., van der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2003). The normative development of child and adolescent problem behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 179.
Branje, S. J. T., van Lieshout, C. F. M., & Gerris, J. R. M. (2007). Big Five personality development in adolescence and adulthood. European Journal of Personality, 21, 4562.
Brunnekreef, J., de Sonneville, L. M., Althaus, M., Minderaa, R. B., Oldehinkel, A. J., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2007). Information processing profiles of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems: Evidence from a population-based sample of preadolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 185193.
Buist, K. L., Deković, M., & Prinzie, P. (2013). Sibling relationship quality and psychopathology of children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 97106.
Bunge, S. A., & Wright, S. B. (2007). Neurodevelopmental changes in working memory and cognitive control. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 17, 243250.
Calkins, S. D., Gill, K. L., Johnson, M. C., & Smith, C. L. (1999). Emotional reactivity and emotional regulation strategies as predictors of social behavior with peers during toddlerhood. Social Development, 8, 310334.
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Thornton, A., Freedman, D., Amell, J. W., Harrington, H., … Silva, P. A. (1996). The life history calendar: A research and clinical assessment method for collecting retrospective event-history data. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 6, 101114.
Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453484.
Cicchetti, D., & Dawson, G. (2002). Editorial: Multiple levels of analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 417420.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597600.
Cicchetti, D., & Schneider-Rosen, K. (1986). An organizational approach to childhood depression. In Rutter, M., Izard, C., & Read, P. (Eds.), Depression in young people: Developmental and clinical perspectives (pp. 71134). New York: Guilford Press.
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155159.
Cole, P. M., Martin, S. E., & Dennis, T. A. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75, 317333.
Cole, P. M., Zahn-Waxler, C., Fox, N. A., Usher, B. A., & Welsh, J. D. (1996). Individual differences in emotion regulation and behavior problems in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 518.
Coyne, J. C., & Downey, G. (1991). Social factors and psychopathology: Stress, social support, and coping processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 42, 401425.
Crockett, L. J., Carlo, G., Wolff, J. M., & Hope, M. O. (2013). The role of pubertal timing and temperamental vulnerability in adolescents’ internalizing symptoms. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 377389.
Dalley, J., & Roiser, J. (2012). Dopamine, serotonin and impulsivity. Neuroscience, 215, 4258.
Dawes, M. A., Tarter, R. E., & Kirisci, L. (1997). Behavioral self-regulation: Correlates and 2 year follow-ups for boys at risk for substance abuse. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 45, 165176.
Denissen, J. J., van Aiken, M. A., Penke, L., & Wood, D. (2013). Self-regulation underlies temperament and personality: An integrative developmental framework. Child Development Perspectives, 7, 255260.
de Sonneville, L. (1999). Amsterdam neuropsychological tasks: A computer-aided assessment program. Computers in Psychology, 6, 187203.
DeWall, C. N., Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2008). Satiated with belongingness? Effects of acceptance, rejection, and task framing on self-regulatory performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1367.
de Winter, A. F., Oldehinkel, A. J., Veenstra, R., Brunnekreef, J. A., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2005). Evaluation of non-response bias in mental health determinants and outcomes in a large sample of pre-adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 20, 173181.
Diamond, A., Barnett, W. S., Thomas, J., & Munro, S. (2007). Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science, 318, 13871388.
Duckworth, A. L., & Kern, M. L. (2011). A meta-analysis of the convergent validity of self-control measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 92, 10871102.
Ehrlich, K. B., Dykas, M. J., & Cassidy, J. (2012). Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: Predicting social functioning from adolescents’ conflict with parents and friends. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 776.
Eisenberg, N. (2015). Self-regulation: Conceptual issues and relations to developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. In Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (Eds.), Self-regulation in adolescence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Reiser, M., … Guthrie, I. K. (2001). The relations of regulation and emotionality to children's externalizing and internalizing problem behavior. Child Development, 72, 11121134.
Eisenberg, N., Guthrie, I. K., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S., Losoya, S., Murphy, B. C., … Reiser, M. (2000). Prediction of elementary school children's externalizing problem behaviors from attentional and behavioral regulation and negative emotionality. Child Development, 71, 13671382.
Eisenberg, N., Sadovsky, A., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Losoya, S. H., Valiente, C., … Shepard, S. A. (2005). The relations of problem behavior status to children's negative emotionality, effortful control, and impulsivity: Current relations and prediction of change. Developmental Psychology, 41, 193211.
Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Spinrad, T. L., Cumberland, A., Liew, J., Reiser, M., … Losoya, S. H. (2009). Longitudinal relations of children's effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality to their externalizing, internalizing and co-occuring behavior problems. Developmental Psychology, 45, 9881008.
Farley, J. P., & Kim-Spoon, J. (2014). The development of adolescent self-regulation: Reviewing the role of parent, peer, friend, and romantic relationships. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 433440.
Freedman, D., Thornton, A., Camburn, D., Alwin, D., & de Young, M. (1988). The life history calendar: A technique for collecting retrospective data. Sociological Methodology, 18, 3768.
Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1992). Age and sex differences in perceptions of networks of personal relationships. Child Development, 63, 103115.
Furman, W., & Shomaker, L. B. (2008). Patterns of interaction in adolescent romantic relationships: Distinct features and links to other close relationships. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 771788.
Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271.
Hanish, L. D., Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Spinrad, T. L., Ryan, P., & Schmidt, S. (2004). The expression and regulation of negative emotions: Risk factors for young children's peer victimization. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 335353.
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., McGee, R., & Angell, K. E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 128140.
Hartman, C. H. (2000). Dutch translation of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript, University of Groningen, Department of Psychiatry.
Helsen, M., Vollebergh, W., & Meeus, W. (2000). Social support from parents and friends and emotional problems in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 319335.
Hofmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 174180.
Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213218.
Jeronimus, B., Ormel, J., Aleman, A., Penninx, B., & Riese, H. (2013). Negative and positive life events are associated with small but lasting change in neuroticism. Psychological Medicine, 43, 24032415.
Kandler, C., Bleidorn, W., Riemann, R., Angleitner, A., & Spinath, F. M. (2012). Life events as environmental states and genetic traits and the role of personality: A longitudinal twin study. Behavior Genetics, 42, 5772.
Karoly, P. (1993). Mechanisms of self-regulation: A systems view. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 2352.
Karreman, A., de Haas, S., van Tuijl, C., van Aken, M. A., & Deković, M. (2010). Relations among temperament, parenting and problem behavior in young children. Infant Behavior and Development, 33, 3949.
Kendler, K. S., & Baker, J. H. (2007). Genetic influences on measures of the environment: A systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 37, 615626.
Kim, J., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Longitudinal pathways linking child maltreatment, emotion regulation, peer relations, and psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 706716.
Klahr, A. M., McGue, M., Iacono, W. G., & Burt, S. A. (2011). The association between parent–child conflict and adolescent conduct problems over time: Results from a longitudinal adoption study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 4656.
Laceulle, O. M., Jeronimus, B. F., van Aken, M. A. G., & Ormel, J. (2015). Why not everybody gets their fair share of stress: Adolescent's perceived relationship affection mediates associations between temperament and subsequent stressful social events. European Journal of Personality, 29, 125137.
Laceulle, O. M., Nederhof, E., Karreman, A., Ormel, J., & van Aken, M. A. G. (2012). Stressful events and temperament change during early and middle adolescence: The TRAILS study. European Journal of Personality, 26, 276284.
Laceulle, O. M., Ormel, J., Vollebergh, W. A. M., van Aken, M. A. G., & Nederhof, E. (2014). A test of the vulnerability model: Temperament and temperament change as predictors of future mental disorders. The TRAILS study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 227236.
Larsen, J. K., Vermulst, A. A., Geenen, R., van Middendorp, H., English, T., Gross, J. J., … Engels, R. C. (2013). Emotion regulation in adolescence: A prospective study of expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. Journal of Early Adolescence, 33, 184200.
Lempers, J. D., & Clark-Lempers, D. S. (1992). Young, middle, and late adolescents’ comparisons of the functional importance of five significant relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 5396.
Li, X., Wong, W., Lamoureux, E. L., & Wong, T. Y. (2012). Are linear regression techniques appropriate for analysis when the dependent (outcome) variable is not normally distributed? Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 53, 30823083.
Lougheed, J. P., & Hollenstein, T. (2012). A limited repertoire of emotion regulation strategies is associated with internalizing problems in adolescence. Social Development, 21, 704721.
Lüdtke, O., Roberts, B. W., Trautwein, U., & Nagy, G. (2011). A random walk down university avenue: Life paths, life events, and personality trait change at the transition to university life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 620637.
Luna, B., Garver, K. E., Urban, T. A., Lazar, N. A., & Sweeney, J. A. (2004). Maturation of cognitive processes from late childhood to adulthood. Child Development, 75, 13571372.
Masuda, M., & Holmes, T. H. (1978). Life events: Perceptions and frequencies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 236261.
McKown, C., Gumbiner, L. M., Russo, N. M., & Lipton, M. (2009). Social-emotional learning skill, self-regulation, and social competence in typically developing and clinic-referred children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 858871.
Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., … Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 26932698.
Monroe, S. M. (2008). Modern approaches to conceptualizing and measuring human life stress. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 3352.
Muris, P., & Meesters, C. (2009). Reactive and regulative temperament in youths: Psychometric evaluation of the early adolescent temperament questionnaire—Revised. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31, 719.
Murray, K. T., & Kochanska, G. (2002). Effortful control: Factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 503514.
Oldehinkel, A. J., Hartman, C. H., de Winter, A. F., Veenstra, R., & Ormel, J. (2004). Temperament profiles associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in preadolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 421440.
Oldehinkel, A. J., Hartman, C. H., Nederhof, E., Riese, H., & Ormel, J. (2011). Effortful control as predictor of adolescents’ psychological and physiological responses to a social stressor test. The TRAILS study. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 679688.
Oldehinkel, A. J., Rosmalen, J. G., Buitelaar, J. K., Hoek, H. W., Ormel, J., Raven, D., … Hartman, C. A. (2015). Cohort profile update: The TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). International Journal of Epidemiology, 44, 7676n.
Olson, S. L., Schilling, E. M., & Bates, J. E. (1999). Measurement of impulsivity: Construct coherence, longitudinal stability, and relationship with externalizing problems in middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 151165.
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427441.
Pullmann, H., Raudsepp, L., & Allik, J. (2006). Stability and change in adolescents’ personality: A longitudinal study. European Journal of Personality, 20, 447459.
Putnam, S. P., Ellis, L. K., & Rothbart, M. K. (2001). The structure of temperament from infancy through adolescence. In Eliasz, A. & Angleitner, A. (Eds.), Advances in research on temperament. Lengerich: Pabst.
Reynolds, B., Ortengren, A., Richards, J. B., & de Wit, H. (2006). Dimensions of impulsive behavior: Personality and behavioral measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 305315.
Roberts, B. W., & Bogg, T. (2004). A longitudinal study of the relationships between conscientiousness and the social-environmental factors and substance-use behaviors that influence health. Journal of Personality, 72, 325354.
Roberts, B. W., Chernyshenko, O. S., Stark, S., & Goldberg, L. R. (2005). The structure of conscientiousness: An empirical investigation based on seven major personality questionnaires. Personnel Psychology, 58, 103139.
Robins, R. W., John, O. P., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled boys: Three replicable personality types. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 157.
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Evans, D. E. (2000). Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 122135.
Scarr, S., & McCartney, K. (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype à environment effects. Child Development, 54, 424435.
Singh, A. L., & Waldman, I. D. (2010). The etiology of associations between negative emotionality and childhood externalizing disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 376388.
Stevens, J. P. (2012). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. New York: Routledge.
Thompson, R. A., Lewis, M. D., & Calkins, S. D. (2008). Reassessing emotion regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 2, 124131.
Ursache, A., Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). The promotion of self-regulation as a means of enhancing school readiness and early achievement in children at risk for school failure. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 122128.
Vasey, M. W., El-Hag, N., & Daleiden, E. L. (1996). Anxiety and the processing of emotionally threatening stimuli: Distinctive patterns of selective attention among high- and low-test-anxious children. Child Development, 67, 11731185.
Wang, Z., Deater-Deckard, K., Petrill, S. A., & Thompson, L. A. (2012). Externalizing problems, attention regulation, and household chaos: A longitudinal behavioral genetic study. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 755769.
White, B. A., Jarrett, M. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2013). Self-regulation deficits explain the link between reactive aggression and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35, 19.
Wills, T. A., & Bantum, E. O. (2012). Social support, self-regulation, and resilience in two populations: General-population adolescents and adult cancer survivors. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31, 568592.
Wright, B. R. E., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1999). Low self-control, social bonds, and crime: Social causation, social selection, or both? Criminology, 37, 479514.
Young, S. E., Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Willcutt, E. G., Corley, R. P., Haberstick, B. C., & Hewitt, J. K. (2009). Behavioral disinhibition: Liability for externalizing spectrum disorders and its genetic and environmental relation to response inhibition across adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 117130.

Sequences of maladaptation: Preadolescent self-regulation, adolescent negative social interactions, and young adult psychopathology

  • Odilia M. Laceulle (a1) (a2), René Veenstra (a3), Wilma A. M. Vollebergh (a1) and Johan Ormel (a3) (a4)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed