Two new species of Malpighiaceae are proposed: Hiraea costaricensis C.E.Anderson and H. polyantha C.E.Anderson. Hiraea costaricensis is characterised by the presence of basifixed hairs on the stems and leaves; H. polyantha, of Colombia, is distinctive in its large inflorescences, composed of c.100 flowers. Collections of the novelties had been associated with Hiraea smilacina Standl., a species that traditionally had been thought conspecific with H. quapara (Aubl.) Sprague; they are immediately separated by their fruits. In Hiraea smilacina the schizocarps break into three butterfly-shaped samaras, as is typical for the genus. The fruit of Hiraea quapara is spherical, composed of three mericarps covered by a network of reduced winglets. Hiraea smilacina is found from southern Mexico through Central America, except El Salvador and Nicaragua, and has been collected also in Colombia and Ecuador. Hiraea quapara is known mainly from French Guiana, with one collection from adjacent Suriname and two from Amapá, Brazil. All taxa are fully described and illustrated.
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