The Silurian arthropod Bembicosoma pomphicus Laurie, 1899 is re-studied in relation to other Palaeozoic chelicerate taxa. All three known specimens of Bembicosoma originate from the Silurian (late Llandovery) Eurypterid Bed of the Gutterford Burn Flagstones, Reservoir Formation, Pentland Hills, Scotland. Bembicosoma is removed from its previous tentative assignment to Eurypterida and re-assigned to Xiphosura. A morphological reconstruction of this taxon is presented for the first time. This work continues a reappraisal of the systematics of a number of taxa that belong within the synziphosurines, a loose grouping of early Palaeozoic chelicerate arthropods aligned with the Xiphosura (horseshoe crabs), but which have been mistakenly identified as eurypterids in the past. Bembicosoma is significant as it is one of the earliest known synziphosurines.
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