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The unity, diversity and conformity of bugs (Hemiptera) through time

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 January 2018

Jacek Szwedo*
Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Parasitology, University of Gdańsk, 59, Wita Stwosza Street, PL80-308 Gdańsk, Poland. Email:


This paper outlines and discusses the fossil record of the Hemiptera – the fifth most diverse insect order. The diversity of these insects in comparison with the “Big Four” group is given, together with a short history of its classification. Updated information is presented about the fossil record of particular families, with a brief analysis. The main evolutionary traits of the major Hemiptera lineages are briefly described. The influence of biotic interactions with endosymbionts, shaping the evolution of the hemipterans as well as abiotic events and major global changes, is disputed. The innovations and perils of the evolutionary history of the Hemiptera are presented.

Copyright © The Royal Society of Edinburgh 2018 

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