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W. E. B. AND SHIRLEY GRAHAM DU BOIS IN MAOIST CHINA1

  • Yunxiang Gao (a1)

Abstract

Using previously untranslated Chinese sources, this article adds dimension and insight into the visits of W. E. B. and Shirley Graham Du Bois to the People's Republic of China in 1959 and 1963. After discussing Du Bois's earlier writings and visit to China in 1936, the article reveals the Chinese Communist Party's (CCP) awareness of Du Bois's favorable commentary on the nation during the 1950s. Using articles from the People's Daily (Renmin ribao) and other Chinese sources, I argue that the CCP and the Du Boises gained mutual benefit from the visit outside of the “arranged reality” of such political tourism. The CCP gained increased legitimacy among African nations as a nation of color. Du Bois widened his famous dictum about the importance of the color line in the twentieth century to include Asians. In a preface to a 1959 Chinese translation of the Souls of Black Folk (published to commemorate his visit), Du Bois amended his argument about the color line to emphasize the international struggle of the working classes. In addition to discussion on W. E. B. Du Bois's writings about China following the 1959 visit, I focus on Shirley Graham Du Bois's interactions with the Chinese, their knowledge of her scholarship about Paul Robeson, the celebrated Black American singer, actor, and communist, and her politically sympathetic actions toward China. After the death of her husband, Graham Du Bois sustained involvement with China throughout the Cultural Revolution until her death in 1977 and interment in the Babaoshan Cemetery for Revolutionary Heroes in Beijing. Her burial fixed an appropriate identity with China. While her husband's grave site was in Ghana, an unfriendly military government controlled that nation and the United States was no longer her home country. China became her permanent home.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

Professor Yunxiang Gao, Department of History, Ryerson University, 380 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, CanadaM5B 2K3. E-mail: y1gao@ryerson.ca

Footnotes

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1

I would like to express my appreciation to Charles W. Hayford, editor of the Journal of American-East Asian Relations, who read the manuscript twice, provided valuable comments and copyedited it carefully. My husband Graham Russell Gao Hodges shared his knowledge of African American history, which helped me make connections between that historiography and that of Chinese history. The comments of the anonymous reviewers helped to improve the article enormously.

Footnotes

References

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People's Daily (1959c). Zhou Zongli jiejian Duboyisi boshi [Premier Zhou Receives Dr. Du Bois]. February 23, 1.
People's Daily (1959d). Jiushi gaoling you fendou, heping zhanshi yong qingchun, shoudu renshi jubei wei Duboyisi zhushou [Continually at Struggle in his 90s, the Peace Soldier Is Forever Young; Figures in the Capital lift Glasses to Celebrate Du Bois' Birthday]. February 24, 4.
People's Daily (1959e). Duboyisi xiang Feizhou renmin fachu zhaohuan: Feizhou, zhanqilai! Mianxiang shengqi de taiyang! Heise dalu keyi cong Zhongguo dedao zuiduo de youyi he tongqing [Du Bois Issues a Call to the African People: Africa, Stand Up! Face the Rising Sun! The Black Continent Could Gain the Most Friendship and Sympathy from China]. February 24, 4.
People's Daily (1959f). Shoudu huanying Jiana pengyou jihui shang bingzhu tongsheng zhichu, diguozhuyi bixun gunchu Feizhou [At the Gathering to Welcome Ghanaian Friends to the Capital, the Hosts and Guests Proclaim in Unity: Imperialists Must Get out of Africa]. March 7, 4.
People's Daily (1959g). Mao Zhuxi jiejian Duboyisi he Sitelang [Chairman Mao Receives Du Bois and Strong]. March 14, 1.
People's Daily (1959h). Duboyisi fu Chongqing fangwen [The Du Bois Visit Chongqing]. March 15, 1.
People's Daily (1959i). Shoudu gejie longzhong jihui qingzhu shijie heping yundong shi zhounian, wei zhengqu shijie chijiu heping fendou daodi [Various Circles in the Capital Gathered to Celebrate the Tenth Anniversary of the World Peace Movement: The Struggle for Lasting World Peace to the Very End]. April 20, 1.
People's Daily (1959j). Zai wo Duiwaiwenxie he Heda de yanhui shang, shoudu renshi tong Duboyisi huabie [Figures of the Capital Bid Their Farewell to the Du Bois at the Banquet Held by CPACEFC and Peace Council]. April 21, 5.
People's Daily (1960a). Baiwen buru yijian, shishi shengyu xiongbian [Better to See Once Than Hear a Hundred Times; Facts Speaks Louder than Empty Words]. January 4, 5.
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People's Daily (1962b). Meiguo zhuming heiren xuezhe Duboyisi fufu dian xie wo zhichi Meigong zhengyi douzheng [The Famous American Black Scholar Du Bois and His Wife Telegram to Acknowledge Our Support of the American Communist Party's Righteous Struggle]. January 21, 3.
People's Daily (1962c). Duboyisi boshi fufu dao Jing, Guo Moruo yuanzhang dao feijichang yingjie [Dr. Du Bois and His Wife Arrived in Beijing, and Guo Moruo Welcomes them at the Airport]. September 29, 2.
People's Daily (1962d). Woguo lingdaoren he gejie renshi tong laizi wu dazhou de waibing huanju yitang, Zhou Enlai Zongli juxing shengda guoqing zhaodaihui [Our Leaders and Figures from Various Circles Gathered Happily with Guests from the Five Continents; Premier Zhou Enlai Hosted a Grand Reception to Celebrate the National Day]. October 1, 1.
People's Daily (1962e). Sanbai duo wei waibing cong shijie gedi lai Jing tong shoudu renmin gongqing woguo quanmin jieri [More Than Three Hundreds Foreign Guests from Various Parts of the World Joined the People in the Capital to Celebrate Our National Holiday]. October 1, 4.
People's Daily (1962f). Wushi wan ren reqing huahu Zongluxian wansui, Dayuejin wansui, renmin gongshe wansui, shoudu longzhong qingzhu jianguo shisan zhounian [Five Hundred Thousand People Cheer Long Live the General Guidelines, Long Live the Great Leap Forward, Long Live the People's Commune; The Capital Solemnly Celebrates the Thirteenth Anniversary of the People's Republic of China]. October 2, 1962, 1.
People's Daily (1962g). Mao Zhuxi Liu Zhuxi he shoudu baiwan qunzhong tong waiguo pengyou yiqi huandu guoqing zhi ye [Chairmans Mao and Liu, Eighty Thousand Masses in the Capital, and Foreign Friends Celebrated the Night of the National Day]. October 2, 1.
People's Daily (1962h). Zhou Enlai Zongli he furen Deng Yingchao jiejian he yanqing Duboyisi fufu [Premier Zhou Enlai and His Wife Deng Yingchao Receive the Du Bois and Treat Them with a Banquet]. November 3, 1.
People's Daily (1963a). Meiguo heiren fandui zhongzu qishi shiwei kuoda [American Blacks' Anti-Racism Protests Spread]. May 9, 4.
People's Daily (1963b). Meiguo heiren shiwei yundong jixu fazhan [American Blacks' Protests Continue to Develop]. May 10, 4.
People's Daily (1963d). Fandui Mei diguozhuyi, zhichi Meiguo heiren zhengyi douzheng [Anti-American Imperialism, and Support American Blacks' Righteous Struggle]. October 11, 1.
People's Daily (1964a). Duboyisi furen ganxie Mao Zhuxi zaici haozhao shijie renmin lianhe qilai tong Mei diguozhuyi jinxing douzheng [Madam Du Bois Thanks Chairman for Calling on again the People Across the World to Unite against American Imperialism]. January 15, 1.
People's Daily (1964b). Zhou Zongli Chen Fuzongli jiejian Duboyisi furen [Premier Zhou and Vice Premier Chen [Yi] Received Madam Du Bois]. January 16, 1.
People's Daily (1964c). Shenshou zhongzu nuyi he jieji yapo [Suffering Race-based Slavery and Class Oppression]. August 5, 1.
People's Daily (1965a). Luobote Weilian shuo Meiguo heiren shenxin Mao Zhuxi shengming zhichu de zhenli [Robert Williams Says that American Blacks Deeply believe in the Truth in Chairman Mao's Statement]. August 20, 4.
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People's Daily (1967a). Kawengda Zongtun li Jing fangwen Shanghai hou huiguo [President Kaunda Left after Visiting Beijing and Shanghai]. June 26, 1.
People's Daily (1967b). Caiqu baoli shouduan fandui wuzhuang junjing de zhenya [Adopt Violent Measures to Resist Crashes by Armed Army and Policemen]. July 12, 6.
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Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race
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