Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

How can we be sure fracking will not pollute aquifers? Lessons from a major longwall coal mining analogue (Selby, Yorkshire, UK)

  • Paul L. Younger (a1)
Abstract
ABSTRACT

Development of shale gas by hydraulic fracturing (‘fracking’) is opposed by campaigners who propose (inter alia) that freshwater aquifers could be polluted by upward migration of fractures and any fluids they contain. Prima facie hydrogeological analysis of this proposition has been undertaken. For it to occur, two conditions must be satisfied: (i)

sufficient hydraulic interconnection (i.e., a continuous permeable pathway); and

(ii)

a sustained driving head, oriented upwards.

With regard to (i), shale gas developers have a major vested interest in avoiding creating such hydraulic connection, as it would result in uneconomically excessive amounts of water needing to be pumped from their wells to achieve gas production. In relation to (ii), nominal upward hydraulic gradients will typically only be developed during fracking for periods of a few hours, which is far too brief to achieve solute transport over vertical intervals of one or more kilometres; thereafter, depressurisation of wells to allow gas to flow will result in downward hydraulic gradients being maintained for many years. The proposition is therefore found to be unsupportable. Albeit for contrasting motivations, developers and environmental guardians turn out to have a strong common interest in avoiding inter-connection to aquifers.

A powerful illustration of the potential long-term effects of fracking is provided by the hydrogeological history of underground coal mining in the UK. Where large-scale mining proceeded from the surface downwards, major hydraulic inter-connection of shallow and deep zones resulted in widespread water pollution. However, where new mines were developed at depth without connections to shallow old workings (as in the Selby Coalfield, Yorkshire), complete hydraulic isolation from the near-surface hydrogeological environment was successfully maintained. This was despite far greater stratal disruption and induced seismicity than shale gas fracking could ever produce. The lesson is clear: without hydrogeological connectivity to shallow aquifers, shale gas fracking per se cannot contaminate shallow ground water.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      How can we be sure fracking will not pollute aquifers? Lessons from a major longwall coal mining analogue (Selby, Yorkshire, UK)
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      How can we be sure fracking will not pollute aquifers? Lessons from a major longwall coal mining analogue (Selby, Yorkshire, UK)
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      How can we be sure fracking will not pollute aquifers? Lessons from a major longwall coal mining analogue (Selby, Yorkshire, UK)
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
Hide All
Adams R. & Younger P. L. 2001. A strategy for modeling ground water rebound in abandoned deep mine systems. Ground Water 39, 249–61.
Aldrick R. J. 1978. The hydrogeology of the Magnesian Limestones in Yorkshire between the River Wharfe and the River Aire. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology 11, 193201. (doi:10.1144/GSL.QJEG.1978.011.02.07)
Almond S., Clancy S. A., Davies R. J. & Worrall F. 2014. The flux of radionuclides in flowback fluid from shale gas exploitation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21, 12316–24. (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3118-y).
Anderson W. 1945. On the Chloride Waters of Great Britain. Geological Magazine 82, 267–74.
Andrews I. J. 2013. The Carboniferous Bowland Shale gas study: geology and resource estimation. London: British Geological Survey for Department of Energy and Climate Change. 56 pp.
Auld F. A. 1989. High-strength, superior durability, concrete shaft linings. In Institution of Mining and Metallurgy (eds) Shaft Engineering, 3343. [Proceedings of the Conference on Shaft Engineering, organised by the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy in association with the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Institution of Mining Engineers, held in Harrogate, England, 5–7 June 1989.] London: Taylor & Francis.
Banks D., Younger P. L. & Dumpleton S. 1996. The historical use of mine-drainage and pyrite-oxidation waters in central and eastern England, United Kingdom. Hydrogeology Journal 4, 5568.
Bear J. & Cheng A. H. -D. 2010. Modeling groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. 834 pp. (doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6682-5).
Bičer N. 1987. The inflow of water into mine workings. PhD Thesis, Department of Mining Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.
Bond C. E., Roberts J., Hastings A., Shipton Z. K., João E. M., Tabyldy Kyzy J. & Stephenson M. 2014. Lifecycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from unconventional gas in Scotland. Edinburgh: ClimateXchange. 94 pp. (http://www.climatexchange.org.uk/reducing-emissions/life-cycle-assessment-ghg-emissions-unconventional-gas1/; last accessed 22-6-2015).
Booth C. J. 2002. The effects of longwall coal mining on overlying aquifers. In Younger P. L. (ed.) Mine Water Hydrogeology and Geochemistry. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 198, 1745. 396 pp. (doi: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2002.198.01.02)
Bottrell S. H., West L. J. & Yoshida K. 2006. Combined isotopic and modelling approach to determining the source of saline groundwaters in the Selby Triassic sandstone aquifer, UK. In Barker R. D. & Tellam J. H. (eds) Fluid Flow and Solute Movement in Sandstones: The Onshore UK Permo–Triassic Red Bed Sequence. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 263, 325–38. 346 pp. (doi: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2006.263.01.19)
Boudet H., Clarke C., Bugden D., Maibach E., Roser-Renouf C. & Leiserowitz A. 2014. “Fracking” controversy and communication: Using national survey data to understand public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing. Energy Policy 65, 5767. (doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.017).
Bremner D. 1869. Industries of Scotland: their rise, progress and present condition. Edinburgh: A & C Black. 558 pp.
British Coal Corporation. 1997. Three-dimensional seismic surveying to investigate the geological structure of shear zones within the Selby coalfield. European Union, Directorate-General Energy, Report EUR 17161 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 122 pp.
British Geological Survey. 2015. Aquifers and shales. (Digital resource of maps, background information and data. Available only on-line at: www.bgs.ac.uk/research/groundwater/shaleGas/aquifersAndShales/home.html; last accessed 23-6-2015).
Broderick J., Anderson K., Wood R., Gilbert P., Sharmina M., Footitt A., Glynn S. & Nicholls F. 2011. Shale gas: an updated assessment of environmental and climate change impacts. A report commissioned by The Co-operative and undertaken by researchers at the Tyndall Centre, University of Manchester. 133 pp. (available on-line: http://www.co-operative.coop/Corporate/Fracking/Shale%20gas%20update%20-%20full%20report.pdf; last accessed 16-6-2015).
Brown L. & Taylor A. 2006. Selby Groundwater Model - Final Study Report. Report prepared by ESI Ltd for the Environment Agency, Leeds. Report no. 6353R4D1. 31 pp, plus separate volume of Figures.
Carter K. M., Kresic N., Muller P. & Vittorio L. F. 2013. Technical rebuttal to article claiming a link between hydraulic fracturing and groundwater contamination. Camp Hill, PA: Pennsylvania Council of Professional Geologists and the Pennsylvania Geological Survey. 13 pp. (https://pcpg.wildapricot.org/Resources/Documents/Shale%20Gas/PAGS%20PCPG%20Rebuttal%20to%20Frac%20Induced%20GW%20Contamination%20Article%201.pdf; last accessed 30-6-2015)
Cobbing J. & Ó Dochartaigh B. É. 2007. Hydrofracturing water boreholes in hard rock aquifers in Scotland. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 40, 181–86. (doi:10.1144/1470-9236/06-018)
Cotton M., Rattle I. & Van Alstine J. 2014. Shale gas policy in the United Kingdom: An argumentative discourse analysis. Energy Policy 73, 427–38. (doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2014.05.031)
Davies R. J., Mathias S. A., Moss J., Hustoft S. & Newport L. 2012. Hydraulic fractures: How far can they go? Marine and Petroleum Geology 37, 16. (doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2012.04.001).
Davies R. J., Mathias S. A., Moss J., Hustoft S. & Newport L. 2013. Reply: Davies et al. (2012), Hydraulic fractures: How far can they go? Marine and Petroleum Geology 43, 519–21. (doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2013.02.001)
Davies R. J., Almond S., Ward R. S., Jackson R. B., Adams C., Worrall F., Herringshaw L. G., Gluyas J. G. & Whitehead M. A. 2014. Oil and gas wells and their integrity: implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation. Marine and Petroleum Geology 56, 239–54. (doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2014.03.001)
Dumpleton S. 2002. Effects of longwall mining in the Selby Coalfield on the piezometry and aquifer properties of the overlying Sherwood Sandstone. In Younger P. L. (ed.) Mine Water Hydrogeology and Geochemistry. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 198, 7588. 396 pp. (doi: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2002.198.01.05)
Eaton W. M. & Massey C. T. 1984. The Selby coalfield – a new concept for an old industry. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 198A(13), 241–56.
Edmunds W. M., Robins N. S. & Shand P. 1998. The saline waters of Llandrindod and Builth, Central Wales. Journal of the Geological Society, London 155, 627–37.
Edwards J. B. 1984. The effect of large-scale structures on the stability of coal-face steering. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 198A(1), 2940.
Elliot T. & Younger P. L. 2007. Hydrochemical and isotopic tracing of mixing dynamics and water quality evolution under pumping conditions in the mine shaft of the abandoned Frances Colliery, Scotland. Applied Geochemistry 22, 2834–60. (doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2007.07.007)
Ellis J., Mannino I., Johnston J., Felix M. E. J., Younger P. L. & Vaughan A. P. M. 2014. Shiremoor Geothermal Heat Project: reducing uncertainty around fault geometry and permeability using Move™ for structural model building and stress analysis. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2014. Vienna, 27 April–2 May 2014.] Paper EGU2014-15069.
Environment Agency. 2012. Good practice for decommissioning redundant boreholes and wells. Document LIT 6478/657_12. Bristol: Environment Agency (England & Wales). 8 pp. (Available online at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140328084622/http:/cdn.environment-agency.gov.uk/LIT_6478_8cbe6f.pdf; last accessed 16-1-2016).
Faulkner D. R., Jackson C. A. L., Lunn R. J., Schlische R. W., Shipton Z. K., Wibberley C. A. J. & Withjack M. O. 2010. A review of recent developments concerning the structure, mechanics and fluid flow properties of fault zones. Journal of Structural Geology 32, 1557–75. (doi: 10.1016/j.jsg.2010.06.009)
Faure G. 1998. Principles and applications of geochemistry. (2nd edition). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 600 pp.
Ferguson C. C. 1999. Assessing risks from contaminated sites: policy and practice in 16 European countries. Land Contamination and Reclamation 7, 87108.
Fisher K. & Warpinski N. 2012. Hydraulic-fracture-height growth: real data. Society of Petroleum Engineers Production & Operations 27(1), 819. (Paper SPE 145949).
Flewelling S. A. & Sharma M. 2014. Constraints on upward migration of hydraulic fracturing fluid and brine. Groundwater 52, 919. (doi: 10.1111/gwat.12095)
Ford J. R., Cooper A. H., Price S. J., Gibson A. D., Pharaoh T. C. & Kessler H. 2008. Geology of the Selby district – a brief explanation of the geological map. Sheet Explanation of the British Geological Survey, 1:50,000 Sheet 71 Selby (England and Wales). 34 pp.
Fritzsche C. H. & Potts E. L. J. 1954. Horizon Mining. London: Allen & Unwin. 614 pp.
Greenberg M. R. 2014. Energy policy and research: the underappreciation of trust. Energy Research & Social Science 1, 152–60. (doi: 10.1016/j.erss.2014.02.004)
Haunch S., MacDonald A. M., Brown N. & McDermott C. I. 2013. Flow dependent water quality impacts of historic coal and oil shale mining in the Almond River catchment, Scotland. Applied Geochemistry 39, 156–68. (doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.06.001)
Headworth H. G., Puri S. & Rampling B. H. 1980. Contamination of a Chalk aquifer by mine drainage at Tilmanstone, East Kent, UK. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 13, 105–17. (doi:10.1144/GSL.QJEG.1980.013.02.05)
Howell R., Shackley S., Mabon L., Ashworth P. & Jeanneret T. 2014. Engaging the public with low-carbon energy technologies: Results from a Scottish large group process. Energy Policy 66, 496506. (doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.11.041).
Hutchinson M. T. & Daw G. P. 1989. Combined grouting and depressurizing for water control during shaft sinking. In Institution of Mining and Metallurgy (eds) Shaft Engineering 228–37. [Proceedings of the Conference on Shaft Engineering, organised by the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy in association with the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Institution of Mining Engineers, held in Harrogate, England, 5–7 June 1989.] London: Taylor & Francis.
Jackson R. E., Gorody A. W., Mayer B., Roy J. W., Ryan M. C., Van Stempvoort D. R., Kasperson R. E. & Renn O. 2013. Groundwater protection and unconventional gas extraction: the critical need for field-based hydrogeological research. Ground Water 51, 488510. (doi: 10.1111/gwat.12074)
Jardine C. N., Boardman B., Osman A., Vowles J. & Palmer J. 2009. Chapter 8: Coal Mine Methane. In Jardine C. N., Boardman B., Osman A., Vowles J. & Palmer J. (eds) Methane UK, 6471. University of Oxford: Environmental Change Institute. 96 pp. [Available on-line at: http://tinyurl.com/lcryduw; last accessed 19-8-2013.]
Kasperson R. E., Renn O., Slovic P., Brown H., Emel J., Goble R., Kasperson J. X. & Ratick S. 1988. Social amplification of risk: a conceptual framework. Risk Analysis 8, 177–87.
Kortas L. & Younger P. L. 2007. Using the GRAM model to reconstruct the important factors in historic groundwater rebound in part of the Durham coalfield, UK. Mine Water and the Environment 26 6069. (doi: 10.1007/s10230-007-0152-8)
Kortas L. & Younger P. L. 2013. Fracture patterns in the Permian Magnesian Limestone Aquifer, Co. Durham, UK. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 59, 161–71.
Lacazette A. & Geiser P. 2013. Comment on Davies et al. 2012 – Hydraulic fractures: how far can they go? Marine and Petroleum Geology 43, 516–18. (doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2012.12.008)
Lemon R. 1991. Pumping and disposal of deep strata mine water. Mining Technology March 1991, 6976.
MacKay D. & Stone T. 2013. Potential greenhouse gas emissions associated with shale gas production and use. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. 50 pp. (www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/237330/MacKay_Stone_shale_study_report_09092013.pdf; last accessed 22-6-2015].
Mair R., Bickle M., Goodman D., Koppelman B., Roberts J., Selley R., Shipton Z., Thomas H., Walker A., Woods E. & Younger P. L. 2012. Shale gas extraction in the UK: a review of hydraulic fracturing. London: Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering. 76 pp.
Manning D. A. C., Younger P. L., Smith F. W., Jones J. M., Dufton D. J. & Diskin S. 2007. A deep geothermal exploration well at Eastgate, Weardale, UK: a novel exploration concept for low-enthalpy resources. Journal of the Geological Society, London 164, 371–82. (doi: 10.1144/0016-76492006-015)
Masters C., Shipton Z., Gatliff R., Haszeldine R. S., Sorbie K., Stuart F., Waldron S., Younger P. L. & Curran J. 2014. Independent Expert Scientific Panel – Report on Unconventional Oil and Gas. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. 102 pp.
McInnes C. 2011. No time to abandon energy density. Ingenia 49, 1213.
McInnes C. 2013. Energy, entropy and the human enterprise. Address to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2nd December 2013. https://www.royalsoced.org.uk/cms/files/events/reports/2013-2014/Lord_Kelvin_Lecture_2013_Colin_McInnes.pdf
Monaghan A. A. 2014. The Carboniferous shales of the Midland Valley of Scotland: geology and resource estimation. London: British Geological Survey for Department of Energy and Climate Change. 96 pp.
Myers T. 2012. Potential contaminant pathways from hydraulically fractured shale to aquifers. Ground Water 50, 872–82. (doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00933.x)
NCB 1975. The Subsidence Engineers' Handbook. London: National Coal Board, Mining Department.
Neymeyer A., Williams R. T. & Younger P. L. 2007. Migration of polluted mine water in a public supply aquifer. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 40, 7584.
Nuttall C. A. & Younger P. L. 2004. Hydrochemical stratification in flooded underground mines: an overlooked pitfall. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 69, 101–14. (doi: 10.1016/S0169-7722(03)00152-9)
Ó Dochartaigh B. É., MacDonald A. M., Fitzsimons V. & Ward R. 2015. Scotland's aquifers and groundwater bodies. British Geological Survey Open Report OR/15/028. Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey. 76 pp.
Orchard R. J. 1975. Working under bodies of water. The Mining Engineer 170, 261–70.
Parker K. 2003. Mine water management on a national scale – experiences from the Coal Authority. Land Contamination and Reclamation 11, 181–90. (doi:10.2462/09670513.813)
Rechard R. P. 1999. Historical relationship between performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal and other types of risk assessment. Risk Analysis 19, 763807. (doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.1999.tb00446.x)
Robins N. S. 1990. Hydrogeology of Scotland. London: British Geological Survey / HMSO. 90 pp.
Royal Society of Edinburgh. 2015. Options for Scotland's gas future. Advice Paper BP15-01. Edinburgh: The Royal Society of Edinburgh. 20 pp.
Saiers J. E. & Barth E. 2012. Discussion of papers, comments on: ‘Potential contaminant pathways from hydraulically fractured shale to aquifers’ by T. Myers. Ground Water 50, 826–28.
Shand P., Tyler-Whittle R., Morton M., Simpson E., Lawrence A. R., Pacey J. & Hargreaves R. 2002. Baseline Report Series. 1: The Permo-Triassic Sandstones of the Vale of York. Environment Agency, National Groundwater & Contaminated Land Centre, Technical Report NC/99/74/1. British Geological Survey Commissioned Report No. CR/02/102N. Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey. 50 pp.
Shepley M. G., Whiteman M. I., Hulme P. J. & Grout M. W. 2012. Groundwater Resources Modelling: A Case Study from the UK. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 364. 378 pp.
Sherwood J. M. & Younger P. L. 1997. Modelling groundwater rebound after coalfield closure. In Chilton P. J. et al. (eds) Groundwater in the urban environment, Volume 1: Problems, processes and management, 165–70. [Proceedings of the XXVII Congress of the International Association of Hydrogeologists, Nottingham, UK, 21–27 September 1997] Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.
Singh R. N. 1986. Mine water inundations. International Journal of Mine Water 5, 128.
Singh R. N. & Atkins A. S. 1983. Design considerations for mine workings under accumulations of water. International Journal of Mine Water 4, 3556.
Slovic P. 1993. Perceived risk, trust and democracy. Risk Analysis 13, 675–82. (doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.1993.tb01329.x)
Smith R. A., Bide T., Hyslop E. K., Smith N. J. P., Coleman T. & McMillan A. A. 2008. Mineral Resource map for Inverclyde, West Dunbartonshire, East Dunbartonshire, Refrewshire, East Renfrewshire, North Lanarkshire, South Lanarkshire and City of Glasgow. British Geological Survey Map OR/08/15.
Smythe D. K. 2014a. Precognition by Professor David K Smythe on behalf of Concerned Communities of Falkirk (and supporters). Town and Country Planning (Appeals) (Scotland) Regulations 2013. Appeal Under Section 47(2) of the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997 by Dart Energy (Forth Valley) Ltd, concerning coal bed methane production, including drilling, well site establishment at 14 locations and associated infrastructure at Letham Moss, Falkirk and Powdrake Road, near Airth, Plean (References PPA 240 2032 and PPA 390 2029). Document submitted to Lancashire County Council. 36 pp.
Smythe D. K. 2014b. Planning application no. LCC/2014/0096 by Cuadrilla Bowland Limited to drill at Preston New Road, Lancashire: Objection on grounds of geology and hydrogeology. Document submitted to Lancashire County Council. 42 pp.
Smythe D. K. 2014c. Planning application no. LCC/2014/0101 by Cuadrilla Bowland Limited to drill at Roseacre Wood, Lancashire: Objection on grounds of geology and hydrogeology. Document submitted to Lancashire County Council. 47 pp.
Stamford L. & Azapagic A. 2014. Life cycle environmental impacts of UK shale gas. Applied Energy 134, 506–18. (doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.08.063)
Sudicky E. A., Illman W. A., Goltz I. K., Adams J. J. & McLaren R. G. 2010. Heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity and its role on the macroscale transport of a solute plume: from measurements to a practical application of stochastic flow and transport theory. Water Resources Research 46, W01508. 16 pp. (doi:10.1029/2008WR007558)
Swartjes F. A. 1999. Risk-based assessment of soil and groundwater quality in the Netherlands: standards and remediation urgency. Risk Analysis 19, 1235–49. (doi: 10.1023/A:1007003332488)
Thorogood J. L. & Younger P. L. 2015. Discussion of “Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation” by R. J. Davies, S. Almond, R. S., Ward, R. B. Jackson, C. Adams, F. Worrall, L. G. Herringshaw, J. G. Gluyas & M. A. Whitehead. [Marine and Petroleum Geology 56, 239–54, 2014]. Marine and Petroleum Geology 59, 671–73. (doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2014.07.011)
UK Government. 1995. The Borehole Sites and Operations Regulations 1995. Statutory Instrument No. 2038 (Health and Safety). London: Government of the United Kingdom. 11 pp. (Available online at: www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1995/2038/contents/made; last accessed 16-2-1016).
UKTAG. 2012. Defining and reporting on groundwater bodies. UK Technical Advisory Group on the Water Framework Directive. (Published on-line: www.wfduk.org/sites/default/files/Media/Characterisation%20of%20the%20water%20environment/Defining%20Reporting%20on%20Groundwater%20Bodies_Final_300312.pdf; last accessed 25-6-2015).
Warren E. A. & Smalley P. C. 1994. North Sea Formation Water Atlas. Geological Society, London, Memoir 15. 208 pp.
Watson S. J., Burgess W. G. & Barker J. A. 2012. Re-evaluating dual-porosity effects at the site of a seminal groundwater modelling study: Tilmanstone, southern England. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 364, 227–48. 378 pp. (doi:10.1144/SP364.15)
Westaway R. & Younger P. L. 2014. Quantification of potential macroseismic effects of the induced seismicity that might result from hydraulic fracturing for shale gas exploitation in the UK. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 47, 333–50. (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/qjegh2014-011)
Westaway R., Younger P. L. & Cornelius C. 2015. Comment on “Life cycle environmental impacts of UK shale gas” by L. Stamford and A. Azapagic [Applied Energy 134, 506–18]. Applied Energy 148, 489–95. (doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.03.008)
Wood S. C., Younger P. L. & Robins N. S. 1999. Long-term changes in the quality of polluted mine water discharges from abandoned underground coal workings in Scotland. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology 32, 6979. (doi: 10.1144/GSL.QJEG.1999.032.P1.05)
Wyatt L., Watson I., & Sawyer T. 2011. 15 years of mine water analysis and developments in monitoring of abandoned coal mines in the United Kingdom. In Rüde T. R., Freund A. & Wolkersdorfer C. (eds) Mine Water – Managing the Challenges, 645–48. [Proceedings of the International Mine Water Association Congress, Aachen, Germany, Sept 4–11, 2011.]
Yang Y. & Aplin A. C. 2007. Permeability and petrophysical properties of 30 natural mudstones. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, B03206. (doi:10.1029/2005JB004243)
Younger P. L. 1993. Simple generalised methods for estimating aquifer storage parameters. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology 26, 127–35.
Younger P. L. 1998. Coalfield abandonment: geochemical processes and hydrochemical products. In Nicholson K. Energy and the Environment. Geochemistry of Fossil, Nuclear and Renewable Resources, 129. Aberdeen: McGregor Science (Society for Environmental Geochemistry and Health).
Younger P. L. 2000. Predicting temporal changes in total iron concentrations in groundwaters flowing from abandoned deep mines: a first approximation. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 44, 4769. (doi: 10.1016/S0169-7722(00)00090-5)
Younger P. L. 2001. Mine water pollution in Scotland: nature, extent and preventative strategies. Science of the Total Environment 265, 309–26. (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00673-2)
Younger P. L. 2004a. Acidic leachate, limestone goaf: hydrogeochemical observations and predictions for remediation planning at Blenkinsopp colliery, Northumberland, UK. In Yong R. N. & Thomas H. R. (eds) Geoenvironmental Engineering: Integrated management of groundwater and contaminated land, 367–74. London: Thomas Telford Publishing.
Younger P. L. 2004b. Environmental impacts of coal mining and associated wastes: a geochemical perspective. In Gieré R. & Stille P. (eds) Energy, Waste and the Environment: a Geochemical Perspective. Geological Society, London. Special Publications 236, 169209. 670 pp. (doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2004.236.01.12)
Younger P. L. 2004c. “Making water”: the hydrogeological adventures of Britain's early mining engineers. In Mather J. D. (ed.) 200 years of British hydrogeology. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 225, 121–57. 394 pp.
Younger P. L. 2005. Westfield pit lake, Fife (Scotland): the evolution and current hydrogeological dynamics of Europe's largest bituminous coal pit lake. In Loredo J. & Pendás F. (eds) Mine Water 2005 – Mine Closure. Proceedings of the 9th Congress of the International Mine Water Association, 281–87. (Oviedo, 5–7 September 2005.) Oviedo, Spain: University of Oviedo.
Younger P. L. 2007. Groundwater in the environment: an introduction. Oxford: Blackwell. 318 pp.
Younger P. L. 2010. Where there is no pH meter: estimating the acidity of mine waters by visual inspection. In Wolkersdorfer C. & Freund A. (eds) Mine Water and Innovative Thinking. Proceedings of the Symposium of the International Mine Water Association, Sydney, Nova Scotia, 407–10.
Younger P. L. 2011. Hydrogeological and geomechanical aspects of underground coal gasification and its direct coupling to carbon capture and storage. Mine Water & the Environment 30, 127–40. (doi 10.1007/s10230-011-0145-5)
Younger P. L. 2012. Crouching enemy, hidden ally: the decisive role of groundwater discharge features in two major British battles, Flodden 1513 and Prestonpans 1745. In Rose E. P. F. & Mather J. D. (eds) Military Aspects of Hydrogeology. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 362, 1933. 374 pp. (doi: 10.1144/SP362.2).
Younger P. L. 2014a. Energy: All That Matters. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 9781473601888. 150 pp.
Younger P. L. 2014b. Hydrogeological challenges in a low-carbon economy. (The 22nd Ineson Lecture). Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 47(1), 727. (doi 10.1144/qjegh2013-063)
Younger P. L. 2015. Why strangle at birth this exciting new fuel source? The Times (Scottish edition) issue number 71423, 4th Feb 2015. p. 7.
Younger P. L. Banwart S. A. & Hedin R. S. 2002. Mine Water: Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 464 pp.
Younger P. L., Jenkins D. A., Rees S. B., Robinson J., Jarvis A. P., Ralph J., Johnston D. N. & Coulton R. H. 2004. Mine waters in Wales: pollution, risk management and remediation. In Nichol D., Bassett M. G. & Deisler V. K. (eds) Urban Geology in Wales. National Museums and Galleries of Wales Geological Series 23, 138–54. Cardiff: National Museums and Galleries of Wales.
Younger P. L., Coulton R. H. & Froggatt E. C. 2005. The contribution of science to risk-based decision making: lessons from the development of full-scale treatment measures for acidic mine waters at Wheal Jane, UK. Science of the Total Environment 338, 137–54. (doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.09.014)
Younger P. L., Boyce A. J. & Waring A. J. 2015. Chloride waters of Great Britain revisited: from subsea formation waters to onshore geothermal fluids. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 126, 453–65.
Younger P. L. & Adams R. 1999. Predicting Mine Water Rebound. Environment Agency R&D Technical Report W179. Bristol: Environment Agency. 108 pp.
Younger P. L. & Henderson R. 2014. Synergistic wetland treatment of sewage and mine water: Pollutant removal performance of the first full-scale system. Water Research 55, 7482. (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.02.024)
Younger P. L. & Robins N. S. (eds). 2002. Mine Water Hydrogeology and Geochemistry. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 198. 396 pp.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh
  • ISSN: 1755-6910
  • EISSN: 1755-6929
  • URL: /core/journals/earth-and-environmental-science-transactions-of-royal-society-of-edinburgh
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 130
Total number of PDF views: 501 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 532 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.