Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

I- and S-type granites in the Lachlan Fold Belt

  • B. W. Chappell (a1) and A. J. R. White

Abstract

Granites and related volcanic rocks of the Lachlan Fold Belt can be grouped into suites using chemical and petrographic data. The distinctive characteristics of suites reflect source-rock features. The first-order subdivision within the suites is between those derived from igneous and from sedimentary source rocks, the I- and S-types. Differences between the two types of source rocks and their derived granites are due to the sedimentary source material having been previously weathered at the Earth's surface. Chemically, the S-type granites are lower in Na, Ca, Sr and Fe3+/Fe2+, and higher in Cr and Ni. As a consequence, the S-types are always peraluminous and contain Al-rich minerals. A little over 50% of the I-type granites are metaluminous and these more mafic rocks contain hornblende. In the absence of associated mafic rocks, the more felsic and slightly peraluminous I-type granites may be difficult to distinguish from felsic S-type granites. This overlap in composition is to be expected and results from the restricted chemical composition of the lowest temperature felsic melts. The compositions of more mafic I- and S-type granites diverge, as a result of the incorporation of more mafic components from the source, either as restite or a component of higher temperature melt. There is no overlap in composition between the most mafic I- and S-type granites, whose compositions are closest to those of their respective source rocks. Likewise, the enclaves present in the more mafic granites have compositions reflecting those of their host rocks, and probably in most cases, the source rocks.

S-type granites have higher δ18O values and more evolved Sr and Nd isotopic compositions, although the radiogenic isotope compositions overlap with I-types. Although the isotopic compositions lie close to a mixing curve, it is thought that the amount of mixing in the source rocks was restricted, and occurred prior to partial melting. I-type granites are thought to have been derived from deep crust formed by underplating and thus are infracrustal, in contrast to the supracrustal S-type source rocks.

Crystallisation of feldspars from felsic granite melts leads to distinctive changes in the trace element compositions of more evolved I- and S-type granites. Most notably, P increases in abundance with fractionation of crystals from the more strongly peraluminous S-type felsic melts, while it decreases in abundance in the analogous, but weakly peraluminous, I-type melts.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Avila-Salinas, W. A. 1990. Tin-bearing granites from the Cordillera Real, Bolivia; a petrological and geochemical review. GEOL SOC AMERICA SPEC PAP 241, 145–59.
Baker, G. 1940. Cordierite granite from Terip Terip, Victoria. AM MINERAL 25, 543548.
Ball, C. W., Dallwitz, W. B. & Noakes, L. C. 1948. Geological reconnaissance of the proposed hydro-electric works in Kosciusko area between Waste Point and Khancoban. REC BMR GEOL GEOPHYS 1948/7.
Barbarin, B. 1990. Granitoids: main petrogenetic classifications in relation to origin and tectonic setting. GEOL J 25, 227–38.
Bateman, P. C., Clark, L. D., Huber, N. K., Moore, J. G. & Rinehart, C. D. 1963. The Sierra Nevada Batholith: a synthesis of recent work across the central part. US GEOL SURV PROF PAP 414D.
Blevin, P. L. & Chappell, B. W. 1992. Some controls on granite metallogeny: an eastern Australian perspective. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH EARTH SCI 83, 305–16.
Browne, W. R. 1929. An outline of the history of igneous activity in New South Wales till the close of the Palaeozoic Era. PROC LINN SOC NSW 54, 934.
Browne, W. R. 1931. Notes on bathyliths and some of their implications. J R SOC NSW 65, 114–16.
Burnham, C. W. 1992. Calculated melt and restite compositions of some Australian granites. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH EARTH SCI 83, 387–97.
Champion, D. C. & Chappell, B. W. 1992. Petrogenesis of felsic I-type granites: an example from northern Queensland. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH EARTH SCI 83, 115–26.
Chappell, B. W. 1966. Petrogenesis of the granites at Moonbi, New South Wales. Unpublished PhD thesis, The Australian National University.
Chappell, B. W. 1978. Granitoids from the Moonbi district, New England Batholith, eastern Australia. J GEOL SOC AUST 25, 267–83.
Chappell, B. W. 1979. Granites as images of their source rocks. GEOL SOC AMERICA PROG ABST 11, 400.
Chappell, B. W. 1984. Source rocks of I- and S-type granites in the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia. PHILOS TRANS R SOC LONDON A310, 693707.
Chappell, B. W. & Hine, R. (in prep.) Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Cornubian Batholith.
Chappell, B. W. & McCulloch, M. T. 1990. Possible mixed source rocks in the Bega Batholith: constraints provided by combined chemical and isotopic studies. ICOG-7, ABST GEOL SOC AUST 27, 17.
Chappell, B. W. & Stephens, W. E. 1988. Origin of infracrustal (I-type) granite magmas. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH EARTH SCI 79, 7186.
Chappell, B. W. & White, A. J. R. 1974. Two contrasting granite types. PACIFIC GEOL 8, 173174.
Chappell, B. W. & White, A. J. R. 1976. Plutonic rocks of the Lachlan Mobile Zone. International Geological Congress 25, Field Guide Excursion 13C.
Chappell, B. W. & White, A. J. R. 1984. I- and S-type granites in the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia. In Keqin, Xu & Guangchi, Tu (eds) Geology of granites and their metallogenic relations, 87101. Beijing: Science Press.
Chappell, B. W. & White, A. J. R. 1991. Restite enclaves and the restite model. In Didier, J. & Barbarin, B. (eds) Enclaves and Granite Petrology, 375–81. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Chappell, B. W., White, A. J. R. & Wyborn, D. 1987. The importance of residual source material (restite) in granite petrogenesis. J PETROL 28, 1111–38.
Chappell, B. W., White, A. J. R. & Hine, R. 1988. Granite provinces and basement terranes in the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia. AUST J EARTH SCI 35, 505–21.
Chappell, B. W., Williams, I. S., White, A. J. R. & McCulloch, M. T., 1990. Granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt. ICOG 7 Field Guide Excursion A-2. REC BMR GEOL GEOPHYS 1990/48.
Chappell, B. W., English, P. M., King, P. L., White, A. J. R. & Wyborn, D. 1991. Granites and related rocks of the Lachlan Fold Belt (1:1 250 000 scale map). Canberra: BMR Geol. Geophys.
Chappell, B. W., Wyborn, L. A. I., White, A. J. R., Burnham, C. W. & Wyborn, D. (in prep.) S-type granites of the Wagga Basement Terrane: an example of compositional variation resulting from sequential restite fractionation, fractional crystallization and hydrothermal alteration.
Chen, Y. D., Price, R. C., White, A. J. R. & Chappell, B. W. 1990. Mafic inclusions from the Blue Gum and Glenbog granite suites, southern Australia. J GEOPHYS RES 95, 17757–85.
Chen, Y. D., Chappell, B. W. & White, A. J. R. 1991. Mafic enclaves of some I-type granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia. In Didier, J. & Barbarin, B. (eds), Enclaves and granite petrology, 113–24. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Clemens, J. D. & Wall, V. J. 1981. Crystallization and origin of some peraluminous (S-type) granite magmas. CAN MINERAL 19, 111–32.
Collins, W. J., Beams, S. D., White, A. J. R. & Chappell, B. W. 1982. Nature and origin of A-type granites with particular reference to south-eastern Australia. CONTRIB MINER PETROL 80, 189200.
Compston, W. & Chappell, B. W. 1979. Sr-isotope evolution of granitoid source rocks. In McElhinny, M. W. (ed.) The Earth: its origin, structure and evolution, 377426. London: Academic Press.
David, T. W. E. 1950. The Geology of the Commonwealth of Australia. London: Edward Arnold.
Evernden, J. F. & Richards, J. R. 1962. Potassium-argon dates in eastern Australia. J GEOL SOC AUST 9, 149.
Flood, R. H. & Shaw, S. E. 1975. A cordierite-bearing granite suite from the New England Batholith, Australia. CONTRIB MINER PETROL 52, 157–64.
Gray, C. M. 1984. An isotopic mixing model for the origin of granitic rocks in southeastern Australia. EARTH PLANET SCI LETT 70, 4760.
Gray, C. M. 1990. A strontium isotope traverse across the granitic rocks of southeastern Australia: petrogenetic and tectonic implications. AUST J EARTH SCI 37, 331–49.
Griffin, T. J., White, A. J. R. & Chappell, B. W. 1978. The Moruya Batholith and geochemical contrasts between the Moruya and Jindabyne Suites. J GEOL SOC AUST 25, 235–47.
Higgins, N. C. 1990. Comment on “Origin of alkali-feldspar granites: an example from the Poimena Granite, northeastern Tasmania, Australia”. GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM ACTA 54, 2305–11.
Hills, E. S. 1938. Andalusite and sillimanite in uncontaminated igneous rocks. GEOL MAG 75, 296303.
Hine, R. 1971. Granite studies of the Kosciusko Batholith. Unpublished BSc thesis, The Australian National University.
Hine, R., Williams, I. S., Chappell, B. W. & White, A. J. R. 1978. Contrasts between I- and S-type granitoids of the Kosciusko Batholith. J GEOL SOC AUST 25, 219–34.
Holloway, J. & Burnham, C. W. 1972. Melting relations of basalt with equilibrium water pressure less than total pressure. J PETROL 13, 129.
Hurley, P. M., Bateman, P. C., Fairbairn, H. W. & Pinson, W. H. 1965. Investigations of initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Sierra Nevada plutonic province. BULL GEOL SOC AM 76, 165–74.
Ishihara, S. 1977. The magnetite-series and ilmenite-series granitic rocks. MINING GEOL 27, 293305.
Joplin, G. A. 1942. Petrological studies in the Ordovician of N.S.W. I. The Cooma Complex. PROC LINN SOC NSW 67, 156–96.
Joplin, G. A. 1962. An apparent magmatic cycle in the Tasman Geosyncline. J GEOL SOC AUST 9, 5169.
Joyce, A. S. 1970. Geochemistry of the Murrumbidgee Batholith. Unpublished PhD thesis, The Australian National University.
Joyce, A. S. 1973. Petrogenesis of the Murrumbidgee Batholith A.C.T. J GEOL SOC AUST 20, 179–97.
King, P. L., White, A. J. R. & Chappell, B. W. (in prep.) Characterization and origin of the A-type granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt.
Kolbe, P. & Taylor, S. R. 1966. Geochemical investigations of the granitic rocks of the Snowy Mountains area, New South Wales. J GEOL SOC AUST 13, 125.
Lambert, I. B. & White, A. J. R. 1965. The Berridale Wrench Fault: a major structure in the Snowy Mountains of New South Wales. J GEOL SOC AUST 12, 2533.
McCulloch, M. T. & Chappell, B. W. 1982. Nd isotopic characteristics of S- and I-type granites. EARTH PLANET SCI LETT 58, 5164.
McCulloch, M. T., Chappell, B. W. & Hensel, H. D. 1982. Nd and Sr isotope relations in granitic rocks of the Tasman Fold Belt, eastern Australia. ABST ICOG 5, 246–7.
MacKenzie, D. E., Black, L. P. & Sun, S. S. 1988. Origin of alkali-feldspar granites: an example from the Poimena Granite, northeastern Tasmania, Australia. GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM ACTA, 52, 2507–24.
MacKenzie, D. E., Sun, S. S. & Black, L. p.1990. Reply to N. C. Higgins' comment on “Origin of alkali-feldspar granites: an example from the Poimena Granite, northweastern Tasmania, Australia”. GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM ACTA 54, 2313–22.
Montel, J. M., Mouchel, R. & Pichavant, M. 1988. High apatite solubility in peraluminous melts. TERRA COGNITA 8, 71.
Munksgaard, N. C. 1988. Source of the Cooma Granodiorite, New South Wales—a possible role of fluid-rock interactions. AUST J EARTH SCI 35, 363–77.
Mysen, B. O. & Virgo, D. 1989. Redox equilibria, structure, and properties of Fe-bearing aluminosilicate melts: relationships among temperature, composition, and oxygen fugacity in the system Na2O–Al2O3,–SiO2–Fe–O. AM MINER 74, 5876.
Nockolds, S. R. 1947. The relation between chemical composition and paragenesis in the biotite micas of igneous rocks. AM J SCI 245, 401–20.
O'Neil, J. R. & Chappell, B. W. 1977. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope relations in the Berridale Batholith. J GEOL SOC LONDON 133, 559–71.
Pichavant, M., Kontak, D. J., Briqueu, L., Herrera, J. V. & Clark, A. H. 1988. The Miocene-Pliocene Macusani Volcanics, SE Peru. II. Geochemistry and origin of a felsic peraluminous magma. CONTRIB MINER PETROL 100, 325338.
Pidgeon, R. T. & Compston, W. 1965. The age and origin of the Cooma granite and its associated metamorphic zones, New South Wales. J PETROL 6, 193222.
Presnell, & Bateman, P. C. 1973. Fusion relations in the system NaAlSi3O8–CaAl2Si2O8–KAlSi3O8–SiO2–H2O and generation of magmas in the Sierra Nevada batholith. BULL GEOL SOC AM 84, 3181–202.
Read, H. H. 1948. Granites and granites. In Gilluly, J. (ed.) origin of granite, GEOL SOC AMERICA MEM 28, 119.
Read, H. H. 1949. A contemplation of time in plutonism. Q J GEOL SOC LONDON 105, 101–56.
Reid, E. J. 1980. The geology and geochemistry of the Murrumbucka region. Unpublished MSc thesis, The Australian National University.
Reid, E. J., Stewart-Richardson, D. & Chappell, B. W. 1983. Petrogenesis of the Murrumbucka Tonalite: a granitoid with both I- and S-type character. ABST GEOL SOC AUST 9, 179–81.
Roddick, J. C. & Compston, W. 1976. Radiometric evidence for the age of emplacement and cooling of the Murrumbidgee Batholith. J GEOL SOC AUST 23, 223–33.
Roddick, J. C. & Compston, W. 1977. Strontium isotopic equilibration: a solution to a paradox. EARTH PLANET SCI LETT 34, 238–46.
Shand, S. J. 1927. Eruptive rocks. London: Murby.
Silver, L. T. & Chappell, B. W. 1988. The Peninsular Ranges batholith: an insight into the evolution of the Cordilleran batholiths of southwestern North America. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH EARTH SCI 79, 105–21.
Takahashi, M., Aramaki, S. & Ishihara, S. 1980. Magnetite-series/Ilmenite-series vs I-type/S-type granitoids. MINING GEOL SPEC ISSUE 8, 1328.
Tattam, C. M. 1925. Contact metamorphism in the Bulla area. PROC R SOC VICTORIA 37, 230–47.
Tetley, N. W. 1978. Geochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar technique using HIFAR reactor. Unpublished PhD thesis, The Australian National University.
Tuttle, O. F. & Bowen, N. L. 1958. Origin of granite in the light of experimental studies in the system NaAlSi3O8–KAlSi2O8–SiO2–H2O. GEOL SOC AM MEM 74.
Vallance, T. G. 1969. Southern and Central Highlands fold belt: plutonic and metamorphic rocks. J GEOL SOC AUST 16, 180200.
van der Molen, I. & Paterson, M. S. 1979. Experimental deformation of partially melted granite. CONTRIB MINER PETROL 70, 299318.
Whalen, J. B. 1985. Geochemistry of an island arc plutonic suite: the Uasilau Yau Yau Intrusive Complex, New Britain, P.N.G. J PETROL 26, 603–32.
Whalen, J. B. & Chappell, B. W. 1988. Opaque mineralogy and mafic mineral chemistry of I- and S-type granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeast Australia. AM MINERAL 73, 281–96.
White, A. J. R. & Chappell, B. W. 1977. Ultrametamorphism and granitoid genesis. TECTONOPHYSICS 43, 722.
White, A. J. R. & Chappell, B. W. 1983. Granitoid types and their distribution in the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia. In Roddick, J. A. (ed.) circum-Pacific Plutonic Terranes, GEOL SOC AM MEM 159, 2134.
White, A. J. R. & Chappell, B. W. 1988. Some supracrustal (S-type) granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH EARTH SCI 79, 169–81.
White, A. J. R. & Chappell, B. W. 1989. Geology of the Numbla 1:100 000 Sheet (8624). Sydney: New South Wales Geological Survey.
White, A. J. R., Chappell, B. W. & Cleary, J. R. 1974. Geologic setting and emplacement of some Australian Palaeozoic batholiths and implications for intrusive mechanisms. PACIFIC GEOL 8, 159–71.
White, A. J. R., Williams, I. S. & Chappell, B. W.Berridale 1:100000 Geological Sheet. Sydney: New South Wales Geological Survey.
White, A. J. R., Williams, I. S. & Chappell, B. W. 1977. Geology of the Berridale 1:100000 Sheet (8625). Sydney: New South Wales Geological Survey.
White, A. J. R., Chappell, B. W., Williams, I. S. & Glen, R. A. 1989. Numbla 1:100 000 Geological Sheet. Sydney: New South Wales Geological Survey.
Williams, I. S. 1973. Granites north of Jindabyne, New South Wales. Unpublished BSc thesis, The Australian National University.
Williams, I. S., Compston, W., Chappell, B. W. & Shiriahase, T. 1975. Rubidium-strontium age determinations on micas from a geologically controlled, composite batholith. J GEOL SOC AUST 22, 497505.
Williams, I. S., Chen, Y., Chappell, B. W. & Compston, W. 1988. Dating the sources of Bega Batholith granites by ion microprobe. ABST GEOL SOC AUST 21, 424.
Wones, D. R. 1989. Significance of the assemblage titanite + magnetite + quartz in granitic rocks. AM MINERAL 74, 744–49.
Wyborn, D. 1983. Fractionation processes in the Boggy Plain zoned pluton. Unpublished PhD thesis, The Australian National University.
Wyborn, L. A. I. & Chappell, B. W. 1983. Chemistry of the Ordovician and Silurian greywackes of the Snowy Mountains, southeastern Australia: an example of chemical evolution of sediments with time.. CHEM GEOL 39, 8192.
Wyborn, D., Chappell, B. W. & Johnston, R. M. 1981. Three S-type volcanic suites from the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeast Australia. J GEOPHYS RES 86, 10335–348.
Wyborn, D., Turner, B. S. & Chappell, B. W. 1987. The Boggy Plain Supersuite: a distinctive belt of I-type igneous rocks of potential economic significance in the Lachlan Fold Belt. AUST J EARTH SCI 34, 2143.
Zen, , E-an, . 1986. Aluminum enrichment in silicate melts by fractional crystallization: some mineralogic and petrographic constraints. J PETROL 27, 1095–117.

Keywords

I- and S-type granites in the Lachlan Fold Belt

  • B. W. Chappell (a1) and A. J. R. White

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed