Skip to main content

Ten good reasons to consider biological processes in prevention and intervention research

  • Theodore P. Beauchaine (a1), Emily Neuhaus (a1), Sharon L. Brenner (a1) and Lisa Gatzke-Kopp (a1)

Most contemporary accounts of psychopathology acknowledge the importance of both biological and environmental influences on behavior. In developmental psychopathology, multiple etiological mechanisms for psychiatric disturbance are well recognized, including those operating at genetic, neurobiological, and environmental levels of analysis. However, neuroscientific principles are rarely considered in current approaches to prevention or intervention. In this article, we explain why a deeper understanding of the genetic and neural substrates of behavior is essential for the next generation of preventive interventions, and we outline 10 specific reasons why considering biological processes can improve treatment efficacy. Among these, we discuss (a) the role of biomarkers and endophenotypes in identifying those most in need of prevention; (b) implications for treatment of genetic and neural mechanisms of homotypic comorbidity, heterotypic comorbidity, and heterotypic continuity; (c) ways in which biological vulnerabilities moderate the effects of environmental experience; (d) situations in which Biology × Environment interactions account for more variance in key outcomes than main effects; and (e) sensitivity of neural systems, via epigenesis, programming, and neural plasticity, to environmental moderation across the life span. For each of the 10 reasons outlined we present an example from current literature and discuss critical implications for prevention.

Corresponding author
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Theodore P. Beauchaine, University of Washington, Box 351525, Seattle, WA 98195-1525; E-mail:
Hide All

Work on this article was supported by Grant MH63699 from the National Institute of Mental Health to Theodore P. Beauchaine. We thank Sheila Crowell, Penny Marsh, Hilary Mead, and Katherine Shannon for their helpful contributions.

Hide All
Addis, M. E., Wade, W. A., & Hatgis, C. (1999). Barriers to dissemination of evidence-based practices: Addressing practitioners' concerns about manual-based psychotherapies. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 6, 430441.
Agrawal, N., & Hirsch, S. R. (2004). Schizophrenia: Evidence for conceptualising it as a brain disease. Journal of Primary Prevention, 24, 437444.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Albee, G. W., & Joffe, J. M. (2004). Mental illness is NOT “an illness like any other.” Journal of Primary Prevention, 24, 419436.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Ames, S. L., & McBride, C. (2006). Translating genetics, cognitive science, and other basic science research findings into applications for prevention. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 29, 277301.
Andersen, S. L., Leblanc, C. J., & Lyss, P. J. (2001). Maturational increases in c-fos expression in the ascending dopamine systems. Synapse, 41, 345350.
Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (1993). Depressive comorbidity in children and adolescents: Empirical, theoretical, and methodological issues. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 17791791.
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 5787.
Baker, L. A., Jacobson, K. C., Raine, A., Lozano, D. I., & Bezdjian, S. (2007). Genetic and environmental bases of child antisocial behavior: A multi-informant twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 219235.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 11731182.
Baxter, L. R., Schwartz, J. M., Bergman, K. S., Szuba, M. P., Guze, B. H. Mazziotta, J. C., et al. (1992). Caudate glucose metabolic rate changes with both drug and behavior therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 690694.
Beauchaine, T. P. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray's motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183214.
Beauchaine, T. P. (2003). Taxometrics and developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 501527.
Beauchaine, T. P., Gartner, J., & Hagen, B. (2000). Comorbid depression and heart rate variability as predictors of aggressive and hyperactive symptom responsiveness during inpatient treatment of conduct-disordered, ADHD boys. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 425441.
Beauchaine, T. P., Gatzke-Kopp, L., & Mead, H. K. (2007). Polyvagal theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74, 174184.
Beauchaine, T. P., Hinshaw, S. P., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. (2008). Genetic and environmental influences on behavior. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child psychopathology: Genetic, neurobiological, and environmental substrates (pp. 5891). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Beauchaine, T. P., Katkin, E. S., Strassberg, Z., & Snarr, J. (2001). Disinhibitory psychopathology in male adolescents: Discriminating conduct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through concurrent assessment of multiple autonomic states. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 610624.
Beauchaine, T. P., Lenzenweger, M. F., & Waller, N. G. (2008). Schizotypy, taxometrics, and disconfirming theories in soft science. Comment on Rawlings, Williams, Haslam, and Claridge. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 16521662.
Beauchaine, T. P., & Marsh, P. (2006). Taxometric methods: Enhancing early detection and prevention of psychopathology by identifying latent vulnerability traits. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 931967). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Beauchaine, T. P., & Mead, H. K. (2006). Some recommendations for testing mediating and moderating effects in treatment-outcome research. International Journal of Psychology Research, 1, 1.
Beauchaine, T. P., & Neuhaus, E. (2008). Behavioral disinhibition and vulnerability to psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child psychopathology: Genetic, neurobiological, and environmental substrates (pp. 129156) Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Beauchaine, T. P., Webster-Stratton, C., & Reid, M. J. (2005). Mediators, moderators, and predictors of one-year outcomes among children treated for early-onset conduct problems: A latent growth curve analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 371388.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression New York: Guilford Press.
Berridge, K. C., & Robinson, T. E. (2003). Parsing reward. Trends in Neuroscience, 26, 507513.
Blanchard, J. J., Gangestad, S. W., Brown, S. A., & Horan, W. P. (2000). Hedonic capacity and Schizotypy revisited: A taxometric analysis of social anhedonia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 8795.
Bogdan, R., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2006). Acute stress reduces reward responsiveness: Implications for depression. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 11471154.
Boomsma, D. I., Koopsman, J. R., Van Doornen, L. J., & Orlebeke, J. F. (1994). Genetic and social influences on starting to smoke: A study of Dutch adolescent twins and their parents. Addiction, 89, 219226.
Boyce, W. T., Essex, M. J., Alkon, A., Goldsmith, H. H., Kraemer, H. C., & Kupfer, D. J. (2006). Early father involvement moderates biobehavioral susceptibility to mental health problems in middle childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 15101520.
Boyle, M. (2004). Preventing a non-existent illness?: Some issues in the prevention of “schizophrenia.” Journal of Primary Prevention, 24, 445469.
Brady, E. U., & Kendall, P. C. (1992). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 244255.
Brestan, E. V., & Eyberg, S. M. (1998). Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 180189.
Brunelle, C., Assaad, J.-M., Barrett, S. P., Avila, C., Conrod, P. J., Tremblay, R. E., et al. (2004). Heightened heart rate response to alcohol intoxication is associated with reward-seeking personality profile. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 28, 394401.
Bryant, R. A. (2006). Longitudinal psychophysiological studies of heart rate: Mediating effects and implications for treatment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071, 1926.
Campbell, S. B., Shaw, D. S., & Gilliom, M. (2000). Early externalizing behavior problems: Toddlers and preschoolers at risk for later maladjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 467488.
Capaldi, D. M. (1991). Co-occurrence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys: I. Familial factors and general adjustment at Grade 6. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 277300.
Capaldi, D. M. (1992). Co-occurrence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys: II. A 2-year follow up at grade 8. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 125144.
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851854.
Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H., et al. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386389.
Castellanos, N., & Conrod, P. (2006). Brief interventions targeting personality risk factors for adolescent substance misuse reduce depression, panic and risk-taking behaviours. Journal of Mental Health, 15, 645658.
Catlow, B. J., & Kirstein, C. L. (2007). Cocaine during adolescence enhances dopamine in response to a natural reinforcer. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 29, 5765.
Chang, K., Gallelli, K., & Howe, M. (2007). Early identification and prevention of early-onset bipolar disorder. In Romer, D. & Walker, E. F. (Eds.), Adolescent psychopathology and the developing brain (pp. 315346). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cicchetti, D. (2006). Development and psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and method (2nd ed., pp. 123). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D. (Ed.). (2007). Gene–environment interaction. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 9571208.
Cicchetti, D., & Blender, J. A. (2006). A multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective on resilience. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 248258.
Cicchetti, D., & Curtis, W. J. (2006). The developing brain and neural plasticity: Implications for normality, psychopathology, and resilience. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 2. Developmental neuroscience (2nd ed., pp. 164). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Curtis, W. J. (Eds.). (2007). A multilevel approach to resilience. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 627955.
Cicchetti, D., & Dawson, G. (Eds.). (2002). Multiple levels of analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 417666.
Cicchetti, D., & Posner, M. I. (2005). Cognitive and affective neuroscience and developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 569575.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychpathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597600.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2002). A developmental psychopathology perspective on adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 620.
Cloninger, C. R. (1990). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, 43S46S.
Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, N. M., & Svrakic, D. M. (1997). Role of personality self-organization in development of mental order and disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 881906.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press.
Cohen, P., Chen, H., Crawford, T. N., Brook, J., & Gordon, K. (2007). Personality disorders in early adolescence and the development of later substance use disorders in the general population. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88, S71S84.
Conrod, P. J., Peterson, J. B., & Pihl, R. O. (1997). Disinhibited personality and sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement: Independent correlates of drinking behavior in sons of alcoholics. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 21, 13201332.
Conrod, P. J., Peterson, J. B., Pihl, R. O., & Mankowski, S. (1997). Biphasic effects of alcohol on heart rate are influenced by alcoholic family history and rate of alcohol ingestion. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 21, 140149.
Conrod, P. J., Pihl, R. O., Stewart, S. H., & Dongier, M. (2000). Validation of a system of classifying female substance abusers on the basis of personality and motivational risk factors for substance abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14, 243256.
Conrod, P. J., Pihl, R. O., & Vassileva, J. (1998). Differential sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement in groups of men at risk for distinct alcoholism subtypes. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 22, 585597.
Conrod, P. J., & Stewart, S. H. (2005). A critical look at dual-focused cognitive-behavioral treatments for comorbid substance use and psychiatric disorders: Strengths, limitations, and future dirsctions. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 19, 261284.
Conrod, P. J., Stewart, S. H., Comeau, N., & Maclean, A. M. (2006). Efficacy of cognitive–behavioral interventions targeting personality risk factors for youth alcohol misuse. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 550563.
Cornblatt, B. A. (2001). Predictors of schizophrenia and preventive intervention. In Breier, A. & Tran, P. (Eds.), Current issues in the psychopharmacology of schizophrenia (pp. 389406). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Cornblatt, B. A., Lencz, T., & Kane, J. M. (2001). Treating the schizophrenia prodrome: Is it presently ethical? Schizophrenia Research, 51, 3138.
Cornblatt, B. A., & Malhotra, A. K. (2001). Impaired attention as an endophenotype for molecular genetics studies of schizophrenia. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 105, 1115.
Cornblatt, B. A., Obuchowski, M., Roberts, S., Pollack, S., & Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (1999). Cognitive and behavioral precursors of schizophrenia. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 487508.
Corr, P. J. (2004). Reinforcement sensitivity theory and personality. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 28, 317332.
Coryell, W., & Turner, R. (1985). Outcome with desipramine therapy in subtypes of nonpsychotic major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 9, 149154.
Craddock, N., O'Donovan, M. C., & Owen, M. J. (2007). Phenotypic and genetic complexity of psychosis: Invited commentary on schizophrenia: A common disease caused by multiple rare alleles. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 200203.
Crowell, S. E., Beauchaine, T. P., & Lenzenweger, M. (2008). The development of borderline personality and self-injurious behavior. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. (Eds.), Child psychopathology: Genetic, neurobiological, and environmental substrates (pp. 510541), Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Crowell, S., Beauchaine, T. P., McCauley, E., Smith, C., Stevens, A. L., & Sylvers, P. (2005). Psychological, autonomic, and serotonergic correlates of parasuicidal behavior in adolescent girls. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 11051127.
Crowell, S. E., Beauchaine, T. P., McCauley, E., Smith, C. J., Vasilev, C. A., & Stevens, A. L. (2008). Parent–child interactions, peripheral serotonin, and self-inflicted injury in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 1521.
Davidson, R. J. (2003). Affective neuroscience and psychophysiology: Toward a synthesis. Psychophysiology, 40, 655665.
Davidson, R. J., Pizzagalli, D., Nitschke, J. B., & Putnam, K. M. (2002). Depression: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 545574.
Davies, P. T., Sturge-Apple, M. L., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E. M. (2007). The role of child adrenocortical functioning in pathways between interparental conflict and child maladjustment. Developmental Psychology, 43, 918930.
Davison, G. C. (1998). Being bolder with the Boulder model: The challenge of education and training in empirically supported treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 163167.
Dawes, R. M., & Meehl, P. E. (1966). Mixed group validation: A method for determining the validity of diagnostic signs without using criterion groups. Psychological Bulletin, 66, 6367.
Dawson, G. (2008). Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 775803.
Dawson, G., Webb, S., Schellenberg, G., Aylward, E., Richards, T., Dager, S., & Friedman, S., (2002). Defining the phenotype of autism: Genetic, brain, and behavioral perspectives. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 581611.
Dawson, G., & Zanolli, K. (2003). Early intervention and brain plasticity in autism. In Bock, G. & Goode, J. (Eds.), Autism: Neural basis and treatment possibilities (Novartis Foundation Symposium 251, pp. 266280). Chichester: Wiley.
DiClemente, C. C., Carbonari, J. P., Daniels, J. W., Donovan, D., Bellino, L., & Neavins, T. (2001). Self-efficacy as a matching hypothesis. Causal chain analysis. In Longabaugh, R. H. & Wirtz, P. W. (Eds.), Project MATCH: A priori matching hypotheses, results, and mediating mechanisms (NIAAA Project MATCH Monograph Series, No. 8, pp. 239257). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
Dishion, T. J., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior. American Psychologist, 54, 755764.
Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (1992). Age effects in parent training outcome. Behavior Therapy, 23, 719729.
Donaldson, S. K., Klein, D. N., Riso, L. P., & Schwartz, J. E. (1997). Comorbidity between dysthymic and major depressive disorders: A family study analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 42, 103111.
Drabick, D. A. G., Beauchaine, T. P., Gadow, K. D., Carlson, G. A., & Bromet, E. J. (2006). Risk factors for conduct problems and depressive symptoms in a cohort of Ukrainian children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 244252.
Durston, S. (2003). A review of the biological bases of ADHD: What have we learned from imaging studies? Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities Reviews, 9, 184195.
Ellis, A. (1981). Rational–emotive therapy and cognitive behavior therapy: Similarities and differences. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 325340.
El-Sheikh, M. (2005). Does poor vagal tone exacerbate child maladjustment in the context of parental problem drinking? A longitudinal examination. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 735741.
El-Sheikh, M., Harger, J., & Whitson, S. M. (2001). Exposure to interparental conflict and children's adjustment and physical health: The moderating role of vagal tone. Child Development, 72, 16171636.
Epstein, J., Hong, P., Kocsis, J. H., Yang, Y., Butler, T., Chusid, J. (2006). Lack of ventral striatal response to positive stimuli in depressed versus normal subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 17841790.
Eriksson, P. S., Perfilieva, E., Bjork-Eriksson, T., Alborn, A-M., Nordborg, C., Peterson, D. A., et al. (1998). Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. Nature Medicine, 4, 13131317.
Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L., Golden, R. R., & Cornblatt, B. A. (1989). A taxometric analysis of cognitive and neuromotor variables in children at risk for schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 203208.
Evans, D. L., Foa, E. B., Gur, R. E., Hendin, H., O'Brien, C. P., Seligman, M. E. P., et al. (2005). Treating and preventing adolescent mental health disorders New York: Oxford University Press.
Felmingham, K., Kemp, A., Williams, L., Das, P., Hughes, G., Peduto, A., et al. (2007). Changes in anterior cingulated and amygdala after cognitive behavior therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Science, 18, 127129.
Ferdinand, R. F., Dieleman, G., Ormel, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2007). Homotypic versus heterotypic continuity of anxiety symptoms is adolescents: Evidence for distinction between DSM-IV subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 325333.
Fingeret, M. C., Warren, C. S., Cepeda-Benito, A., & Gleaves, D. H. (2006). Eating disorder prevention research: A meta-analysis. Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 14, 191213.
Fishbein, D. (2000). The importance of neurobiological research to the prevention of psychopathology. Prevention Science, 1, 89106.
Fishbein, D., Hyde, C., Coe, B., & Paschall, M. J. (2004). Neurocognitive and physiological prerequisites for prevention of adolescent drug abuse. Journal of Primary Prevention, 24, 471495.
Fisher, P. A., Gunnar, M. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (2000). Preventive intervention for maltreated preschool children: Impact on children's behavior, neuroendocrine activity, and foster parent functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 13561364.
Forbes, E. E., May, J. C., Siegle, G. J., Ladouceur, C. D., Ryan, N. D., Carter, C. S., et al. (2006). Reward-related decision-making in pediatric major depressive disorder: An fMRI study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 10311040.
Forbes, E. E., Shaw, D. S., & Dahl, R. E. (2007). Alterations in reward-related decision making in boys with recent and future depression. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 633639.
Fowles, D. C., & Dindo, L. (2006). A dual-deficit model of psychopathy. In Patrick, C. J. (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 1434). New York: Guilford Press.
Fox, N. A., Hane, A. A., & Pine, D. S. (2007). Plasticity for affective neurocircuitry: How the environment shapes gene expression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 15.
Foxcroft, D. R., Ireland, D., Lister-Sharp, D. J., Lowe, G., & Breen, R. (2003). Longer-term primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people: A systematic review. Addiction, 98, 397411.
Fraga, M. F., Ballestar, E., Paz, M. F., Ropero, S., Setien, F., Ballestar, M. L., et al. (2005). Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 1060410609.
Fryer, S. L., Crocker, N. A., & Mattson, S. N. (2008). Exposure to teratogenic agents as a risk factor for psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child psychopathology: Genetic, neurobiological, and environmental substrates (pp. 180207). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2007a). Central nervous system substrates of impulsivity: Implications for the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. In Coch, D., Dawson, G., & Fischer, K. (Eds.), Human behavior and the developing brain: Atypical development (pp. 239263). New York: Guilford Press.
Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2007b). Direct and passive prenatal nicotine exposure and the development of externalizing psychopathology. Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., Beauchaine, T. P., Shannon, K. E., Chipman-Chacon, J., Fleming, A. P., Crowell, S. E., et al. (2007). Neurological correlates of reward responding in adolescents with and without externalizing disorders. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., & Shannon, K. E. (2008). Brain injury as a risk factor for psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (pp. 208233) Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Glahn, D. C., Therman, S., Manninen, M., Huttunen, M., Kapiro, J., Lönnqvist, J., et al. (2003). Spatial working memory as an endophenotype for schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 624626.
Goldapple, K., Segal, Z., Garson, C., Lau, M., Bieling, P., Kennedy, S., et al. (2004). Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression: Treatment-specific effects of cognitive behavior therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 3441.
Golden, R. R., & Meehl, P. E. (1979). Detection of the schizoid taxon with MMPI indicators. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 212233.
Goldsmith, H. H., Gottesman, I. I., & Lemery, K. S. (1997). Epigenetic approaches to developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 365387.
Gottesman, I. I., & Gould, T. D. (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: Etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 636645.
Gottlieb, G., & Willoughby, M. T. (2006). Probabilistic epigenesis of psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and method (2nd ed., pp. 673700). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Gould, T. D., & Gottesman, I. I. (2006). Psychiatric endophenotypes and the development of valid animal models. Genes Brain and Behavior, 5, 113119.
Gray, J. A., & McNaughton, N. (2000). The Neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gunnar, M. R., & Fisher, P. A. (2006). Bringing basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology to bear on preventive interventions for neglected and maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 651677.
Halperin, J. M., & Schulz, K. P. (2006). Revisiting the role of the prefrontal cortex in the patho-physiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 560581.
Hammock, E. A. D., & Levitt, P. (2006). The discipline of neurobehavioral development: The emerging interface of processes that build circuits and skills. Human Development, 49, 294309.
Hartl, D. L., & Jones, E. W. (2002). Essential genetics: A genomics perspective (3rd ed.). Boston: Jones and Bartlett.
Hawes, D. J., & Dadds, M. R. (2005). The treatment of conduct problems in children with callous-unemotional traits. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 737741.
Hicks, B. M., Blonigen, D. M., Kramer, M. D., Krueger, R. F., Patrick, C. J., Iacono, W. G., et al. (2007). Gender differences and developmental change in externalizing disorders from late adolescence to early adulthood: A longitudinal twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 433447.
Hinshaw, S. P. (1987). On the distinction between attention deficits/hyperactivity and conduct problems/aggression in child psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 443463.
Hinshaw, S. P., & Lee, S. S. (2003). Conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. In Mash, E. J. & Barkley, R. A. (Eds.), Child psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 144198). New York: Guilford Press.
Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior. New York: Appleton–Century–Crofts.
Insel, T. R., & Goodwin, F. K. (1983). The dexamethasone suppression test: Promises and problems of diagnostic laboratory tests in psychiatry. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 34, 11311138.
Jacobson, K. C., Prescott, C. A., & Kendler, K. S. (2000). Genetic and environmental influences on juvenile antisocial behavior based on two occasions. Psychological Medicine, 30, 13151325.
Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Dodge, K. A., Rutter, M., Taylor, A., et al. (2005). Nature × nurture: Genetic vulnerabilities interact with physical maltreatment to promote conduct problems. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 6784.
Jensen, P. S., Hinshaw, S. P., Kraemer, H. C., Lenora, N., Newcorn, J. H., Abikoff, H. B., et al. (2001). ADHD comorbidity findings from the MTA study: Comparing comorbid subgroups. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 147158.
Jensen, P., Hinshaw, S. P., Swanson, J., Greenhill, L., Conners, C. K., Arnold, L. E., et al. (2001). Findings from the NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA): Implications and applications for primary care providers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 22, 6073.
Joffe, J. M. (2004). Mental disorders: Should our emphasis be on biological or psychosocial factors? An introduction to the special issue. Journal of Primary Prevention, 24, 415418.
Kaffman, A., & Meaney, M. J. (2007). Neurodevelopmental sequelae of postnatal maternal care in rodents: Clinical and research implications of molecular insights. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 224244.
Kane, V. B., Fu, Y., Matta, S. G., & Sharp, B. M. (2004). Gestational nicotine exposure attenuates nicotine-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell of adolescent Lewis rats. Journal of Pharmacological and Experimental Therapeutics, 308, 521528.
Katz, L. F., & Gottman, J. M. (1995). Vagal tone protects children from marital conflict. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 8392.
Katz, L. F., & Gottman, J. M. (1997). Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 157171.
Keedwell, P. A., Andrew, C., Williams, S. C. R., Brammer, M. J., & Phillips, M. L. (2005). The neural correlates of anhedonia in major depressive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 843853.
Kendler, K. S., Prescott, C. A., Myers, J., & Neale, M. C. (2003). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 929937.
Kent, L., Green, E., Hawi, Z., Kirley, A., Dudbridge, F., Lowe, N., et al. (2005). Association of the paternally transmitted copy of common valine allele of the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene with susceptibility to ADHD. Molecular Psychiatry, 10, 939943.
Klein, D. N., Torpey, D. C., Bufferd, S. J., & Dyson, M. W. (2008). Depressive disorders. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (pp. 477509). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Klein-Hessling, J., & Lohaus, A. (2002). Benefits and interindividual differences in children's responses to extended and intensified relaxation training. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 15, 275288.
Klinger, L. G., Dawson, G., & Renner, P. (2003). Autistic disorder. In Mash, E. J. & Barkley, R. A. (Eds.), Child psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 409454). New York: Guilford Press.
Klump, K. L., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (2000). Differential heritability of eating attitudes and behaviors in prepubertal versus pubertal twins. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 33, 287292.
Konorski, J. (1948). Conditioned reflexes and neuron organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Koopsman, J. R., Slutzke, W. S., Heath, A. C., Neale, M. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (1999). The genetics of smoking initiation and quantity smoked in Dutch adolescent and young adult twins. Behavior Genetics, 29, 383393.
Koopsman, J. R., van Doornen, L. J., & Boomsma, D. I. (1997). Association between alcohol use and smoking in adolescent and young adult twins: A bivariate genetic analysis. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 21, 537546.
Kopp, L. M., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2007). Patterns of psychopathology in the families of children with conduct problems, depression, and both psychiatric conditions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 301312.
Korfine, L., & Lenzenweger, M. F. (1995). The taxonicity of schizotypy: A replication. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 2631.
Kraemer, H. C., Stice, E., Kazdin, A., Offord, D., & Kupfer, D. (2001). How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 848856.
Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, G. T., Fairburn, C. G., & Agras, W. S. (2002). Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 877883.
Kramer, D. A. (2005). Commentary: Gene–environment interplay in the context of genetics, epigenetics, and gene expression. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 1927.
Krueger, R. F., Hicks, B. M., Patrick, C. J., Carlson, S. R., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2002). Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: Modeling the externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 411424.
Krueger, R. F., & Markon, K. E. (2006). Reinterpreting comorbidity: A model-based approach to understanding and classifying psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2, 111133.
Kuhn, T. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kumari, V. (2006). Do Psychotherapies produce neurobiological effects? Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 18, 6170.
Kupper, N., Willemsen, G., Posthuma, D., De Boer, D., Boomsma, D. I., & De Geus, E. J. C. (2005). A genetic analysis of ambulatory cardiorespiratory coupling. Psychophysiology, 42, 202212.
Laakso, A., Wallius, E., Kajander, J., Bergman, J., Eskola, O., Solin, O., et al. (2003). Personality traits and striatal dopamine synthesis capacity in healthy subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 904910.
Lemery, K. S., & Doelger, L. (2005). Genetic vulnerabilities to the development of psychopathology. In Hankin, B. L. & Abela, J. R. Z. (Eds.), Development of psychopathology: A vulnerability–stress perspective (pp. 161198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lenzenweger, M. F. (1999). Deeper into the schizotypy taxon: On the robust nature of maximum covariance analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 182187.
Lenzenweger, M. F. (2006). Schizotaxia, schizotypy and schizophrenia: Paul E. Meehl's blueprint for experimental psychopathology and the genetics of schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 195200.
Lenzenweger, M. F., & Korfine, L. (1992). Confirming the latent structure and base rate of schizotypy: A taxometric analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 567571.
Lenzenweger, M. F., McLachlan, G., & Rubin, D. B. (2007). Resolving the latent structure of schizophrenia endophenotypes using expectation-maximization-based finite mixture modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 1629.
Lewinsohn, P. M., Shankman, S. A., Gau, J. M., & Klein, D. N. (2004). The prevalence and co-morbidity of subthreshold psychiatric conditions. Psychological Medicine, 34, 613622.
Leyton, M., Boileau, I., Benkelfat, C., Diksic, M., Baker, G., & Dagher, A. (2002). Amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine, drug wanting and novelty seeking: A PET/[11C]Raclopride study in healthy men. Neuropsychopharmacology, 27, 10271035.
Lilienfeld, S. O. (2007). Psychological treatments that cause harm. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 5370.
Lilienfeld, S. O., & Marino, L. (1999). Essentialism revisited: Evolutionary theory and the concept of mental disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 400411.
Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive–behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder New York: Guilford Press.
Lochman, J. E. (1992). Cognitive–behavioral intervention with aggressive boys: Three-year follow-up and preventive effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 426432.
Loeber, R., & Hay, D. (1997). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 371410.
Loeber, R., & Keenan, K. (1994). Interaction between conduct disorder and its comorbid conditions: Effects of age and gender. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 497523.
Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543562.
Lykken, D. T. (2006). Psychopathic personality. In Patrick, C. J. (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 313). New York: Guilford Press.
Lynam, D. R. (1996). The early identification of chronic offenders: Who is the fledgling psychopath? Psychological Bulletin, 120, 209234.
Lynam, D. R. (1998). Early identification of the fledgling psychopath: Locating the psychopathic child in the current nomenclature. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 566575.
Lynam, D. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Wikström, P. H., Loeber, R., & Novak, S. (2000). The interaction between impulsivity and neighborhood context on offending: The effects of impulsivity are stronger in poorer neighborhoods. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 563574.
Lynam, D. R., Milich, R., Zimmerman, R., Novak, S. P., Logan, T. K., Martin, C., et al. (1999). Project DARE: No effects at 10-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 590593.
Lyons, M. J., True, W. R., Eisen, S. A., Goldberg, J., Meyer, J. M., Faraone, S. V., et al. (1995). Effects of genes and environment on antisocial traits. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 906915.
MacCallum, R. C., Zhang, S., Preacher, K. J., & Rucker, D. D. (2001). On the practice of dichotomization of quantitative variables. Psychological Methods, 7, 1940.
Masten, A. S. (2007). Competence, resilience, and development in adolescence: Clues for prevention science. In Romer, D. & Walker, E. F. (Eds.), Adolescent psychopathology and the developing brain (pp. 3152). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Masterman, P. W., & Kelly, A. B. (2003). Reaching adolescents who drink harmfully: Fitting intervention to developmental reality. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 24, 347355.
McClellan, J. M., Susser, E., & King, M-C. (2007). Schizophrenia: A common disease caused by multiple rare alleles. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 194199.
McGorry, P. D., Yung, A. R., Phillips, L. J., Yuen, H. P., Francey, S., Cosgrave, E. M., et al. (2002). Randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to reduce the risk of progression to firstepisode psychosis in a clinical sample with sub-threshold symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 921928.
McGue, M., Iacono, W. G., Legrand, L. N., & Elkins, I. (2001). Origins and consequences of age at first drink: II. Familial risk and heritability. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 11661173.
Meany, M. J. (2007). Maternal programming of defensive responses through sustained effects on gene expression. In Romer, D. & Walker, E. F. (Eds.), Adolescent psychopathology and the developing brain (pp. 148172). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Meehl, P. E. (1962). Schizotaxia, schizotypy, schizophrenia. American Psychologist, 17, 827838.
Miklowitz, D. J. (2007). The role of the family in the course and treatment of bipolar disorder. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 192196.
Moffitt, T., & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 355375.
Moffitt, T., Caspi, A., & Rutter, M. (2006). Measured gene–environment interactions in psychopathology: Concepts, research strategies, and implications for research, intervention, and public understanding of genetics. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 527.
Molina, B. S. G., Flory, K., Hinshaw, S. P., Greiner, A. R., Arnold, L. E., Swanson, J. M., et al. (2007). Delinquent behavior and emerging substance use in the MTA at 36 months: Prevalence, course, and treatment effects. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 10281040.
Monti, P. M., Colby, S., Barnett, N. P., Spirito, A., Rohsenow, D. J., Myers, M., et al. (1999). Brief intervention for harm reduction with alcohol-positive older adolescents in a hospital emergency department. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 989994.
MTA Cooperative Group. (1999). A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 10731086.
Nadder, T. S., Rutter, M., Silberg, J. L., Maes, H. H., & Leaves, L. J. (2002). Genetic effects on the variation and covariation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional-defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) symptomatologies across informant and occasion of measurement. Psychological Medicine, 32, 3953.
Nelson, C. A., Bloom, F. E., Cameron, J. L., Amaral, D., Dahl, R. E., & Pine, D. (2002). An integrative, multidisciplinary approach to the study of brain–behavior relations in the context of typical and atypical development. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 499520.
Nestler, E. J., & Carlezon, W. A. (2006). The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 11511159.
Nock, M. K. (2003). Progress review of the psychosocial treatment of child conduct problems. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 10, 128.
O'Connor, T. G., McGuire, S., Reiss, D., Hetherington, E. M., & Plomin, R. (1998). Co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior in adolescence: A common genetic liability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 2737.
Oliff, H. S., & Gallardo, K. A. (1999). The effects of nicotine on developing catecholamine systems. Frontiers in Bioscience, 4, d833d897.
O'Malley, K. D., & Nanson, J. (2002). Clinical implications of a link between fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 349354.
Orr, S. P., Metzger, L. J., Lasko, N. B., Macklin, M. L., Hu, F. B., Shalev, A. Y., & Pitman, R. K. (2003). Physiologic responses to sudden, loud tones in monozygotic twins discordant for combat exposure: Association with posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 283288.
Paquette, V., Lévesque, J., Mensour, B., Leroux, J-M., Beaudoin, G., Bourgouin, P., et al. (2003). Change the mind and you change the brain: Effects of cognitive–behavioral therapy on the neural correlates of spider phobia. Neuroimage, 18, 401409.
Patterson, G. R., & Capaldi, D. M. (1990). A mediational model for boys' depressed mood. In Rolf, J., Masten, A. S., Cicchetti, D., Nuechterlein, K. H., & Weintraub, S. (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 141163). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329335.
Patterson, G. R., DeGarmo, D. S., & Knutson, N. M. (2000). Hyperactive and antisocial behaviors: Comorbid or two points in the same process? Development and Psychopathology, 12, 91107.
Perry, B. D. (2008). Child maltreatment: A neurodevelopmental perspective on the role of abuse and neglect in Psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child psychopathology: Genetic, neurobiological, and environmental substrates (pp. 93128). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Petrosino, A., Turpin-Petrosino, C., & Buehler, J. (2003). “Scared Straight” and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 589, 4162.
Pollak, S. D. (2005). Early adversity and mechanisms of plasticity: Integrating effective neuroscience with developmental approaches to psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 735752.
Porges, S. W. (2006). Asserting the role of biobehavioral; sciences in translational research: The behavioral neurobiology revolution. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 923933.
Project MATCH Research Group. (1997). Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: Project MATCH posttreatment drinking outcomes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58, 729.
Raine, A., Mellingen, K., Liu, J., Venables, P., & Mednick, S. (2003). Effects of environmental enrichment at ages 3–5 years on schizotypal personality and antisocial behavior at ages 17 and 23 years. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 16271635.
Raine, A., Venables, P., Dalais, C., Mellingen, K., Reynolds, C., & Mednick, S. (2001). Early educational and health enrichment at age 3–5 years is associated with increased autonomic and central nervous system arousal and orienting at age 11 years: Evidence from the Mauritius Child Health Project. Psychophysiology, 38, 254266.
Rapoport, J. C., Addington, A. M., & Frangou, S. (2005). The neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: Update 2005. Molecular Psychiatry, 10, 434449.
Reichenberg, A., & Harvey, P. D. (2007). Neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia: Integration of performance-based and brain findings. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 833858.
Rhule, D. M. (2005). Take care not to do harm: Harmful interventions for youth problem behavior. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 618625.
Rice, F., Harold, G. T., & Thapar, A. (2002). The genetic aetiology of childhood depression: A review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 6579.
Ross, R. G. (2003). Early expression of a pathophysiological feature of schizophrenia: Saccadic intrusions into smooth-pursuit eye movements in school-age children vulnerable to schizophrenia. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 468476.
Rueda, M. R., Rothbart, M. K. Saccomanno, L., & Posner, M. I. (2007). Modifying brain networks underlying self-regulation. In Romer, D. & Walker, E. F. (Eds.), Adolescent psychopathology and the developing brain (pp. 401419). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ruma, P. R., Burke, R. V., & Thompson, R. W. (1996). Group parent training: Is it effective for children of all ages? Behavior Therapy, 27, 159169.
Rutter, M. (2002). The interplay of nature, nurture, and developmental influences: The challenge ahead for mental health. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 9961000.
Rutter, M. (2005). Environmentally mediated risk for psychopathology: Research strategies and findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 318.
Rutter, M. (2007). Gene–environment interdependence. Developmental Science, 10, 1218.
Rutter, M., Dunn, J., Plomin, R., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Maughan, B., et al. (1997). Integrating nature and nurture: Implications of person-environment correlations and interactions for developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 335364.
Rutter, M., & Sroufe, L. A. (2000). Developmental psychopathology: Concepts and challenges. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 265296.
Sagvolden, T., Johansen, E. B., Aase, H., & Russell, V. A. (2005). A dynamic developmental theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 397468.
Satterfield, J. H., Faller, K. J., Crinella, F. M., Schell, A. M., Swanson, J. M., & Homer, L. D. (2007). A 30-year prospective follow-up study of hyperactive boys with conduct problems: Adult criminality. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 601610.
Schellenberg, G. D., Dawson, G., Sung, Y. J., Estes, A., Munson, J., Rosenthal, E., et al. (2006). Evidence for multiple loci from a genome scan of autism kindreds. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 10491060.
Scheres, A., Milham, M. P., Knutson, B., & Castellanos, F. X. (2007). Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 720724.
Schnell, K., & Herpertz, S. C. (2007). Effects of dialectical behavior-therapy on the neural correlates of affective hyperarousal in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 837847.
Scourfield, J., Rice, F., Thapar, A., Harold, G. T., Martin, N., & McGuffin, P. (2003). Depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: Changing aetiological influences with development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 968976.
Seeger, G., Schloss, P., Schmidt, M. H., Rüter-Jungfleisch, A., & Henn, F. A. (2004). Gene–environment interaction in hyperkinetic conduct disorder (HD + CD) as indicated by season of birth variations in dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphism. Neuroscience Letters, 366, 282286.
Shankman, S. A., Klein, D. N., Tenke, C. E., & Bruder, G. E. (2007). Reward sensitivity in depression: A biobehavioral study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 95104.
Shannon, K. E., Beauchaine, T. P., Brenner, S. L., Neuhaus, E., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. (2007). Familial and temperamental predictors of resilience in children at risk for conduct disorder and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 701727.
Siegle, G. J., Carter, C. S., & Thase, M. E. (2006). Use of fMRI to predict recovery from unipolar depression with cognitive behavior therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 735738.
Silberg, J. L., Rutter, M., & Eaves, L. (2001). Genetic and environmental influences on the temporal association between earlier anxiety and later depression in girls. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 10401049.
Silberg, J., Rutter, M., Neale, M., & Eaves, L. (2001). Genetic moderation of environmental risk for depression and anxiety in girls. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 116121.
Silvestri, A. J., & Joffe, J. M. (2004). You'd have to be sick not to be crazy. Journal of Primary Prevention, 24, 497511.
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis New York: Appleton–Century.
Slotkin, T. A. (1998). Fetal nicotine or cocaine exposure: Which one is worse? Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 285, 931945.
Snyder, J., Schrepferman, L., & St. Peter, C. (1997). Origins of antisocial behavior: Negative reinforcement and affect dysregulation of behavior as socialization mechanisms in family interaction. Behavior Modification, 21, 187215.
Sowell, E. R., Peterson, B. S., Thompson, P. M., Welcome, S. E., Henkenius, A. L., & Toga, A. W. (2003). Mapping cortical change across the human lifespan. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 309315.
Spear, L. (2007). The developing brain and adolescent-typical behavior patterns: An evolutionary approach. In Romer, D. & Walker, E. F. (Eds.), Adolescent psychopathology and the developing brain (pp. 930). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sroufe, L. A., & Rutter, M. (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 1729.
Stein, M. B., Jang, K. L., Taylor, S., Vernon, P. A., & Livesley, W. J. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A twin study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 16751681.
Stewart, S. H., Conrod, P. J., Marlatt, G. A., Comeau, N., Thush, C., & Krank, M. (2005). New developments in prevention and early intervention for alcohol abuse in youths. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 29, 278286.
Sullivan, P. F., Neale, M. C., & Kendler, K. S. (2000). Genetic epidemiology of major depress-sive disorder: Review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 15521562.
Thompson, E. A., Eggert, L. L., Randell, B. P., & Pike, K. C. (2001). Evaluation of indicated suicide risk prevention approaches for potential high school dropouts. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 742752.
Thompson, E. A., Horn, M., Herting, J. R., & Eggert, L. A. (1997). Enhancing outcomes in an indicated drug prevention program for high-risk youth. Journal of Drug Education, 27, 1941.
Thorndike, E. L. (1911). Animal intelligence New York: Macmillan.
Tremblay, R. E. (2005). Towards an epigenetic approach to experimental criminology: The 2004 Joan McCord Prize Lecture. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 397415.
Tunbridge, E. M., Weickert, C. S., Kleinman, J. E., Herman, M. M., Chen, J., Kolachana, B. S., et al. (2007). Catechol-o-methyltransferase enzyme activity and protein expression in human prefrontal cortex across the postnatal lifespan. Cerebral Cortex, 17, 12061212.
Tyrka, A. R., Cannon, T. D., Haslam, N., Mednick, S. A., Schulsinger, F., Schulsinger, H., et al. (1995). The latent structure of schizotypy: I. Premorbid indicators of a taxon in individuals at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 173183.
Vaidya, C., Austin, G., Kirkorian, G., Ridlehuber, H. W., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G., et al. (1998). Selective effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A functional magnetic resonance study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 1449414499.
Viken, R. J., Kaprio, J., Koskenvuo, M., & Rose, R. J. (1999). Longitudinal analyses of the determinants of drinking and of drinking to intoxication in adolescent twins. Behavior Genetics, 29, 455461.
Weaver, I. C. G., Cervoni, N., Champagne, F. A., D'Alessio, A. C., Sharma, S., Seckl, J. R., et al. (2004). Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 847854.
Whisman, M. A., & McClelland, G. H. (2005). Designing, testing, and interpreting interactions and moderator effects in family research. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 111120.
Young, R. M., Lawford, B. R., Nutting, A., & Noble, E. P. (2004). Advances in molecular genetics and the prevention and treatment of substance misuse: Implications of association studies of the A1 allele of the D2 dopamine receptor gene. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 12751294.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed