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A Short History of Chinese Numismatics in European Languages


This paper is a preliminary attempt at a history of the western world's interest in Chinese currency and numismatics. It focuses on Western language publications of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and pays particular attention to the backgrounds of the authors of those publications on the grounds that they were the first people to shape the field in Europe and the USA.

西方如何開始了解中國的貨幣和中國的錢幣學? 本文對此問題做出初步研究 。 作者着重介紹在歐洲 、 美國十八世紀和十九世紀出版的書和文獻,并特別注意這些出版物的作者的背景,因爲西方對中國貨幣和中國錢幣學的知識和了解是由它們決定的 。

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1. I am grateful to Zhou Weirong 周偉榮 of the China Numismatic Society for confirming Professor Li's positions and dates. Xueqin, Li 李學勤, “Lun Boshan dao” 論博山刀, Zhongguo Qianbi 中國錢幣 1986.3.2–5; reprinted in xuehui, Zhongguo qianbi 中國錢幣學會, ed., Zhongguo qianbi lunwenji 中國錢幣論文集 2 (Beijing: Zhongguo jinrong, 1992), 3337 . I would also like to thank Joe Cribb, Sarah Longair and Mary Hinton for their help during the preparation of this paper. All references to online publications and other resources, if not otherwise indicated, were accessed and checked in May 2012.

2. To compare these with the occupations of European collectors of Japanese coins, see Kornicki, , “European Interest in Japanese Coins,” in Sakuraki, Shin'ichi 櫻木晉一 et al., Catalogue of the Japanese Coin Collection (pre-Meiji) at the British Museum, British Museum Research Publication 174 (London, 2010), 2732 ; and Wang, Helen, “A history of the Japanese coin collection at the British Museum,” in the same volume, 1–12.

3. See, for example, Hilleman, Ulrike, Asian Empire and British Knowledge: China and the Networks of British Imperial Expansion, Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies Series (Houndmills: Basingstoke, Hampshire; and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009); and Jasanof, Maya, Edge of Empire: Conquest and Collecting in the East, 1750–1850 (London: Fourth Estate, 2005).

4. See Girardot, Norman J., The Victorian Translation of China. James Legge's Oriental Pilgrimage, (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2002), 382–93.

5. In 1992, the Essex Institute merged with the Peabody Museum of Salem to form the Peabody Essex Museum; see

6. Bowker, Howard F., “A Numismatic Bibliography of the Far East,” Numismatic Notes and Monographs 101 (New York: American Numismatic Society, 1943).

7. This was developed from Coole's, A Bibliography on Far Eastern Numismatics and a Union Index of the Currency, Charms, and Amulets of the Far East (Peking: California College in China, College of Chinese Studies, 1940), which Howker noted as being stronger in Chinese and Japanese publications and weak in European ones.

8. Coole's Bibliography has its faults, such as repetitions, numbers without entries, errors in the titles and Chinese characters, erroneous use of transliteration etc., but it remains the best numismatic reference of its type.

9. Miles, G. C., “Far East,” in A Survey of Numismatic Research 1960–1965, vol. II, ed. Skaare, K. and Miles, G. C. (Copenhagen: International Numismatic Commission [INC], 1967), 288–89. Brown, H.W.M., “Far East,” in A Survey of Numismatic Research 1966–1971, vol. II, eds. Yvon, J. and Brown, H.W.M. (New York: INC, 1973), 339–42. Cribb, J. E., “Far East,” in A Survey of Numismatic Research, 1972–1977, ed. Carson, R., Berghaus, P., Lowick, N., International Association of Professional Numismatists (IAPN) Publication 5 (Berne: INC, 1979), 480–91. Cribb, J. E., “Far East,” in A Survey of Numismatic Research, 1978–1984, vol. II, ed. Price, M., Besley, E., Macdowall, D., Jones, M. and Oddy, A., IAPN Special Publication 9 (London: INC, 1986), 784823 . Zhiqiang, Dai and Shuomin, Yao, “China,” in A Survey of Numismatic Research, 1985–1990, vol. II, ed. Hackens, T., Naster, P., Colaert, M., van Laere, R., Moucharte, G., de Callatay, F. and van Driessche, V., IAPN 12 (Brussels: INC, 1991), 702–38. Zhiqiang, Dai and Weirong, Zhou, “China,” in A Survey of Numismatic Research 1990–1995, ed. Morrisson, C. and Kluge, B., IAPN Special Publication 13 (Berlin: INC, 1997), 791805 . Zhiqiang, Dai and Wang, Helen, “Numismatic Studies in China,” in A Survey of Numismatic Research 1996–2001, ed. Alfaro, C. and Burnett, A., IAPN Special Publication 14 (Madrid: INC, 2003), 691730 ; F. Thierry, “Numismatique chinoise hors de Chine,” ibid., 730–33. Wang, Helen, Weirong, Zhou and Thierry, François, “China—a survey of numismatic literature 2002–2007,” in A Survey of Numismatic Literature, 2002–2007, ed. Amandry, M. and Bateson, D., IAPN Special Publication 15 (Glasgow: INC, 2009), 528–73.

10. On the imprecise use of “oriental” and “Chinese” to describe East Asian coins, see Wang, “A History of the Japanese Coin Collection,” 1.

11. It has been announced on that Hans Ulrich Vogel's new book Marco Polo was in China: New Evidence from Currencies, Salts and Revenues (Leiden: Brill Verlag, forthcoming) will provide a survey of the arguments concerning whether Marco Polo went to China or not, and that Vogel considers the detailed descriptions of Chinese currency as evidence that he did go.

12. Lundbaek, Knud, T.S. Bayer (1694–1738): Pioneer Sinologist (London: Curzon, 1986). Bayer's library of approximately 200 Chinese and other books was sold by his widow to the Heinrich Walter Gerdes (d. 1741), and subsequently to William Hunter (1718–1783), and has been at the University of Glasgow since 1807; see

13. I am grateful to François Thierry for alerting me to this article: “Eine Sinesische Kupfer-Müntze, oder TONGFSIEN [an error for Tong tsien ‘copper coin,” cf. Halde, Du, “De la monnaye,” vol. 1, 644 ], Kayser, vom itzigen,” Der Wöchentlichen Historischen Münz-Belustigung, 32 (6 08 1738, Nürnberg 1738), 249–56. le Comte, Louis, Nouveaux Memoires sur l'Etat present de la Chine (Paris, 1696), which included a section on Chinese currency, with illustrations, ‘De la monnoye qui en differens tems à eu cours a la Chine,’ was translated into English within three years (London, 1699).

14. Hager's work was included in Watt, James, Bibliotheca Britannica, vol. 1 (Edinburgh: Archibald Constable, 1824).

15. Hager names the numismatists Ezechiel Spanheim (1629–1710), Louis Jobert (1637–1719), Count Joseph Bimard de la Bastie, Banduri, Gussem and Joseph Christoph Rasche. For further details, see Bassoli, Ferdinando, Antiquarian Books on Coins and Medals From the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth Century (London: Spink and Son, 2001).

16. Brotier, Gabriel, Essai sur l'architecture des Chinois, &c. (Paris, 1803), 92 , cited in Hager's Description, ii.

17. Scherer, Jean-Benoît, Recherches historiques et géographiques sur le nouveau monde (Paris: Brunet, 1777). Pierre-François Hugues, the baron d'Hancarville (1719–1805), was an art historian.

18. P. D. V., , “Review (with translation) of J. Hager's Description ,” The Classical Journal 1 (03 and June 1824), 4757 .

19. Hager, G., Illustrazione d'uno zodiaco orientale del Gabinetto delle medaglie di Sua Maestà a Parigi, scoperto recentemente presso le sponde del Tigri vicino all'antica Babilonia (Milano: De Stefanis 1811).

20. Leichenstein auf dem Grabe des chinesischen Gelehrsamkeit des Herrn Joseph Hager (1811).This was Klaproth's response to Hager's An Explanation of the Elementary Characters of the Chinese with an Analysis of their Ancient Symbols and Hieroglyphics (printed for Richard Phillips, London, 1801). For further details see Harbsmeier, Christoph, in Needham's, Joseph Science and Civilisation in China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), VII.1, 17 .

21. Morrison, Robert, A View of China for Philological Purposes (London: Black, Parbury and Allen, 1817), 42 .

22. A. S. Cook, “Marsden, William (1754-1836),” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography,

23. Jules Mohl prepared an obituary for Biot: “Nécrologie d'Édouard Biot, préparée par Jules Mohl et lue devant la Société asiatique de Paris le 3 juillet 1850,”

24. See Wahlraven, Helmut, “Julius Klaproth. His Life and Works with Special Emphasis on Japan,” Japonica Humboldtiana 10 (2006), 177–91.

25. See Kornicki, “European Interest in Japanese Coins.”

26. In 1853, Haggard also wrote to the Royal Irish Academy, enclosing “two thin discs of silver, used for overlaying modern forgeries of Spanish dollars,” Report of Meeting, 23 May 1853, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 5 (18501853), 441 ; see also The Gentleman's Magazine, 166 (1839), 637 .

27. Wilson, David, The British Museum. A History (London: British Museum Press, 2002), 93 .

28. For more on Kutsuki Masatsuna, also known as “Lord of Tamba,” see Screech, Timon, “Kutsuki Masatsuna一A Life,” in Sakuraki, et al., Catalogue, 3347 .

29. Aperçu sur les monnaies russes et monnaies étrangères qui ont cours en Russie (St. Petersburg: F. Bellizard & Co., 18361837).

30. Bailey, L. H. Jr., “Some North American Botanists. VIII. John Leonard Riddell,” Botanical Gazette 8.8 (08 1883), 269–71.

31. Cordier, Henri, “Thomas Francis Wade,” T'oung Pao 6.4 (1895), 407–12.

32. See the obituaries of Rondot, in Revue belge de numismatique (1901), 119 ; and in Revue numismatique (1901), 126 .

34. West, A. C., Catalogue of the Morrison Collection of Chinese Books (London: SOAS, 1998). John Williams compiled 54 catalogue slips for the Morrison collection of Chinese books at University College London. Williams was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and of the Royal Astronomical Society; see his obituary in Numismatic Chronicle 1875, Proceedings, 1315 . There was a link between numismatics and astronomy but only in so far as the Royal Numismatic Society (RNS) held its meetings in the rooms of the Royal Astronomical Society, at Somerset House, an arrangement that was facilitated through Dr. Lee, who was a founder of both societies; see Carson, R. A. G. and Pagan, Hugh, A History of the Royal Numismatic Society (London: Sotheby's/RNS, 1986), 2 .

35. I am grateful to Dorothy Bentley Smith, who is currently writing his biography, No Ordinary Surgeon (forthcoming), for confirming these details.

36. Fairbank, John King, Coolidge, Martha Henderson and Smith, Richard J., H. B. Morse, Customs Commissioner and Historian of China (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995), 93 ; and Girardot, Norman J., The Victorian Translation of China. James Legge's Oriental Pilgrimage (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2002), 154 .

37. Review in the Westminster Gazette (1864), 583 (not seen, but from a longer citation quoted in numerous specialist booksellers' lists).

38. This name appears in the trial of Louis Seel, April 1897, at the Old Bailey: April 1897, trial of Louis Seel; see

39. For Black's coins see Proceedings of the Meeting on 18 December 1862,” Numismatic Chronicle (1863); For Archer's coins see Proceedings of the Meeting on 20 November 1862,” Numismatic Chronicle (1863).

40. Smith, Richard J., Fairbank, John K. and Bruner, Katherine F., eds., Robert Hart and China's early modernization: his journals, 1863–1866 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, Council on East Asian Studies, 1991), 503 .

41. The SNRB was founded in 1841. See

42. Fonrobert's coins were sold through the Berlin dealer Alfred Weyl in 1878.

43. Notices of New Books,” Journal of the Statistical Society of London 40.4 (1877), 660–67.

46. See Coates, P. D., The China Consuls: British consular officers 1843–1943 (Hong Kong and New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).

47. wrote, Morse The Currency of China (Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, 1906), The Trade and Administration of China (New York and London, 1910), and The Chronicles of the East India Company, 5 vols. (Oxford, 19261929).

48. See Screech, “Kutsuki Masatsuna.”

49. See Helen Wang, “A History of the Japanese Coin Collection.”

50. Percy put together a collection of over 4000 metallurgical specimens; these are now in the Science Museum, London; see

51. See his obituary in Notes of the Quarter (October, November, December, 1893),” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (01 1894), 165–66.

52. See Q. David Bowers, “Small denomination gold,”

55. Hopkins, L. C., “On the origin and earlier history of the Chinese coinage,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (04 1895), 317–78. Hopkins is better known for his work on oracle bone inscriptions, and his personal collection of oracle bones is now in the Cambridge University Library. See

56. The acquisition of the Glover collection was recorded in 1898 by Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834–1906), American astronomer, and Third Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. See; Smithsonian Institution Archives

57. Praktische Grammatik der chinesischen Sprache für den Selbstunterricht (Vienna, n.d.).

62. See Venn, J. and Venn, J. A., eds., Alumni Cantabrigiensis, 10 vols. (Cambridge: University Press, 19221958), .

63. See Girardot, The Victorian Translation, especially chapter 6, which identifies Joseph Edkins, Charles de Harlez and others as supporters of this idea.

64. See Crouch, A. R., Christianity in China: A Scholars's Guide to Resources in the Libraries and Archives of the United States (Armonk, New York and London: M.E. Sharpe, 5 .

65. See Summary of the Catalogue of the Collection of Chinese, Annamese, Japanese and Corean coins and charms, containing specimens of each historical period from before Christ 2255 to the present, belonging to A. F. Schepens of the Chinese Imperial Customs Service, 12 pp., Smithsonian Institution Libraries [CJ1309.S95]. Schepens' collection of 2735 coins was sold on 28 February 1901; see Razor Coins,” West Gippsland Gazette, 14 05 1901, on .

66. See von Hesse-Wartegg, Ernst, China und Japan: Erlebnisse, Studien, Beobachtungen auf einer Reise um die Welt (Leipzig, 1897); and Schantung und Deutsch-China (1898). See also Elger, R. and Köse, Y., eds., Many Ways of Speaking about the Self: Middle Eastern Ego-Documents in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish (14th–20th Century) (Wiesbaden: Harras-sowite, 2010), 110 .

68. Close examination of coins found in Central Asia had revealed the extent of Greek culture in the region, and had helped in the decipherment of various scripts and in the determination of chronologies; see Errington, Elizabeth and Cribb, Joe, with Claringbull, Maggie, eds., Crossroads of Asia. Transformation in Image and Symbol (Cambridge: Ancient India and Iran Trust, 1992); also Wang, Helen, “Sir Aurel Stein: the next generation,” in From Persepolis to the Punjab. Exploring Ancient Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, ed., Errington, Elizabeth and Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh (London: British Museum Press, 2007), 227–34, esp. 227.

69. Coole lists 23 publications by Bushell. On Lorimer and the Stein collection, see Wang, Helen, Money on the Silk Road. The Evidence from Eastern Central Asia to c. AD 800 (London: British Museum Press, 2004), 2122 .

70. Reprinted as The Lockhart Collection of Chinese Copper Coins (Lawrence, Mass.: Quarterman Publications, Inc., 1975), with a foreword by Bruce Smith, vii–viii. Lockhart's collection went to George Watson's College, Edinburgh, but the collection was later broken up and sold.

71. Schjöth worked for the Customs Office in Swatow (Shantou) and other locations, and later donated his collection of coins to the University of Oslo, see

72. It was reissued by Krause Publications, Inc., Iola, Wisconsin, in 1965, with a new introduction providing helpful information for collectors, written by Virgil Hancock of Bellaire, Texas.

73. Reviewed by Lockhart, J. H. S. in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 3 (1931), 677–78; by Yetts, W. P. in the Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 5.4 (1930), 936–38; and in T'oung Pao, 2nd series, 1/3 (1932), 238–39.

74. However, Yetts appears to have had a collection of Chinese coins and amulets, which he may have used for teaching purposes. I am grateful to Wang Tao 汪濤 for recalling that he had seen the collection in the Percival David Foundation, and to Stacey Pierson, John Robinson and Joanne Ichimura of SOAS for their help in trying to locate them. The PDF archives are currently not accessible, and I have not been able to check the contents of this collection.

75. Fisher, George A., Fisher's Ding (Littleton, Colorado: self-published, 1990). Xinwei, Peng, A Monetary History of China, trans. Kaplan, E. H. (Bellingham: Western Washington University, 1993).

76. See Joseph Edmund Cribb, Curriculum Vitae,” in Felicitas. Essays in Numismatics, Epigraphy and History in Honour of Joe Cribb, ed. Bhandare, Shailendra and Garg, Sanjay (Mumbai: Reesha Books, 2011), 923 ; Burnett, Andrew, “Joe Cribb: a Eulo-joe-y,” in Bhandare, and Garg, , Felicitas, 2527 ; Errington, Elizabeth and Wang, Helen, “Joe Cribb—expert, colleague, friend,” Gandharan Studies 4 (2010), 19 . These publications were prepared to mark Joe's retirement.

77. Mitchiner, M., Oriental Coins and Their Values, Vol. II: The Ancient and Classical World (London: Hawkins Publications, 1978), see China on 669–99; and Vol. III: Non-Islamic States and Western Colonies (1979), see China on 441–545.

78. Burger, W., Ch'ing Cash until 1735 (Taipei: Mei Ya Publications, 1976). Hartill, David, Qing Cash, Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication 37 (London, 2003).

79. For example, Ivochkina, N.V., Vozniknovenie bumazhno-denezhnogo obrashcheniῖa v Kitae : ėpokhi Tan i Sun / Beginning of circulation of paper money in China (Moscow: Nauka, 1990). Zeymal, E.V., “Eastern (Chinese) Turkestan on the Silk Road—First Millennium AD Numismatic Evidence,” Silk Road Art and Archaeology 2 (1992), 127–77.

80. These include Thierry, F., Monnaies chinoises I: L'antiquité préimpériale (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1997); Monnaies chinoises II: des Qin aux Cinq Dynasties (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2003).

81. The project title is “Monies, Markets and Finance in China and East Asia 1600–1900”; see

82. Hartill, D., Cast Chinese Coins. A Historical Catalogue (Victoria BC: Trafford Publishing, 2005).

83. For two excellent examples, see Cribb's, JoeThe Sino-Kharoshthi coins of Khotan–their attribution and relevance to Kushan chronology (Part 1),” Numismatic Chronicle 144 (1984), 128–52; and (Part 2), Numismatic Chronicle, 145 (1985), 136–49; and Thierry's, François Amulettes de Chine (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, 2008).

84. Hong Zun (1120–74), Song dynasty numismatist.

85. Lyce Jankowski has made this the subject of her M.A. and Ph.D.: L'age d'or de la numismatique chinoise: l'exemple du Guquanhui de Li Zuoxian” (M.A. thesis, Université Paris-Sorbonne, 2006 ; this was also the title of the paper she presented at the International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow, 31 August–4 September 2009); Les cercles de collectionneurs et de numismates dans la région de Pékin durant la première moitié du XIXe siècle: échanges des monnaies anciennes, partage des idées et renouveau des études numismatiques” (title of Ph.D. thesis, Université Paris Sorbonne, in progress).

86. This was the predecessor of the National Library of China.

87. The manuscript and the diary Lu Xun kept during his research on coins have been published as Yanzhi, Tu 屠燕治, ed., Lu Xun Quanzhi shougao tushi 魯迅泉志手稿圖釋 (Hong Kong: Zhongguo wenhua yishu, 2011), not seen, but reported in Zhang Le 張樂, “Lu Xun Quanzhi shougao chuban zhanshi Lu Xun qianbi yanjiu gongxian” 魯迅泉志手稿出版展示魯迅錢幣研究貢獻, on (accessed 27.02.2012).

88. Zhongguo quanbi xueshe lihui jilu 中國泉幣學社例會紀錄 (Shanghai: Shanghai shuhua chubanshe, 1993). As it is difficult to find this information in a compact form elsewhere, I have compiled a list of all the people who attended at least one of the Society's meetings (as recorded in the Minutes): Bao Ju'ang 鮑駒昂, Bao Weimin 包偉民, J. R. Bossuet, Cai Jixiang 蔡季襄, Chen Liangsheng 陳亮聲, Chen Nanqin 陳南琴, Chen Rentao 陳仁濤, Chen Rongkang 陳榮康, Chen Xundu 陳洵都, Chen Zhichuan 陳志川, Cheng Yuncen 程雲岑, Cheng Zongjin 程宗進, Dai Baoting 戴葆庭, Dai Baoxiang 戴葆湘, Dai Zhijun 戴志鈞, Ding Fubao 丁福保, Dong Yongquan 董永權, Du Hannan 杜漢南, Du Jiamao 杜家懋, Fang Liang 房良 (and his new wife), Fang Zhongdao 房中道, F. A. Frisk, Gu Bingyuan 顧炳元 (and his wife), Gu Jingyan 顧景炎, Guo Baoshan 郭保善, Guo Zhifang 郭植芳, Hu Juyu 胡聚玉, Hu Rangquan 胡讓泉, Hua Runquan 華潤泉, Jiang Baoli 蔣保釐, Jin Congyi 金從怡, Jin Wuzhou 金武周, Kan En 闞恩, Kang Jiwen 康際文, Kang Jiwu 康際武, Eduard Kann, Kun Zhong 昆仲, Li Qingyu 李慶裕, Li Shuying 李樹英, Li Yunqing 李韻清, Liu Nianren 劉念仁, Liu Siyuan 劉思源, Lü Chongxi 呂崇禧, Lu Xinbu 魯心卜, Luo Bozhao 羅伯昭, Mao Dingcheng 毛鼎丞, Louis Piendivalla, Ping Yulin 平玉麟, A. B. Pogrebetzky-Menezes (also known as Po), Qian Yajie 錢亞傑, Qiao Xin 喬梓, Qin Kangxiang 秦康祥, Qin Ziwei 秦子幃, Mr. Robert, Shen Yongrui 沈永瑞, Shen Zicha 沈子槎, Shi Xiaoxian 施孝先, Song Xiaopo 宋小坡, Tang Dihua 唐棣華, Tao Tingyao 陶庭耀 (also known as Tao Juyin 陶菊隱), Tao Xinru 陶心如, Wang Hongyuan 王鴻源, Wang Hongyuan 王宏元, Wang Xiamin 王俠民, Wang Jianxun 王建訓, Wang Jianyu 王健與, Wang Junfu 王君復, Wang Junlin 王俊林, Wang Shouqian 王守謙, Wang Shuhe 王叔和, Wang Yimin 王逸民, Wang Yinjia 王蔭嘉,Weng Cangfu 翁滄父, Wu Guangyuan 吳廣源, Wu Shijin 吳詩錦, Xi Xianwei 席先偉, Xu Aifang 徐愛芳, Xu Jiliang 徐季良, Xu Lingyun 徐淩雲, Xu Xiaohe 許小鶴, Xue Fuzhong 薛福中, Yang Chengqi 楊成麒, Yang Dianzhang 楊典章, Yang Tingkang 楊廷康, Yi Jincen 伊近岑, Yi Yuanzhao 伊遠昭, Yu Chengzhi 俞誠之, Yu Zanyi 俞簪一, Zhang Jiliang 張季量, Zhang Jiongbo 張絅伯, Zhang Jiuru 張九如, Zhang Laiyuan 張賚源, Zhang Xinchen 張新陳, Zhang Wenbao 張文寳, Zhang Weiyu 張渭漁 (also known as Zhang Huang 張璜), Zhang Xinyu 張欣漁, Zhang Yicheng 張翼成, Zhang Ziyuan 張子遠, Zhao Quanzhi 趙權之, Zheng Jiaxiang 鄭家相, Zhou Heqing 周禾慶, Zhu Bingjun 朱秉鈞, Zhu Wenshu 諸文叔, Zhu Zhaoxian 朱兆賢, Zhuge Yunsheng 諸葛韻笙.

89. Also known as Ding Zhonghu 丁仲祜 / Ding Zhonggu 丁仲估.

90. Also known as Zhurenweng 主人翁.

91. Ma Dingxiang 馬定祥 (Treasurer) (1916–91) was one of the youngest of the founding members of the Society. Much of his own work was lost or damaged during the Cultural Revolution, but he managed to hold on to many documents of the China Numismatic Society, such as the Minutes Book.

92. Also known as Zhuge Yuansheng 諸葛源生.

93. Also known as Zhang Guoyuan 張果園.

94. Also known as Zheng Jiaxiang 鄭葭湘.

95. Zhongguo quanbi xueshe lihui jilu 中國泉幣學社例會紀錄 (Shanghai: Shanghai shuhua chubanshe, 1993).

96. Peng Xinwei, Zhongguo huobi shi, first edition 1954, second edition 1958, third edition 1965. The English translation, by Edward H. Kaplan, is based on the third edition: A Monetary History of China (Center for East Asian Studies, Western Washington University, 1994).

97. For the early history of this Society see xuehui, Zhongguo qianbi 中國錢幣學會, ed., Zhongguo qianbi xuehui chengli shi zhounian 中國錢幣學會成立十周年 (Beijing: Zhongguo jinrong, 1992).

98. The International Numismatic Congresses are organized by the International Numismatic Council, see (accessed 28 February 2012). ICOMON is a committee of ICOM (International Council of Museums) (accessed 28 February 2012).

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