Skip to main content Accessibility help

Lone Star Pterosaurs

  • Brian Andres (a1) and Timothy S. Myers (a2)


The state of Texas has one of the greatest records of pterosaurs in the world, surpassing all other US states and most countries in the number of occurrences. Uniquely, this record extends over the entire 150+ million history of the Pterosauria. A review of this pterosaur record confirms at least 30 pterosaurs known from 13 occurrences, including five valid species. The holotypes of two of these species have been described before and are diagnosed and erected here as the new species Radiodactylus langstoni, gen. et sp. nov., named in honour of Dr. Wann Langston Jr, the father of Texas pterosaurology, and Alamodactylus byrdi, gen. et sp. nov.. Phylogenetic analysis of all Texas pterosaurs that can be coded for more than one character confirms that these species are distinct from others and occupy phylogenetic positions close to their original classifications. Radiodactylus langstoni is recovered as a non-azhdarchid azhdarchoid, Quetzalcoatlus northropi as an azhdarchid, Alamodactylus byrdi as a non-pteranodontoid pteranodontian, Aetodactylus as a pteranodontoid, and Coloborhynchus wadleighi as an ornithocheirid. The presence of eudimorphodontid, dsungaripterid, as well as other azhdarchid and pteranodontoid pterosaurs, is also confirmed in Texas.



Hide All
Andres, B. 2006. The earliest pterosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26 (3, Suppl.), 37A.
Andres, B. 2010. Systematics of the Pterosauria. New Haven, Connecticut: Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University. 347 pp.
Andres, B. in press. Pterosaur Phylogeny. In Martill, D. M., Unwin, D. M. & Loveridge, R. (eds) The Pterosauria. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Andres, B., Clark, J. M., & Xu, X. 2010. A new rhamphorhynchid pterosaur from the Upper Jurassic of Xinjiang, China, and the phylogenetic relationships of basal pterosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30 (1), 163–87.
Andres, B. & Ji, Qi. 2008. A new pterosaur from the Liaoning Province of China, the phylogeny of the Pterodactyloidea, and convergence in their cervical vertebrae. Palaeontology 51 (2), 453–70.
Arambourg, C. 1959. Titanopteryx philadelphiae nov. gen., nov. sp., pterosaurien géant. Notes et Mémoires sur le Moyen-Orient 7, 229–34.
Atanassov, M. N. 2002. Two new archosaur reptiles from the Late Triassic of Texas. PhD Dissertation, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. 352 pp.
Averianov, A. O. 2010. The osteology of Azhdarcho lancicollis Nessov, 1984 (Pterosauria, Azhdarchidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS 314 (3), 264317.
Barrett, P. M., Butler, R. J., Edwards, N. P. & Milner, A. R. 2008. Pterosaur distribution in time and space: an atlas. Zitteliana B 28, 61107.
Bennett, S. C. 1989. A pteranodontid pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Peru, with comments on the relationships of Cretaceous pterosaurs. Journal of Paleontology 63 (5), 669–77.
Bennett, S. C. 1993. The ontogeny of Pteranodon and other pterosaurs. Paleobiology 19 (1), 92106.
Bennett, S. C. 1994. Taxonomy and systematics of the Late Cretaceous pterosaur Pteranodon (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea). Occasional Papers of the Natural History Museum, University of Kansas 169, 170.
Bennett, S. C. 2001. The osteology and functional morphology of the Late Cretaceous pterosaur Pteranodon: Part I. General description of Osteology. Paleontographica Abteilung A 260, 1112.
Bennett, S. C. 2008. Morphological evolution of the wing of pterosaurs: Myology and function. Zitteliana B 28, 127–41.
Bowerbank, J. S. 1851. On the Pterodactyles of the Chalk formation. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 19 (1), 1420.
Broom, R. 1913. Note on Mesosuchus browni, Watson, and on a new South African Triassic pseudosuchian (Euparkeria capensis). Records of the Albany Museum 2, 394–96.
Buffetaut, E., Grigorescu, D. & Csiki, Z. 2003. Giant azhdarchid pterosaurs from the terminal Cretaceous of Transylvania (western Romania). In Buffetaut, E. & Mazin, J.-M. (eds) Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 217, 91104. Bath, UK: Geological Society Publishing House.
Butler, R. J., Brusatte, S. L., Andres, B., & Benson, R. B. J. 2011. How do geological sampling biases affect studies of morphological evolution in deep time? A case study of pterosaur (Reptilia: Archosauria) disparity. Evolution doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01415.x
Campos, D. A. & Kellner, A. W. A. 1985. A panorama of the flying reptiles study in Brazil and South America (Pterosauria/Pterodactyloidea/Anhanguerida). Anais Academia Brasileira de Ciêncas 57(4), 141–42, 453–66.
Chatterjee, S. 1986. The Late Triassic Dockum vertebrates: their stratigraphic and paleobiogeographic significance. In Padian, K. (ed) The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs: Faunal Change Across the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary 139–50. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Chatterjee, S. & Templin, R. J. 2004. Posture, locomotion, and paleoecology of pterosaurs. Geological Society of America Special Paper 376, 164.
Company, J., Unwin, D. M., Ruiz-Omenaca, J. I., & Pereda-Suberbiola, X. 2001. A giant azhdarchid pterosaur from the latest Cretaceous of Valencia, Spain, the largest flying creature ever? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (Suppl. to 3), 41A42A.
Dalla Vecchia, F. M. 1993. Cearadactylus? ligabuei, nov. sp., a new Early Cretaceous (Aptian) pterosaur from Chapada do Araripe (Northeastern Brazil). Bolletini della Societa Paleontologica Italiano 32, 401–09.
Fastnacht, M. 2001. First record of Coloborhynchus (Pterosauria) from the Santana Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Chapada do Araripe, Brazil. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 75 (1), 2336.
Frey, E., Martill, D. M. & Buchy, M.-C. 2003. A new crested ornithocheirid from the Lower Cretaceous of northeastern Brazil and the unusual death of an unusual pterosaur. In Buffetaut, E. & Mazin, J.-M. (eds) Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 217, 5563. Bath, UK: Geological Society Publishing House.
Frey, E., Buchy, M.-C., Stinnesbeck, W., González, A. G. & Stefano, A. 2006. Muzquizopteryx coahuilensis n. g., n. sp., a nyctosaurid pterosaur with soft tissue preservation from the Coniacian (Late Cretaceous) of northeast Mexico (Coahuila). Oryctos 6, 1940.
Frey, E. & Martill, D. M. 1996. A reappraisal of Arambourgiania (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea): one of the world's largest flying animals. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 199, 221–47.
Frey, E. & Martill, D. M. 1998. Late ontogenetic fusion of the processus tendinis extensoris in Cretaceous pterosaurs from Brazil. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 10, 587–94.
Gasaway, S., Sankey, J., Ortiz, N. & Meredith, V. 2007. Paleoecology of a Chasmosaurus mariscalensis bonebed, Late Cretaceous (late Campanian), Big Bend National Park, Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (3, Suppl.), 79A.
Gilmore, C. W. 1928. A new pterosaurian reptile from the marine Cretaceous of Oregon. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum 73, 15.
Gilmore, C. W. 1935. A new occurrence of the flying reptile, Pteranodon. Science 82, 371.
Goloboff, P. A., Farris, J. S. & Nixon, K. C. 2008. TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics 24 (5), 774–86.
Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G. & Smith, A. G. 2005. A Geological Time Scale 2004. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 610 pp.
Hooley, R. W. 1914. On the ornithosaurian Ornithocheirus, with a review of the specimens from the Cambridge Greensand in the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 8 (13), 529–57.
Kaup, S. S. 1834. Versuch einer Eintheilung der Saugethiere in 6 Stämme und der Amphibien in 6 Ordnung. Isis von Oken 311–24.
Kellner, A. W. A. 1984. Ocurrencia de uma mandibula de pterosauria (Brasileodactylus araripensis, nov. gen., nov. sp.) na formacao Santana, Cretaceo da Chapada do Araripe, Ceara – Brasil. Anais do XXXIII Congresso Brasiliero de Geologia, Rio de Janeiro 2, 578–90.
Kellner, A. W. A. 1990. Os répteis voadores do Cretáceo Brasileiro. Anuário do Instituto de Geociências, CCMN, UFRJ ano 1989, 86106.
Kellner, A. W. A. 2003. Pterosaur phylogeny and comments on the evolutionary history of the group. In Buffetaut, E. & Mazin, J.-M. (eds) Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 217, 105–37. Bath, UK: Geological Society Publishing House.
Kellner, A. W. A. 2004. New information on the Tapejaridae (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea) and discussion of the relationships of this clade. Ameghiniana, 41 (4), 521–34.
Kellner, A. W. A. & Campos, D. A. 1988. Sobre um novo Pterossauro com crista sagital da Bacia do Araripe, Cretaceo Inferior do Nordeste do Brasil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 60, 459–69.
Kellner, A. W. A. & Campos, D. D. A. 2007. Short note on the ingroup relationships of the Tapejaridae (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea). Boletim do Museum Nacional Nova Série Rio de Janeiro – Brasil 75, 114.
Kellner, A. W. A. & Langston, W. Jr. 1996. Cranial remains of Quetzalcoatlus (Pterosauria, Azhdarchidae) from Late Cretaceous sediments of Big Bend National Park, Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16 (2), 222–31.
Kellner, A. W. A. & Tomida, Y. 2000. Description of a new species of Anhangueridae (Pterodactyloidea) with comment on the pterosaur fauna from the Santana Formation (Aptian-Albian), Northeastern Brazil. National Science Museum Monographs 17, 135 pp.
Kuhn, O. 1967. Die fossile Wirbeltierklasse Pterosauria. Oeben: Krailing bei München. 52 pp.
Langston, W. Jr. 1974. Nonmammalian Comanchean tetrapods. Geoscience and Man 8, 77102.
Langston, W. Jr. 1978. The Great Pterosaur. Discovery 2, 2023.
Langston, W. Jr. 1981. Pterosaurs. Scientific American 244, 122–36.
Langston, W. Jr. 1986. Rebuilding the world's biggest flying creature: the second coming of Quetzalcoatlus northropi. In Pausé, P. H. & Spears, R. G. (eds) Geology of the Big Bend Area and Solitario Dome, 125–28. Midland, Texas: West Texas Geological Society. 1986 Field Trip Guidebook.
Lawson, D. A. 1975a. Pterosaur from the latest Cretaceous of West Texas: discovery of the largest flying creature. Science 187 (4180), 947–48.
Lawson, D. A. 1975b. Could pterosaurs fly? Science 188 (4189), 676–77.
Lee, Y.-N. 1994. The Early Cretaceous pterodactyloid pterosaur Coloborhynchus from North America. Palaeontology 37 (4), 755–63.
Leonardi, G. & Borgomanero, G. 1985 Cearadactylus atrox nov. gen., nov. sp. novo Pterosauria (Pterodactyloidea) da Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Brasil. Resumos dos communicaçoes VIII Congresso brasileiro de Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 27, 7580.
Lockley, M. G. & Wright, J. L. 2003. Pterosaur swim tracks and other ichnological evidence of behaviour and ecology. In Buffetaut, E. & Mazin, J.-M. (eds) Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 217, 297313. Bath, UK: Geological Society Publishing House.
Lockley, M., Harris, J. D. & Mitchell, L. 2008. A global overview of pterosaur ichnology: tracksite distribution in space and time. Zitteliana B 28, 185–98.
, J. 2009. A new non-pterodactyloid pterosaur from Qunglong County, Heibei Province of China. Acta Geologica Sinica 83 (2), 189–99.
, J., Li, X., & Ji, Q. 2008a. Restudy of Liaoxipterus (Istiodactylidae: Pterosauria), with comments on the Chinese istiodactylid pterosaurs. Zitteliana B 28, 229–41.
, J., Unwin, D. M., Xu, L., Zhang, X. 2008b. A new azhdarchoid pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of China and its implications for pterosaur phylogeny and evolution. Naturwissenschaften 95 (9), 891–97.
, J., Unwin, D. M., Jin, X., Liu, Y., & Ji, Q. 2010. Evidence for modular evolution in a long-tailed pterosaur with a pterodactyloid skull. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B 277 (1680), 383–89.
, J. & Ji, Q. 2006. Preliminary results of a phylogenetic analysis of the pterosaurs from western Liaoning and surrounding areas. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 22 (1), 239–61.
Lucas, S. G. & Luo, Z. 1993. Adelobasileus from the Upper Triassic of West Texas: the oldest mammal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 13 (3), 309–34.
Mader, B. J. & Kellner, A. W. A. 1999. A new anhanguerid pterosaur from the Cretaceous of Morocco. Boletim do Museu Nacional, Nova Serie, Geologia 45, 111.
Marden, J. H. 1994. From damselflies to pterosaurs: how burst and sustainable flight performance scale with size. American Journal of Physiology 266 (4), 1077–84.
Marsh, O. C. 1876. Notice of new sub-order of Pterosauria. American Journal of Science 3 (1), 507–09.
Martill, D. M. & Naish, D. 2006. Cranial crest development in the azhdarchid pterosaur Tupuxuara, with a review of the genus and tapejarid monophyly. Palaeontology 49 (4), 925–41.
Mazin, J.-M., Billion-Bruyat, J.-P. & Padian, K. 2009. First record of a pterosaur landing trackway. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B 276 (1674), 3881–86.
McGowen, M. R., Padian, K., de Sosa, M. A. & Harmon, R. J. 2002. Description Montanazhdarcho minor, an azhdarchid pterosaur form the Two Medicine Formation (Campanian) of Montana. PaleoBios 22 (1), 19.
Murry, P. A. 1986. Vertebrate paleontology of the Dockum Group, western Texas and eastern New Mexico. In Padian, K. (ed) The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs, 109–37. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Murry, P. A. 1989. Geology and paleontology of the Dockum Formation (Upper Triassic), West Texas and eastern New Mexico. In Lucas, S. G. & Hunt, A. P. (eds) Dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs in the American Southwest, 102–48. Albuquerque: New Mexico Museum of Natural History.
Murry, P. A., Winkler, D. A. & Jacobs, L. L. 1991. An azhdarchid pterosaur humerus from the Lower Cretaceous Glen Rose Formation of Texas. Journal of Paleontology 65 (1), 167–70.
Myers, T. S. 2010a. A new ornithocheirid pterosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Turonian) Eagle Ford Group of Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30 (1), 280–87.
Myers, T. S. 2010b. Earliest occurrence of the Pteranodontidae (Archosauria: Pterosauria) in North America: New material from the Austin Group of Texas. Journal of Paleontology 84 (6), 1071–81.
Nessov, L. A. 1984. Upper Cretaceous pterosaurs and birds from Central Asia. Paleontological Journal 18 (1), 3849.
Nessov, L. A. 1991. Gigantskiye letayushchiye yashchery semeystva Azhdarchidae. I. Morfologiya, sistematika. Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta. Seriya 7, Geologiya, Geografiya 2, 1423.
Olsen, P. E., Kent, D. V. & Whiteside, J. H. 2011. Implications of the Newark Supergroup- ased astrochronology and geomagnetic polarity time scale (Newark-APTS) for the tempo and mode of the early diversification of the Dinosauria. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 101 (for 2010), 201–29.
Owen, R. 1842. Report on British Fossil Reptiles, Part II. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 60204.
Owen, R. 1861. Monograph on the fossil Reptilia of the Cretaceous formations. Supplement No. III, Pterosauria (Pterodactylus) and Sauropterygia (Polyptychodon). Palaeontographical Society Monograph 12, 125.
Owen, R. 1874. Monograph of the fossil Reptilia of the Mesozoic Formations. Part I. Pterosauria. Palaeontographical Society Monograph 27, 114.
Padian, K. 1983. Osteology and functional morphology of Dimorphodon macronyx (Buckland) (Pterosauria: Rhamphorhynchoidea) based on new material in the Yale Peabody Museum. Postilla 189, 144.
Padian, K. 1984. A large pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Two Medicine Formation (Campanian) of Montana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 4 (4), 516–24.
Padian, K. 1986. A taxonomic note on two pterodactyloid families. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 6, 289.
Padian, K. 2004. The nomenclature of Pterosauria (Reptilia, Archosauria). In Laurin, M. (ed) First International Phylogenetic Nomenclature Meeting, 27. Paris: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.
Patterson, B. 1951. Early Cretaceous mammals from northern Texas. American Journal of Science 249, 3146.
Pittman, J. G. 1989. Stratigraphy, lithology, depositional environment, and track type of dinosaur track-bearing beds of the Gulf Coastal Plain. In Gillette, D. D. & Lockley, M. G. (eds) Dinosaur Tracks and Traces, 135–53. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Plieninger, F. 1901. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flugsaurier. Palaeontographica 48, 6590.
Rodrigues, T. & Kellner, A. W. A. 2008. Review of the pterodactyloid pterosaur Coloborhynchus. Zitteliana B 28, 219–28.
Sankey, J. T. 2010. Faunal composition and significance of high-diversity, mixed bonebeds containing Agujaceratops mariscalensis and other dinosaurs, Aguja Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Big Bend, Texas. In Ryan, M. J., Chinnery-Allgeier, B. J., Eberth, D. A. (eds) New Perspectives on Horned Dinosaurs, 520–37. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Sayão, J. M. & Kellner, A. W. A. 2006. Novo esqueleto parcial de pterossauro (Pterodactyloidea, Tapejaridae) do Membro Crato (Aptiano), Formacao Santana, Bacia do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil 1. Estudos Geologicos 16 (2), 1640.
Seeley, H. G. 1870. The Ornithosauria: An Elementary Study of the Bones of Pterodactyles. Cambridge, UK: Deighton, Bell & Co. 135 pp.
Seeley, H. G. 1881. On evidence of two ornithosaurians referable to the genus Ornithocheirus from the Upper Greensand of Cambridge, preserved in the collection of W. Reed Esq. FGS. Geological Magazine 8, 1320.
Seeley, H. G. 1891. The Ornithosaurian pelvis. Journal of Natural History Series 6 7 (39), 237–55.
Steel, L., Martill, D. M., Unwin, D. M. & Winch, J. D. 2005. A new pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Wessex Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Isle of Wight, England. Cretaceous Research 26 (4), 686–98.
Stricklin, F. L. Jr. & Amsbury, D. L. 1974. Depositional environment on a low-relief carbonate shelf, middle Glen Rose Limestone, central Texas. Geoscience and Man 8, 5366.
Unwin, D. M. 1989. A predictive method for the identification of vertebrate ichnites and its application to pterosaur tracks. In Gillette, D. D. & Lockley, M. G. (eds) Dinosaur Tracks and Traces, 259–74. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Unwin, D. M. 1995. Preliminary results of a phylogenetic analysis of the Pterosauria (Diapsida: Archosauria). In Sun, A. and Y. Wang, Y. (eds) Sixth Symposium of Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, 6972. Beijing: China Ocean Press.
Unwin, D. M. 2001. An overview of the pterosaur assemblage from the Cambridge Greensand (Cretaceous) of eastern England. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. Geowissenschaftliche Reihe 4 (1), 189221.
Unwin, D. M. 2002. On the systematic relationships of Cearadactylus atrox, an enigmatic Early Cretaceous pterosaur from the Santana Formation of Brazil. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Geowissenschaftlichen Reihe 5 (1), 239–63.
Unwin, D. M. 2003. On the phylogeny and evolutionary history of pterosaurs. In Buffetaut, E. & Mazin, J.-M. (eds) Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 217, 139–90. Bath, UK: Geological Society Publishing House.
Unwin, D. M. 2006. Pterosaurs from Deep Time. New York: Pi Press. 347 pp.
Unwin, D. M., , J. & Bakhurina, N. N. 2000. On the systematic and stratigraphic significance of pterosaurs from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (Jehol Group) of Liaoning, China. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. Geowissenschaftliche Reihe 3, 181206.
Veldmeijer, A. J. 2003. Description of Coloborhynchus spielbergi sp. nov. (Pterodactyloidea) from the Albian (Lower Cretaceous) of Brazil. Scripta Geologica 125, 35139.
Wang, X. & , J. 2001. Discovery of a pterodactylid pterosaur from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China. Chinese Science Bulletin 46 (13), 1112–17.
Wellnhofer, P. 1978. Pterosauria. Handbuch der Palaeoherpetologie 19. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag. 82 pp.
Wellnhofer, P. 1985. Neue Pterosaurier aus der Santana-Formation der Chapada do Araripe, Brasilien. Palaeontographica A 187 (4–6), 105–82.
Wellnhofer, P. 1987. New crested pterosaurs from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil. Mitteilung der Bayerischen Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie 27, 175–86.
Wellnhofer, P. 1991. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Pterosaurs. London: Salamander Books, Ltd. 192 pp.
Witton, M. P. 2008. A new approach to determining pterosaur body mass and its implications for pterosaur flight. Zitteliana B 28, 143–58.
Young, C. C. 1964. On a new pterosaurian from Sinkiang, China. Vertebrata Palasiatica 8 (3), 221–56.
Young, C. C. 1973. Reports of Paleontological Expedition to Sinkiang (II). Pterosaurian Fauna from Wuerho, Sinkiang. Memoir of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Paleoanthropology, Academica Sinica 11, 1835.
Zambelli, R. 1973. Eudimorphodon ranzii gen. nov., sp. nov., uno pterosauro traissico. Rendiconti Scienze di Instituto Lombardo, B 107, 2732.
Zangerl, R. & Denison, R. H. 1950. Discovery of Early Cretaceous mammals and frogs from Texas. Science 112, 61.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Andres Supplementary Material
Supplementary File 1

 Word (118 KB)
118 KB
Supplementary materials

Andres Supplementary Material
Supplementary File 2

 Word (176 KB)
176 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed