Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The wasps, bees and ants (Insecta: Vespida=Hymenoptera) from the Insect Limestone (Late Eocene) of the Isle of Wight, UK

  • Alexander V. Antropov (a1), Sergey A. Belokobylskij (a2) (a3), Stephen G. Compton (a4), Gennady M. Dlussky (a5), Andrey I. Khalaim (a2), Victor A. Kolyada (a1), Mikhail A. Kozlov, Ksenia S. Perfilieva (a5) and Alexandr P. Rasnitsyn (a6) (a7)...
Abstract

The types and undescribed material of the hymenopteran fossils of the Insect Bed of the Bembridge Marls from the Isle of Wight (UK) are critically revised and studied. A total of 1460 fossils are recorded and attributed to 20 families: Gasteruptiidae s.l. (1); Proctotrupidae (3); Diapriidae (24); Cynipidae (7); Figitidae (6); Pteromalidae (1); Agaonidae (3); Scelionidae (12); Platygastridae (2); Ichneumonidae (32); Braconidae (75); Bethylidae (3); Crabronidae (2); Sphecidae (1); Apidae (2); Scoliidae (1); Tiphiidae (2); Vespidae (4); and Formicidae (1220). Described as new are 51 species, 13 genera, two tribes and two subfamilies. Minimum number of species recorded (either as described species or representing higher taxa with no described species in the assemblage) is 118. The composition of the hymenopteran assemblage is most similar to that of Baltic amber and indicative of a well forested territory, as well as of a humid, equable (aseasonal but not very hot) climate, more typically equable than in the Baltic amber source area, judging from the absence of Aphidiinae and scarcity of aphids.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Achterberg, C. van. 1977. A new Holarctic genus, Spathicopis gen. nov., belonging to the Euphorinae, Centiscini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Entomologische Berichten, Amsterdam 37, 2731
Achterberg, C. van. 1979. A revision of the subfamily Zelinae auct. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 122, 241–79.
Achterberg, C. van. 1982. The fossil species of the subfamily Blacinae described by C.T. Brues (Hym.: Braconidae). Entomologische Berichten 42, 9196.
Achterberg, C. van. 1988. Revision of the subfamily Blacinae Foerster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 249, 3324.
Achterberg, C. van. 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 283, 3189.
Achterberg, C. van. 2001. The first known fossil Masoninae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Miocene Dominican amber. Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden 75(21), 393–96.
Achterberg, C. van. 2002. Revision of the genus Canalicephalus Gibson and the recognition of the Acampsohelconinae (Hymenoptrera: Braconidae) as extant. Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden, 76(20), 347–70.
Ahmed, S., Compton, S. G., Butlin, R. K. & Gilmartin, P. M. 2009. Wind borne insects mediate directional pollen transfer between desert fig trees 160 kilometers apart. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 20342–47.
Antropov, A. V. 1992. Five new neotropical species of the genus Spilomena (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae Pemphredoninae), with additional comments on the previously described species. Russian Entomological Journal 1, 6773.
Antropov, A. V. 1993. Further supplements to the knowledge of the neotropical fauna of digger wasps of the genus Spilomena (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae Pemphredoninae). Russian Entomological Journal 1, 4157.
Antropov, A. V. 2000a. Digger Wasps (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae) in Burmese amber. The history, geology, age and fauna (mainly insects) of Burmese amber, Myanmar. Bulletin of The Natural History Museum, Geology Series 56, 5977.
Antropov, A. V. 2000b. A new digger wasp (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Pemphredoninae) from New Jersey amber. In Grimaldi, D. (ed.) Studies on fossils in amber, with particular reference to the Cretaceous of New Jersey, 339–43. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. Viii+498 pp.
Archibald, S. B. & Farrell, B. D. 2003. Wheeler's dilemma. In Krzeminska, E. & Krzeminski, W. (eds) Proceedings of the Second Congress on Paleoentomology “Fossil Insects”, Kraków, Poland, 5–9 September 2001. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 46 (supplement), 17–23. 440 pp.
Ashmead, W. H. 1899. Classification of the entomophilous wasps, or the superfamily Sphegoidea. The Canadian Entomologist 31, 345–57.
Ashmead, W. H. 1900. Classification of the Ichneumon flies, or the superfamily Ichneumonoidea. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 23, 1220.
Ashmead, W. H. 1903. Provespa, a new genus in the Vespidae. Entomological News 14, 182.
Basibuyuk, H. H., Rasnitsyn, A. P., Achterberg, C. Van, Fitton, M. G. & Quicke, D. L. J. 1999. A new putatively primitive Cretaceous fossil braconid subfamily from New Jersey amber (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Zoologica Scripta 28 (1/2), 211–14
Belokobylskij, S. A. 1986. New braconid genus from the supertribe Exothecidii (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 65(4), 780–83. [In Russian.]
Belokobylskij, S. A. 1995. Revision of the Palaearctic species of the genus Clinocentrus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Journal of Natural History 29, 803–36.
Belokobylskij, S. A., Iqbal, M. & Austin, A. D. 2004a. Systematics, distribution and diversity of the Australasian doryctine wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae). Records of the South Australian Museum, Monograph Series 8, 1150.
Belokobylskij, S. A., Zaldivar-Riveron, A. & Quick, D. L. J. 2004b. Phylogeny of the genera of the parasitic wasps subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) based on morphological evidence. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 142, 369404.
Betrem, J. G. 1933. Die Scoliiden der indoaustralischen und palearktischen Region aus dem staatlichen Museum für Tierkunde zur Dresden. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung 94(2), 236–63.
Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera 2. Ants and cuckoo-wasps. London. 506 pp.
Bohart, R. M. & Menke, A. S. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. A generic revision. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. 1 colour plate, IX+695 pp.
Bolton, B. A. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 222 pp.
Bolton, B. A. 1995. New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 504 pp.
Bookstein, F. L. 1991. Morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 198 p.
Bouček, Z. 1997. Agaonidae. In Gibson, G. A. P., Huber, J. T. & Woolley, J. B. (eds) Annotated Keys to the Genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera), 117–33. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: NRC Research Press. 794 pp.
Brischke, D. 1886. Die Hymenopteren des Bernsteins. Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig 6(3), 278–79.
Brodie, P. B. 1875. Tertiary fossil ants in the Isle of Wight. Nature 52, 570.
Brothers, D. J. & Finnamore, A.T. 1993. Chapter 8, Superfamily Vespoidea. In Goulet, H. & Huber, J.T. (eds). Hymenoptera of the world: An identification guide to families, 161278. Publication 1794/E. Canada Communication Group, Ottawa, Canada. 668 pp.
Brues, C. T. 1906. Fossil parasitic and phytophagous Hymenoptera from Florissant, Colorado. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22, 491–98.
Brues, C. T. 1910. The parasitic Hymenoptera of the Tertiary of Florissant, Colorado. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 54(1), 4125.
Brues, C. T. 1922. Some parasitic Hymenoptera from New Zealand. Psyche 29, 216–25.
Brues, C. T. 1923. Some new fossil parasitic Hymenoptera from Baltic amber. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 58, 327–46.
Brues, C. T. 1933. The parasitic Hymenoptera of the Baltic amber. Bernstein Forschungen 3, 4178.
Brues, C. T. 1937. Superfamilies Ichneumonoidea, Serphoidea, and Chalcidoidea. In Carpenter, F. M., Folsom, J. W., Essig, E. O., Kinsey, A. C., Brues, C. T., Boesel, M. W. & Ewig, H. E. 1937. Insects and arachnids from Canadian amber. University of Toronto Studies. Geological Series 40, 2744.
Brues, C. T. 1939. New Oligocene Braconidae and Bethylidae from Baltic amber. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 32, 251–63.
Budrys, E. R. 1993. Digger wasps of the subfamily Pemphredoninae (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae) from the Baltic and Taimyr amber. Acta Entomologica Lituanica 2, 3456.
Burnham, L. 1978. Survey of social insects in the fossil records. Psyche 89, 85133.
Cameron, P. 1900. Hymenoptera orientalis, or contributions to the knowledge of the Hymenoptera of the Oriental zoological region. Part 9. The Hymenoptera of the Khasia Hills. Part II, Section 1. Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 44(15), 1114.
Carpenter, F. M. 1930. The fossil ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 70, 166.
Carpenter, F. M. 1992. Superclass Hexapoda. In Moore, R. C. & Kaesler, R. L. (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part R, Arthropoda 4, Volume 3 and 4. Boulder, Colorado, and Lawrence, Kansas: The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press. XXII+655 pp.
Carpenter, F. M., Folsom, J. W., Essig, E. O., Kinsey, A. C., Brues, C. T., Boesel, M. W. & Ewig, H. E. 1937. Insects and arachnids from Canadian amber. University of Toronto Studies. Geological Series 40, 762.
Carpenter, J. M. 2000. A vespid wasp from New Jersey Cretaceous amber. In Grimaldi, D. A. (ed.) Studies on fossils in amber, with particular reference to the Cretaceous of New Jersey, 333–37. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys.
Carpenter, J. M. & Grimaldi, D. A. 1997. Social wasps in amber. American Museum Novitates 3203, 17.
Carpenter, J. M. & Rasnitsyn, A. P. 1990. Mesozoic Vespidae. Psyche 97, 120.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1906. Fossil Hymenoptera from Florissant, Colorado. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 50, 3358.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1907. Some fossil arthropods from Florissant, Colorado. Article XXIV. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 23, 605–16.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1908. Descriptions and records of bees – XX. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 8 2, 323–34.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1909. Descriptions of Hymenoptera from Baltic Amber. Mitteilungen aus dem geologisch-palaeontologischen Institut und der Bernsteinsammlung der Universität Königsberg i. Pr. 3 229–33.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1913. Some fossil insects from Florissant, Colorado. The Canadian Entomologist 45, 229–33.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1915. British fossil insects. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 49, 469–99, plates 60–65.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1919. Some fossil parasitic Hymenoptera. American Journal of Science, Series 4 47, 376–80.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1920a. Eocene insects from the Rocky Mountains. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 57, 233–60.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1920b. Fossil arthropods in the British Museum.1. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 9 5, 273–79.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1921a. Fossil Arthopods in the British Museum. – V. Oligocene Hymenoptera from the Isle of Wight. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 9 7, 125.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1921b. Fossils Arthropods in the British Museum – VII. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 9 8, 541–45.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1922. Two families of insects new to British Tertiary strata. The Canadian Entomologist 54, 3334.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1927. Fossil insects from the Miocene of Colorado. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 9 19, 161–66.
Cockerell, T. D. A. 1941. Some tertiary insects (Hymenoptera) from Colorado. American Journal of Science 239, 354–56.
Collinson, M. E. 1989. The fossil record of the Moraceae. In Crane, P. R. & Blackmore, S. (eds) The evolution, systematics and fossil history of the Hamamelidae. Vol. 2, “Higher Hamamelidae”, 319–39. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Compton, S. G., Ball, A. D., Collinson, M. E., Hayes, P., Rasnitsyn, A. P. & Ross, A. J. 2010. Ancient fig wasps indicate at least 34 Myr of stasis in their mutualism with fig trees. Biology Letters 6, 838–42.
Costa, A. 1858. Fauna del Regno di Napoli ossia Enumerazione di tutti gli Animali che abitano le diverse Regioni di questo Regno e le Acque che le bagnano e Descrizione de ‘nuovi o poco esattemente conosciuti con Figure ricevute de Originali viventi e dipinte al naturale. Imenotteri Aculeati. Sfecidei. Napoli: Gaetano Sautto. pp. 128, plates 1–III.
Dahlbom, A. G. 1835. Clavis novi Hymenopterorum systematis anatomia externa, metamorphosi moribusque horum animalium simul consideratis; adjecta synopsi larvarum ejusdem ordinis Scandinavicarum eruciformium. Lundae: Carolus F. Berling. i–v+40 pp, 1 plate.
Dahlbom, A. G. 1843. Hymenoptera Europaea praecipue borealia; formis typicis nonnullis Specierum Generumve Exoticorum aut Extraneorum propter nexum systematicus associatis; per Familias, Genera, Species et Varietates disposita atque descripta. Tomus: Sphex in sensu Linneano. Officina Lundbergiana, Lund, xliv Fasc. 1, 1172.
Dahlbom, A. G. 1845. Hymenoptera Europaea praecipue borealia; formis typicis nonnullis Specierum Generumve Exoticorum aut Extraneorum propter nexum systematicus associatis; per Familias, Genera, Species et Varietates disposita atque descripta. Tomus: Sphex in sensu Linneano. Officina Lundbergiana, Lund, xliv Fasc. 3, 353528, i–xliv, tables.
Dalla Torre, K. W. v. 1880. Unsere Hummel – (Bombus) Arten. Naturhistoriker 2, 4041.
Dalman, J. W. 1820. Försök till Uppställning af Insect-familjen Pteromalini, i synnerhet med afseen de på de i Sverige funne Arter. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar, Stockholm 41, 123–74, 177–82, tab VII–VIII.
Danforth, B. 1989. The evolution of hymenopteran wings: the importance of size. Journal of Zoology 218, 247–76.
Dlussky, G. M. 1967. [Ants of the genus Formica.] Moscow: Nauka Press. 230 pp. [In Russian.]
Dlussky, G. M. 1975. [Superfamily Formicoidea.] In Rasnitsyn, A. P. (ed.) [Hymenoptera Apocrita of the Mesozoic.] Transactions of Paleontological Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR 147, 114–22. [In Russian.]
Dlussky, G. M. 1981a. [Miocene ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the USSR.] In Vishnjakova, V. N., Dlussky, G. M. and Pritykina, L. N. (eds) [New fossil insects from the territory of the USSR,] 6483. Moscow: Nauka Press. 86 pp. [In Russian.]
Dlussky, G. M. 1981b. [Desert ants.] Moscow: Nauka Press. 236 pp. [In Russian.]
Dlussky, G. M. 1983. [A new family of Upper Cretaceous Hymenoptera: an “intermediate link” between the ants and scolioids.] Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1983(3), 6578. [In Russian; English translation: Paleontological Journal 17, 63–76.]
Dlussky, G. M. 1987. [New Formicoidea from Upper Cretaceous.] Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1987(1), 131–35. [in Russian; English translation: Paleontological Journal 21, 146–50.]
Dlussky, G. M. 1988. [Ants from (Paleocene?) Sakhalin amber.] Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1988(1), 5061. [In Russian; English translation: Paleontological Journal 22, 50–60.]
Dlussky, G. M. 1996. [Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Burmese Amber.] Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1996(3), 8389. [In Russian; English translation: Paleontological Journal 30, 449–54.]
Dlussky, G. M. 1999a. [The first find of Formicoidea (Hymenoptera) in the Lower Cretaceous of the North Hemisphere.] Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1999(3), 6266. [in Russian; English translation Paleontological Journal 33, 274–77.]
Dlussky, G. M. 1999b. [New ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Canadian Amber.] Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1999(3), 7376. [in Russian; English translation: Paleontological Journal 33, 409–12.]
Dlussky, G. M. 2002. [Ants of the genus Dolichoderus Lund (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Baltic and Rovno ambers.] Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 2002(1), 5468. [In Russian; English translation: Paleontological Journal 36, 50–63.]
Dlussky, G. M., Brothers, D. & Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2004. The first Late Cretaceous ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from southern Africa, with comments on the origin of the Myrmicinae. Insect Systematics and Evolution 35, 113.
Dlussky, G. M., Wappler, T. & Wedmann, S. 2008. New middle Eocene formicid species from Germany and the evolution of weaver ants. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 53, 615–26.
Dlussky, G. M. & Perfilieva, K. S. 2003. [Paleogene ants of the genus Archimyrmex Cockerell, 1923 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmeciinae).] Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 2003(1), 4049. [In Russian; English translation: Paleontological Journal 37, 39–47.]
Dlussky, G. M. & Perkovsky, E. E. 2002. [Ants of Rovno amber.] Vestnik zoologii 36(5), 320. [In Russian.]
Dlussky, G. M. & Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Green River Formation and some other Middle Eocene deposits of North America. Russian Entomological Journal 11, 411–36.
Donisthorpe, H. St. J. K. 1915. British Ants, their Life history and Classification. Plymouth: Brenden & Son, Ltd. xv+379 pp.
Donisthorpe, H. St. J. K. 1920. British Oligocene ants. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Ser. 9 6, 8194.
Donisthorpe, H. St. J. K. 1947 [1946]. Ants from New Guinea, including new species and a new genus. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 11(13), 577–95.
Emery, C. 1891. Le formishe dell'Ambra Siciliana nel Museo Mineralogico dell'Universita di Bologna. Memoire della Reale Accademia delle Scienza dell'Instituto di Bologna, Ser. 5 1, 567–94.
Emery, C. 1893. Voyage de M. E. Simon à l'île de Ceylan (janvier-février 1892). Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 62, 239–58.
Emery, C. 1905. Deux fourmis de l'Ambre de la Baltique. Bulletin de la Societé Entomologique de France 77, 187–89.
Emery, C 1913 [1912]. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137, 150.
Enderlein, G., 1920. Zur Kenntnis ausserreuropäischer Braconiden. Archiv für Naturgeschihte 84(11), 51224.
Engel, M. S. 1998. A New Species of the Baltic Amber Bee Genus Electrapis (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 7(1), 94101.
Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259, 192 pp.
Engel, M. S. 2006. A giant honey bee from the middle Miocene of Japan (Hymenoptera, Apidae). American Museum Novitates 3504, 112.
Engel, M. S. & Bennett, D. J. 2008. Anoblepsis, a new, bizarre braconid wasp genus in Dominican Amber (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 81(4), 368–72.
Engel, M. S. & Grimaldi, D. 2005. Primitive new ants in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar, New Jersey and Canada (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). American Museum Novitates 3485, 123.
Eskov, K. Y. 2002. Geographical history of insects. In Rasnitsyn, A. P. & Quicke, D. L. J. (eds) History of Insects, 427–35. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 517 pp.
Evanoff, E., Mcintosh, W. C. & Murphey, P. C. 2001. Stratigraphic summary and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Florissant Formation, Colorado. Proceedings of the Denver Museum of Natural Sciences, Ser. 4 1, 116.
Evans, H. E. 1966. The comparative ethology and evolution of the sand wasps. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. xviii+526 pp.
Evans, H. E. 1969. Three new Cretaceous aculeate wasps (Hymenoptera). Psyche 76, 251–61.
Fabricius, J. C. 1775. Systema Entomologiae, sistens Insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species, adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus, 132. Flensburgi et Lipsiae [=Flensburg and Leipzig]: Kortii. 832 pp.
Fabricius, J. C. 1790. Nova Insectorum genera. Skrivter af Naturhistorie Selskabet, Kjøbnhavn 1, 213–28.
Fabricius, J. C. 1804. Systema Piezatorum. Brunsvigae: Reinchard. 439 pp.
Foerster, A. 1856. Hymenopteologische Studien. II Heft. Chalcidiae und Proctotrupii. Aachen: Meer. 152 pp.
Foerster, A. 1862. Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Braconen. Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereines der Preussischen Rheinland und Westphalens 19, 225–88.
Foerster, A. 1869. Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Ichneumonen. Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens 25(for 1868), 135221.
Foerster, A. 1891. Die Insekten des “Plattigen Steinmergels” von Brunstatt. Abhandlungen zur geologischen Spezialkarte von Elsass-Lothringen 3, 333594.
Forel, A. 1878. Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 15, 337–92.
Girault, J. 1869. Oberservations hyménoptèrologique. III. Des galles d'un Lépidoptère sur le Limoniastrum guyonianum, et des parasites qui les habitant. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (4) 9, 469–88.
Gokhman, V. E. 1992. [On the origin of endoparasitism in the subfamily Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).] Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii 53, 600–08. [In Russian.]
Gravenhorst, J. L. C. 1834. Bericht über die Beschästigungen der entomologischen Section im Jahre 1833. Übersicht der Arbait und Beränderungen der schlesischen Gesellschaft für vaterländische Kultur 1833, 7680.
Grimaldi, D., Agosti, D. & Carpenter, J. M. 1997. New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships. American Museum Novitates 3208, 143.
Grimaldi, D. & Agosti, D. 2000. A formicine in New Jersey Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and early evolution of the ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97, 13678–83.
Guérin, M. 1838. Voyage autour de Monde sur la Coquille. Zoologie, II, 1, Divis. 1.
Haliday, A. H. 1833. An essay on the classification of the parasitic Hymenoptera of Britain, which correspond with the Ichneumones minuti of Linnaeus. Entomological Magazine 1, 259–76.
Haliday, A. H. 1835. Essay on parasitic Hymenoptera. Entomological Magazine 3, 2045.
Haliday, A. H. 1836. Essay on parasitic Hymenoptera. Entomological Magazine 4, 3859.
Haliday, A. H. 1839. Hymenopterorum synopsis ad methodum clm. Fallenii utplurimum accomodata. Addendum to Hymenoptera Brittanica: Alysia. London: Hippolytus Baillière. 4 pp.
Hartig, T. 1840: Naturgeschichte der Gallwespen. Zeitschrift für die Entomologie 2, 176209.
Hedicke, H. 1939. Aulacidae. In Hedicke, H. (ed.) Hymenopterorum Catalogus 10, 127. Junk W. (publ.).
Heer, O. 1849. Die Insektenfauna der Tertiärgebilde von Oeningen und von Radoboj in Croatien. Vol. 2. Heuschrecken, Florfliegen, Alderflügen, Schmetterlinge, und Fliegen. Leipzig: Engelmann. 264 pp.
Heer, O. 1849. 1867. Fossile Hymenopteren aus Oeningen und Radoboj. Neue Denkschriften der allgemeine schweizarische Gesellschaft fürd des gesammten Naturwissenschaften 22, 542.
HeydenC., von. C., von. 1858. Fossile Insekten aus der Braunkohle von Sieblos. Palaeontographica 5, 115–20.
Hincks, W. D. 1944. Notes on the nomenclature of some British parasitic Hymenoptera. Proceeding of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 13, 3039.
Hong, Y. 1974. Stratigraphy and paleontology of Fushun coal-field, Liaoning Province. II. Description of new fossil insects and phyllopods. Ti Chih Hsueh Pao 1974, 124–48.
Hong, Y. 1984. [Fossil insects in the diatoms of Shanwang.] Bulletin of the Tjanjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources 8, 112 [In Chinese.]
Hong, Y. 2001. [Amber insects of China.] Beijing: Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House. 653 pp, 48 pls. [In Chinese, with English summary.]
Hong, Y. 2002. [Atlas of amber insects of China.] Henan: Henan Scientific and Technological Publishing House. 394 pp. [In Chinese, with English summary.]
Hooker, J. J., Grimes, S. T., Mattey, D. P., Collinson, M. E. & Sheldon, N. D. 2009. Refined correlation of the UK Late Eocene–Early Oligocene Solent Group and timing of its climate history. In Koeberl, C. & Montanari, A. (eds) The Late Eocene Earth – Greenhouse, Icehouse, and Impacts. Geological Society of America Special Paper 452, 179–95.
Hope, F. W. 1837. Observations on succinic insects. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 2, 4657.
Huddleston, T. 1980. A revision of the Western Palaearctic species of the genus Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 41(1), 158.
Huddleston, T. 1984. The Palaearctic species of Ascogaster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 49(5), 341–92.
Humala, A. E. 2003. [Ichneumon-flies of the fauna of Russia and surrounding countries. Subfamilies Microleptinae and Oxytorinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).] Moscow: Russian Academy of Science. 175 pp. [In Russian.]
Jarzembowski, E. A. 1976. Report of Easter field meeting: the lower tertiaries of the Isle of Wight, 27–31.III.1975. Tertiary Research 1, 1116.
Jarzembowski, E. A. 1980. Fossil insects from the Bembridge Marls, Palaeogene of the Isle of Wight, Southern England. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology Series 33, 237–93.
Jennings, J. T. & Austin, A. D. 2000. Higher level phylogeny of Aulacidae and Gasteruptiidae (Hymenoptera). In Austin, A. D. & Dowton, M. (eds) The Hymenoptera: Evolution, Biodiversity and Biological Control, 155164. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing. 480 pp.
Jurine, L. 1801. In Panzer, G. W. F.Nachricht von einem neuen entomologischen Werke des Hrn. Prof. Jurine in Geneva. Intelligentzblatt der Litteratur-Zeitung (Erlangen), 161–65.
Jurine, L. 1808. Adnotatio. In Spinola, M.Insectorum Liguriae species novae aut rariores quas in agro Ligustico nuper detexit, descripsit et iconibus illustravit Maximilianus Spinola, adjecto catalogo specierum auctoribus jam enumeratarum, quae in eadem regione passim occurrunt II, 254–56. Genuae: Yves Gravier. ii+262 pp.
Kannowski, P. B. 1963. The flight activities of formicine ants. Symposia Genetica et Biologica Italica 12, 74102.
Kasparyan, D.R. (ed.) 1981. [A guide to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae.] Opredeliteli po Faune SSSR, Leningrad 3(3). 688 pp. [In Russian.]
Kasparyan, D. R. 1988a. [New taxa of fam. Paxylommatidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea) from the Baltic amber.] Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Entomologicheskogo Obshchestva 70, 125–31. [In Russian.]
Kasparyan, D. R. 1988b. [A new subfamily and two new genera of Ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Baltic amber.] Proceedings of the Zoological Institute, Leningrad 175, 3843. [In Russian.]
Kasparyan, D. R. 1994. [Review of Ichneumon flies of the Townesitinae subfam nov. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea) from the Baltic ambers.] Paleontologicheskiy zhurnal 4, 8696. [In Russian.]
Kasparyan, D. R. 2001. A new genus and species of the subfamily Ghilarovitinae from Baltic amber (Hymenoptera: Paxylommatidae). Zoosystematica Rossica 10(1), 9799.
Kasparyan, D. R. & Humala, A. E. 1995. [A new genus and three new species of Ichneumonids of the subfamily Oxytorinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Baltic amber.] Entomologicheskoye Obozreniye 74(2), 416–19. [In Russian.]
Khalaim, A. I. 2008. Fossil ichneumon wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Biamo (Russia), Oligocene. Alavesia 2, 101–12.
Kirby, W. F. 1798. Ammophila, a new genus of insects in the class Hymenoptera, including the Sphex sabulosa of Linnaeus. Transactions of the Linnean Society 4, 195212, 1 Plate.
Kirby, W. F 1837. The insects. In Richardson, J. (ed.) Fauna boreali-Americana, or the Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America, containing descriptions of the objects of natural history collected on the late northern land expedition, under command of Capitan Sir John Franklin, 39325. London: Longman.
Klug, F. 1801. Absonderung einiger Raupentödter und Vereiningung derselben zu einer neuen Gattung Sceliphron. Neue Schriften der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 3, 555–66.
Kohl, F. F. 1889. Neue Gattungen aus der Hymenopteren-Familie der Sphegiden. Annalen des k.k. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums 4, 188–95, Plate VIII.
Kohl, F. F. 1897. Die Gattungen der Sphegiden. Annalen des k.k. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums 11, 233516, Plates V–XI.
Kozlov, M. A. 1970. Supergeneric groups of the Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera). Entomological Review 49, 115–27.
Kriechbaumer, J. 1894. Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea a medico nautico Dr. Joh. Brauns in itinere ad oras Africae occidintalis lecta. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 39, 4368.
Krombein, K. V. 1959. A new genus and species of Psenini from the southwestern deserts (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 54, 1821.
Laicharting, J. N. von. 1781 Verzeichniss und Beschreibung der Tyroler Insecten 1. Zürich: Fuessley. xii+248 pp.
Latreille, P. A. 1796 Précis des Caractères génériques des Insectes, disposes dans un ordre naturel. Bourdeaux: Brive. 210 pp.
Latreille, P. A 1802. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des Crustacées et des Insectes. T. 3. Paris: Imprimerie F. Dufart. 467 pp.
Latreille, P. A 1804. Tableau méthodique des insectes. Classe huitième. Insectes, Insecta. Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle 24, 129200.
Latreille, P. A. 1805. Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. Ouvrage faisant suite aux Oeuvres de Leclercq de Buffon, et partie du Cours complet d'Histoire naturelle rédigé par C.S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs Sociétés savantes 13. Paris: Imprimerie F. Dufart. 432 pp.
Latreille, P. A. 1809. Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, iconibus exemplisque plurimis explicata 4. Parisiis et Argentorati [=Paris and Strasbourg]: Amand Koenig. 399 pp.
Latreille, P. A 1817. Les Crustacés, les Arachnides et les insectes. In Cuvier, C. (ed.) Le Règne Animal, distribué d'apres son organisation, pour servir de base a l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction a l'anatmoie comparée 3. Paris: Deterville. 29+653pp
Latreille, P. A 1829. Des Ichneumons (Ichneumon) de Linnaeus. In Cuvier, M. L. B.Le Règne Animal V, Ed. 2a, 282–90. Paris. 556 pp.
Leach, W. E. 1815. Entomology. In Brewster, D.Edinburgh Encyclopaedia 9, pt. 1, 57172.
Lepeletier De Saint Fargeau, A. L. M. 1832. Mémoire sur le genre Gorytes Latr. Arpactus. Annales de la Société Entomologiques de France 1, 5279.
Lepeletier De Saint Fargeau, A. L. M. 1836 [1835]. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Hyménoptères. Tome I. Paris: Roret. 547 pp.
Lewis, S. E., Heikes, P. M. & Lewis, K. L. 1990. Entomofauna from the Brick Yard site (Miocene) near Spokane, Washington. Occasional Papers in Paleobiology St. Cloud State University 4(11), 116.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae Per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis 1. Editio Decima, Reformata. Holmiae: Laurentii Salvii. [4], [1–5], 6, 823, [1] pp.
Lund, A. W. 1831. Lettre sur les habitudes de quelques fourmis du Brésil, adressée à M. Audouin. Annales Des Sciences Naturelles 23, 113–38.
Machado, C. A., Jousselin, E., Kjellberg, F., Compton, S. G. & Herre, E.A. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships, historical biogeography and character evolution of fig-pollinating wasps. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B 268, 685–94.
Mai, D. H. 1995. Tertiare Vegetationgeschchte Eurropas. Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag. 692 pp.
Manning, F. J. 1961. A new fossil bee from Baltic amber. XI Internationaler Kongress für Entomologie, Verhandlungen, Wien 1, 306–08.
Marshall, T. A. 1898. Les Braconides. In Andre, E. (ed.) Species des Hyménoptères d'Europe et d'Algerie 5bis, 145288. Cote-d'Or: Beaune. 39, 635 pp.
Masner, L. 1961. Proctotrupidae. Key to the genera of the world (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea). Exploration du Parc National de l'Upemba Mission G.F. de Witte (1946–1949), Brussels 60(4), 3745.
Masner, L. 1969. The geographic distribution of recent and fossil Ambositrinae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea: Diapriidae). Tagungsberichte der Deutsche Akademie der Landwirtschaftwissenschaften zu Berlin 80, 105–09.
Mason, W. R. M. 1981. The polyphyletic nature of Apanteles Foerster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae): a phylogeny and reclassification of Microgastrinae. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 115, 1147.
Mason, W. R. M. 1983. A new South African subfamily related to Cardiochilinar (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Contribution of the American Entomological Institute 20, 4962.
Mayr, G. 1853. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Ameisen. Verhandllungen der kaiserlich-kongiglichen zoologish-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 3, 101–14.
Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn. 80 pp.
Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verhandllungen der kaiserlich-kongiglichen zoologish-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12, 649776.
Mayr, G. 1867. Vorläufige Studien über die Radoboj-Formiciden, in der Sammlung der geologischen Reichsanstalt. Jahrbuch der geologischen Reichsanatalt, Wien 17, 4762.
Mayr, G. 1868. Die Ameisen des Baltischen Bernstein. Beiträge zur Naturkunde Preussens physikalische-ökonomischen Gesellschaft zu Königsberg 1, 1102.
Menier, J.-J., Nel, A., Waller, A. & Plo?g, G. de. 2004. A new fossil ichneumon wasp of Paris Basin (France), with a checklist of fossil Ichneumonoidea s.l. (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Metopiinae). Geologica Acta 2(1), 8394.
Menke, A. S. 1962. A new genus of digger wasps from South America (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75, 303–06.
Menke, A. S. 1989. Arpactophilus reassessed, with three bizarre new species from New Guinea (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae: Pemphredoninae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 2, 737–47.
Menke, A. S. and Rasnitsyn, A. P. 1987. Affinities of the fossil wasp, Hoplisidea kohliana Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae: Sphecinae). Psyche 94(1–2), 3538.
Meunier, M. F. 1915. Über einige fossil Insekten aus den Braunkohlenschichten (Aquitanien) von Rott im Siebengebirge. 3 Teil. Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft 67(4), 205–17.
Meyer, H. W. 2003. The Fossils of Florissant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 285 pp.
Morawitz, A. 1866. Einige Bemerkungen über die Crabro-artigen Hymenopteren. Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg 9, 243–73.
Muesebeck, C. F. W. 1960. A fossil braconid wasp of the genus Ecphylus (Hymenoptera). Journal of Paleontology 34, 495–96.
Nees Von Esenbeck, C. G. 1812. Ichneumonides adsciti, in genera et families divisi. Der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin Magazin für die neuesten Entdeckungen in der gesamten Naturkunde 5, 337.
Nees Von Esenbeck, C. G. 1816. Ichneumonides adsciti, in genera et families divisi. Der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin Magazin für die neuesten Entdeckungen in der gesamten Naturkunde 7(4), 243–77.
Nees Von Esenbeck, C. G. 1818. Appendix ad J. I. Gravenhorst conspectun generum et familiarum Ichneumonidum, genera et familias Ichneumonidum adscitorum exhibens. Nova Acta Physico-medica Academiae Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolinae naturae curiosorum 9, 299310.
Nefdt, R. J. C. & Compton, S. G. 1996. Regulation of seed and pollinator production in the fig-fig wasp mutualism. Journal of Animimal Ecology 65, 170–82.
Nel, A., Waller, A. & Plöeg, G. de. 2004. An aulacid wasp in the lowermost Eocene amber from the Paris Basin (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae). Geologica Acta 2, 6774.
Nemkov, P. G. 1988. Review of the Holarctic species of the genus Tracheliodes A. Morawitz. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Unionis Sovieticae 70, 116–24.
Nixon, G. E. J. 1965. A reclassification of the tribe Microgasterini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Entomology) 21, 134.
Noort, S. van & Compton, S. G. 1996. Convergent adaptations of fig wasps to the ostiolar morphology of their host figs. Journal of Biogeography 23, 415–24.
Ortega-Blanko, J., Bennett, D. J., Delclòs, X. & Engel, M. S. 2009 A primitive aphidiine wasp in Albian amber from Spain and a Northern Hemisphere origin for the subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 82(4), 273–82.
Papp, J. 1984. Contribution to the braconid fauna of Hungary. V. Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Folia Entomologica Hungarica 45(1), 173–85.
Park, J. S. & Achterberg, C. van 1994. A new genus of the subfamily Ecnomiinae van Achterberg (Braconidae) from Korea. Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden 68, 4954.
Pate, V. S. L. 1936. Studies in the Nyssoninae wasps (Gorytini: Sphecidae: Hymenoptera). I. The species of Psammaletes, a new subgenus of Hoplisoides. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 62, 4956.
Peñalver, E., Engel, M. S. & Grimaldi, D. A. 2006. Fig wasps in Dominican Amber (Hymenoptera:Agaonidae). American Museum Novitates 3541, 116.
Perfilieva, K. S. 2002. [Wing venation in army ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and its importance for phylogenic analysis.] Zoologicheskiy Zhurnal 81, 1239–50 [In Russian; English translation: Entomological Review 82, 1065–76.]
Perfilieva, K. S 2005. [Analysis of interspecies and sexual differences of quantitative wing characters of several ant species.] Ants and Forest Protection. Materials of XII All-Russian Myrmecological Symposium, Novosibirsk, 270–74. [In Russian.]
Perkovsky, E. E. 2006. [Occurrence of ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and aphid (Homoptera, Aphidinea) syninclusions in Saxonian and Rovno ambers.] Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 2006(2), 7274. [In Russian; English translation: Paleontological Journal 40, 190–92.]
Perrichot, V., Néraudeau, D., Nel, A. & Ploëg, G. de. 2007. A reassessment of the Cretaceous amber deposits from France and their palaeontological significance. African Invertebrates 48(1), 213–27.
Perrichot, V., Nel, A. & Quicke, D. L. J. 2009. New braconid wasps from French Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera, Braconidae): synonymization with Eoichneumonidae and implications for the phylogeny of Incheumonoidea. Zoologica Scripta 38, 7988.
Piton, L. E. 1840. Paléontologie du gisement Eocéne de Menat (Puy-de-Dóme) (flore et faune). Paris: Paul Lechevalier. 303 pp.
Poinar, G. Jr. 2005. Fossil Trigonalidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera) in Baltic amber. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 107(1), 5563.
Popov, V. 1932. Two new fossil ants from Caucasus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Travaux de l'Institute Paleozoologique 2, 1721.
Quicke, D. L. J. 1987. The Old World genera of braconine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Natural History 21, 43157.
Quicke, D. L. J. & Achterberg, C. van. 1990. Phylogeny of the subfamilies of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 258, 195.
Radoszkowski, O. 1876. Matériaux pour servir à une faune hyménoptérologique de la Russie. (Suite). Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae 12, 82110.
Rasnitsyn, A. P. 1975. [Hymenoptera Apocrita of Mesozoic.] Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR [Trans. Paleontol. Inst. Acad. Sci. USSR] 147. Moscow: Nauka Press. 134 pp. [In Russian.]
Rasnitsyn, A. P. 1977. [A new subfamily of scoliid wasps (Hymenoptera).] Zoolgicheskiy Zhurnal 56, 522–29. [In Russian, with English summary.]
Rasnitsyn, A. P. 1980. [The origin and evolution of the hymenopteran insects.] Proceedings of Palaeontological Institute, Academy of Sciences of USSR 174. 192 pp. [In Russian.]
Rasnitsyn, A. P. 1983. Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera) from the Lower Cretaceous of Mongolia. Contribution of the American Entomological Institute 20, 259–65.
Rasnitsyn, A. P. 1993. Archaeoscoliinae, an extinct subfamily of scoliid wasps (Insecta: Vespida=Hymenoptera: Scoliidae). Journal of Hymenopera Research 2(1), 8596.
Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2013. Vectevania vetula Cockerell, 1922 from the uppermost Eocene of Bembridge Marls, England, and the system of the family Gasteruptiidae s.l. [Vespida (=Hymenoptera), Evanioidea]. Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society 84(2), 98106.
Rasplus, J-Y, Kerdelhué, C., Le Clainche, I. & Mondor, G. 1998. Molecular phylogeny of fig wasps. Agaonidae are not monophyletic. C. R. Académie des Sciences de Paris, Sciences de la vie 321, 517–27.
Ratzeburg, J. T. C. 1848. Die Forstinsekten oder Abbildung und Beschreibung der in den Wäldern Preussens und der Nachbarstaaten als schädlich oder nützlich bekannt gewordenen Insecten; in systematischer Folge und mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Vertilgung der schädlichsten 2. Berlin: Nicolai. 238 pp.
Robertson, C. 1903. Synopsis of Megachilidae and Bombinae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 29, 163–78.
Roger, J. 1861. Die Ponera-artigen Ameisen. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 5, 154.
Rohlf, F. & Marcus, L. 1993. A revolution in morphometrics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8(4), 129–32.
Rønsted, N., Weiblen, G. D., Cook, J. M., Salamin, N, Machado, C. A. & Savolainen, V. 2005. 60 million years of co-divergence in the fig wasp symbiosis. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 272, 2593–99.
Rust, J. 1999. Giant ants from the Paleogene of Denmark with a discussion of the fossil history and early evolution of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zoological Journal of Linnean Society 125, 331–48.
Ruthe, J. F. 1854. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Braconiden (Dimeris, Araphis, Trachyusa, Rhaconotus, Alysia). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 15, 343–55.
Ruthe, J. F. 1862. Deutsche Braconiden (Meteorus). Berliner Entomologische Zeitung 6, 158.
Ruzsky, M. 1912. Mirmekologicheskiya zametki [Myrmecological notices.] Uchenye Zapiski Kazanskago Veterinarago Instituta 29, 629–36.
Santschi, F. 1938. Notes sur quelques Ponera Latr. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 43, 7880.
Saussure, H. de & Sichel, J. 1864. Catalogue des espèces de l'ancien genre Scolia, contenant les diagnoses, les descriptions et la synonymie des espèces, avec des remarques explicatives et critiques. Genève et Paris: V. Mason. 358 pp.
Scopoli, J. A. 1763. Entomologia Carniolica exhibens Insecta Carnioliae indigena et distributa in ordines, genera, species, varietates. Methodo Linnaeano. Vindobonae: Typis Ioannis Thomae Trattner. [136], 420, [4] pp.
Scudder, S. H. 1878. The fossil insects of the Green River shales. Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories 4, 747–76.
Scudder, S. H. 1890. The Tertiary insects of North America. Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories 13, 1734.
Sharkey, M. J. & Wharton, R. A. 1985. Redefinition of Megagathis Kriechbaumer, and reassignment of new world species to Zacremnops new genus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae). The Canadian Entomologist 117, 599603.
Shaw, S. R. 1985. A phylogenetic study of the subfamilies Meteorinae and Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Entomography 3, 277370.
Shenefelt, R. D. 1975. Braconidae 8. Exothecinae. Rogadinae. In Vecht, J. van der & Shenefelt, R. D. (eds) Hymenopterum Catalogus 12, 1115–262.
Shuckard, W. E. 1837. Essay on the indigenous fossorial Hymenoptera; comprising a description of all the British species of burrowing sand wasps contained in the metropolitan collections; with their habits as far as they have been observed. London: Richter and Co. XII pp., one Plate, 252+[2] pp., pls. 1–4, [4].
Shuckard, W. E. 1838. Descriptions of new exotic aculeate Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 2, 6882, Plate VIII.
Skorikov, A. S. 1914. Les formes nouvelles des bourdons (Hymenoptera, Bombidae). VI. Russkoye Entomologicheskoye Obozreniye 14, 119–29.
Skorikov, A. S. 1922. [Palaearctic bumble bees. Part I. General biology (including zoogeography).] Izvestiya Severnoj oblastnoj stantsyi zashchity rastenij ot vreditelej 4(1), 1160. [In Russian.]
Smith, F. 1857. Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by Wallace, A. R.. [part]. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society. Zoology 2, 4288.
Smith, F. 1858. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum. 216 pp.
Smith, F. 1860. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the islands of Bachian, Kaisaa, Amboyna, Gilolo and at Dory in New Guinea. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society. Zoology 5, 93143.
Spinola, M. 1808. Insectorum Liguriae species novae aut rariores, quae in agro ligustico nuper detexit, descripsit, et iconibus illustratavit 2(2–4). Genuae: Gravier. v+261 pp.
Spinola, M. 1853. Compte rendue des hyménoptères inédits provenants des voyage entomologique de Mr Ghiliani dans le Parà en 1846. Memoire della Reale Accademia della Scienze di Torino 13(2), 1994.
Stary, P. 1973. A revision of fossil Aphidiidae (Hym.). Annotationes Zoologicae et Botaticae Bratislava 87, 122.
Statz, G. 1936. Ueber alte und neue fossile Hymenopterenfunde aus den tertiaren Ablagerungen von Rott am Siebengebirge. Decheniana 93, 256312.
Statz, G. 1938. Neue Funde parasitischer Hymenopteren aus dem Tertiar von Rott am Siebengebirge. Decheniana 98, 71144.
Swederus, N. S. 1795. Beskrifning på et nytt genus Pteromalus ibland Insecterna, haerande til Hymenoptera, uti herr arch. och ridd. v. Linnés Systema Naturae. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 16, 201–05.
Szepligeti, G. V. 1900. Braconiden aus Neu-Guinea in der Ungarischen National-Museums. Természetrajzi Füzetek 23, 4965.
Szepligeti, G. V. 1902. Tropische Cenocoelioniden und Braconiden aus der Sammlung des Ungarischen National-Museums. Természetrajzi Füzetek 25, 3984.
Szepligeti, G. V. 1908. Braconiden aus der Sammlung des ungarischen National Museums. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 6, 297427.
Taylor, R. W. 1964. Taxonomy and parataxonomy of some fossil ants (Hymenoptera-Formicidae). Psyche 71, 134–41.
Telenga, N. A. 1952. Proiskhozhdenie paraziizma u nasekomykh-naezdnikov i formirovanie ikh fauny v SSSR [Parasitism origin in the parasitic Hymenoptera and formation of their fauna in USSR]. Kiev: Academy of Sciences Ukraine SSR Press. 140 pp.
Théobald, N. 1937. Les insectes fossiles des terrain oligocene de France. Bulletin Mensuelle de la Société Scientifique de Nancy (N.S.) 2bis, 1473.
Thomson, C. G. 1892. XLIV. Bidrag till Braconidernas kännedom. Opuscula entomológica 16, 1659–751.
Thomson, C. G. 1895. LII. Bidrag till Braconidernas kännedom. Opuscula entomologica 20, 2141–339.
Thunberg, C. P. 1822. Ichneumonidea, insecta Hymenoptera, illustrate. Mémoires de l'Academie imperiale des Sciences de St.-Petersbourg 8, 249–81.
Timon-David, J. 1944. Insectes fossiles de l´Oligocene inferieur des Camoins (Bassin de Marseille). II. Hymenopteres. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 49, 4045.
Tobias, V. I. 1965. [Generic grouping and evolution of parasitic Hymenoptera of the subfamily Euphorinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).] I. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 44, 841–65. [In Russian.]
Tobias, V. I. 1966. [Generic grouping and evolution of parasitic Hymenoptera of the subfamily Euphorinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).] II. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 45, 612–33. [In Russian.]
Tobias, V. I. 1982. [On the braconid species described by W. Hellen in the subgenus Taphaeus Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).] Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 61(3), 614–19. [In Russian.]
Tobias, V. I. 1987. [New taxa of braconids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Baltic amber.] Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 66(2), 845–59. [In Russian.]
Tobias, V. I. 1988. [The family Paxylommatidae (Hymenoptera) in the fauna of the USSR.] Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Entomologicheskogo Obshchestva 70, 131–43. [In Russian.]
Tobias, V. I. 2000. [Subfamily Cheloninae.] In Lehr, P. A. (ed.). Key to insects of the Russian Far East. Volume 4. Neuropteroidea, Mecoptera, Hymenoptera. Part 4, 426571. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka. 649 pp. [In Russian.]
Tolkanitz, V. I., Narolsky, N. B. & Perkovsky, E. E. 2005. [A new species of parasitic wasp of the genus Pherhombus (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Pherhombinae) from Rovno amber.] Paleontologicheskiy zhurnal 5, 5052. [In Russian.]
Townes, H. K. 1969. The genera of Ichneumonidae, Part 1. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 11. 300 pp.
Townes, H. K. 1970a. The genera of Ichneumonidae, Part 2. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 12 (for 1969). 537 pp.
Townes, H. K. 1970b. The genera of Ichneumonidae, Part 3. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 13 (for 1969). 307 pp.
Townes, H. K. 1971. The genera of Ichneumonidae, Part 4. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 17. 372 pp.
Townes, H. K. & Townes, M. 1981. A revision of the Serphidae (Hymenoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 32, 1541.
Viereck, H. L. 1912. Contribution to our knowlenge of bees and ichneumon-flies, including the description of twenty-one new genera and fifty-seven new species of ichneumon-flies. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 42, 613648.
Vogt, O. 1911. Studien über das Artproblem. 2. Mitteilung. Über das Variieren der Hummeln. 2. Teil. (Schluss). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1911, 3174.
Walker, F. 1846. Descriptions of British Chalcidites. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 4(1), 2932.
Weiblen, G. D. 2002. How to be a fig wasp. Annual Review Entomology 47, 299330.
Wesmael, C. 1835. Monographie des Braconides de Belgique. Nouveaux Mémoires de l'Académie Royal des Sciences at Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles 9, 1252.
Wesmael, C. 1837. Monographie des Braconides de Belgique. Nouveaux Mémoires de l'Académie Royal des Sciences at Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles 10, 568.
Wesmael, C. 1838. Monographie des Braconides de Belgique. IV. Nouveaux Mémoires de l'Académie Royal des Sciences at Belles-Lettres de Bruxelles 11, 1166.
Wesmael, C. 1845. Tentamen dispositionis methodicae. Ichneumonum Belgii. Nouveaux Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et Beaux-Arts de Belgique 18(for 1844), 1239.
Westwood, J. O. 1854. Contributions to fossil entomology. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London 10, 378–96.
Westwood, J. O. 1882. Description of new or imperfectly known species of Ichneumones adsciti. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 25, 1748.
Wheeler, W. M. 1915. The ants of the Baltic Amber. Schriften der physikalische-ökonomischen Gesellschaft zu Königsberg 55, 1142.
Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. A contribution to the myrmecology of Africa. II. The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, 39269.
Wilson, E. O. 1985. Ants of the Dominican amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The subfamily Dolichoderinae. Psyche 92, 1737.
Wilson, E. O.Eisner, T., Wheeler, G. C. & Wheeler, J. 1956. Aneuretus simoni Emery, a major link in ant evolution. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 115, 8199.
Wilson, E. O. & Taylor, R. W. 1964. A fossil ant colony: new evidence of social antiquity. Psyche 71, 93103.
Woodward, H. 1879. On the Occurrence of Branchipus (or Chirocephalus) in a Fossil State, associated with Eosphaeroma and with numerous Insect Remains, in the Eocene Freshwater (Bembridge) Limestone of Gurnet Bay, Isle of Wight. Quarterly Journnal of the Geological Society, London 35, 342–50.
Yu, D. S., Achterberg, K. van & Horstmann, K. 2005. World Ichneumonoidea 2004. Taxonomy, Biology, Morphology and Distribution. CD/DVD. Vancouver, Canada: Taxapad. www.taxapad.com.
Zhang, Haichun & Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2003. Some ichneumonids (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea) from the Upper Mesozoic of China and Mongolia. Cretaceous Research 24(1), 193202.
Zhang, Junfeng. 1989. [Fossil Insects from Shanwang, Shandong, China.] Jinan, China: Shandong Science and Technology Publishing House. 459 pp+92 pls. [In Chinese, with English summary.]
Zhang, , Junfeng, , Sun, B. & Zhang, X. 1994. [Miocene Insects and Spiders from Shanwang, Shandong.] Beijing: Science Press. 298 pp. [In Chinese, with English summary.]
Zherikhin, V. V. 1978. Development and change of Cretaceous and Cenozoic faunistic complexes. Proceedings of the Palaeontological Institute 165, 1197.
Zherikhin, V. V. 1980. [Characters of insect burial.] In Rohdendorf, B. B. & Rasnitsyn, A. P. (eds.) [The Historical Development of the Class Insecta,] 718. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR 175. 269 pp. [In Russian.]
Zuparko, R. L. & Poinar, G. O. Jr. 1997. Aivalykus dominicanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new species from Dominican amber. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 99(4), 744–47.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of The Royal Society of Edinburgh
  • ISSN: 1755-6910
  • EISSN: 1755-6929
  • URL: /core/journals/earth-and-environmental-science-transactions-of-royal-society-of-edinburgh
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed